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San Marcos free press. (San Marcos, Tex.) 1877-1892, August 31, 1882, Image 7

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1, lTtl"
for I'tlllilrg tU But from the
So'i Bays.
Cbictgo Hers'd.
a8bisoton, Aug. 16. A fashion
able craze has seized hold of the citi-
0f the District, which bids fair to
,pread m widely throughout the coun
ty as did tbe blue gloss "fad" of sev
eral years ago. The person primarily
yeaponsible for what promises to be an
infliction on the community is a resi
dent of the city and an inventor, but
the Washington roai nas contriDutea
toward popularizing that gentleman's
discovery and in coverting the young
gnd the aged of both sexes and all
colors into experimenters. A few days
ago it appears the patent office issued
papers to a Mr. William Culver for a
discovery which, if it possesses all the
merits the patentee and the Post claim
for it, will be hailed with gratitude by
both busy manufacturers and toiling
housewives. The invention is no less
than the
By a peculiar arrangement of mirrors.
Meanwhile, as the ordinary looking
glass is common to every dwelling, and
the testing of Mr. Calver's claims can
go on without expense, the city de
termined to judge of the virtue of his
discovery. In the Smithsonian grounds,
in the vicinity of the capitol and on
many of the avenues the test has been
made by those who have Lad their cu
riosity aroused concerning the strength
of the sun's rays. In the negro quar
ter even bits of broken mirror can be
seen gleaming in the dusky hands of
colored urchins, who mischievously
tarn the focus full in the face of the
passer-by. What the result of all these
experiments may have been, has not
yet transpired, but it is evident that
the society of all grades has caught a
new faDgled idea which will, if it does
nothing else, afford it some amusement.
Mr. Culver, the gentleman who has so
distinguished himself, is a brother of
Dr. Calver, at 207 A. street Northwest.
Dr. Calver was born in England, but
came to this country when very young.
For a number of years he resided in
New York. He has been a', citizen of
the district for , upward of ten years,
and during that time has been absent
much in Arizona, looking after his miri
ing property. He has been looking
for some method of working mines and
reducing the ore by a more cheap pro
cess than that in vogue. By a happy
chance, equally as singular as that
which befell Newton, he Btumbled on
his discovery. The whole invetion
simply consists of an arrangement
whereby tbe rays of the sun are reflect
Upon a common focus. Happening to
direct the light from two ordinary look
ing glasses upon the same surface he
noticed that the resultant heat was
about doubled. He proceeded with
his experiments, and succeeded in re
ducing wood to ashes and metal
to a liquid state by simply concentrat
ing upon them the reflected light of
the 6un from twenty small mirrors with
flat surfaces. The principle is an un
explainable one. It has never hitherto
been suspected that lapping one ray of
sunlight upon another increased the
heat. The model patented by M.
Calver consists of a number of small
looking glasses, arranged in rows upon
a frame so fixed that they can be con
verged upon any one point. A workiug
moaei or wnicn ne nas a nnmoer, was
exhibited to a reporter in the yard in
the rear of his residence. Forty inno
cent, guilelss looking fifteen cent
framed mirrors, each 3 i inches by 5i
inches, were arranged upon a frame
propped up like an artist's easel, and
bearing a striking resembance thereto.
Facing the easel was the fragment of
what was once a barn door, also prop
ped up and partially covered with a
worn and faded Bheet of zinc that bore
unmistakable evidences of having been
burned through in several places. It
Was but the work o a minute to cou
erge tne forty mirrors upon a space
taee and three-quarter inches upon
the barn door, and then the revelations
Wan. As each mirror cast its quota
of sunlightjnpon the common store, the
Parallelogram of light grew whiter and
more dazzling, until at last it looked
a patch of electric light. Bat lit
tle patience was required to await re-
U. Ia lest than thirty seconds
Gave evidence of the progress of Lis
operime&t. In a minute the board
was bunting out in Came. The focus
was then shifted upon the zinc. In a
few momenta it began to turn color;
then shrink as if anxious to get away
where it was cooler, and then in less
than three minutes the entire surface
covered by the focus was literally melt
ing, drop by drop. To melt zino re
quires a temperature of over 700 deg.
The most wonderful feature about
the whole thing is the brilliancy of the
light. The forty mirrors produced a
light more brilliant than any ordinary
electrio light. A hand, held so as to
intercept the focus, becomes as white
as driven snow. A white handkerchief
defies ordinary sight, and conveys but
an impression of beautiful, impossible
whiteness. It is as hard to look at as
the sun itself. The possibilities of Mr.
Calver's invention aro boundless. With
a combined square surface of twenty
feet of mirrors, lead melts quicker than
thought, wood bursts into a flame and
is gone into ashes, and iron melts in
less than twenty minutes. Each mirror
adds so much to the heat and light, and
Mr. Calver has found by actual experi
ment that a comparatively small collec
tion of mirrors, each one foot 6quare,
In a very few moments. He has pro
duced over 4,000 degrees of heat with
his mirrors. By calculation it is shown
that 1,C00 mirrors, each a foot square,
will melt iron and steel with the rapid
ity almost of thought. There are pro
cesses, too, by which even this enor
mous quantity of heat can be condensed
and made to perform incredible feats.
A concave mirror placed at the focus of
the large mirror will throw a pin point
of heat back toward the mirrors, should
their numbers be increased by several
thousands, capable of eating through a
solid mass of steel ten feet thick like a
flash, and as easily us a needle goes
through a cheese. The immense prac
tical value of the invention can be read
ily understood. Mr. Calver's forty
mirrors boil water in less than no time.
An egg placed in the water is done hard
quicker than by fire. Meat and vege
tables are cooked in ten or fifteen min
utes. A half hour's sunshine any time
between 9 a. m. and 1 p. m. in the sum
mer will do the cooking for an ordinary
sized family for a week- if necessary.
By the mirrors engines can be run,
wells dug, mines worked, ore melted
and refined, every kind of cooking per
formed, and, in short, there is no vari
ety of industry in which they cannot
successfully compete with mule power,
steam or electricity. There are
In connection with Mr. Calver's discov
ery. More heat can be gotten from the
mirrors in winter than in summer,
strange as it may appear, for the earth
is then. 3,000,000 miles 'nearer the sun.
Three thousand degrees Fahrenheit
decomposes water, and this heat can be
readily produced with the large mirrors,
1,000,000 of which, one foot square, will
run the largest engine in the world.
In the west the process of concen
trating the sun's rays will be of im
mense benefit. Statistics show that
there are over a million square miles of
territory in the United States where
there is, on an average, but one cloudy
day in a month for eight months in the
year. All the rest are clear. The heat
produced by the thousand foot equare
mirrors will do more work in fifteen
minutes than can ordinarily be done in
a day, and a day's steady work will out
strip a week's progress by other meth
ods. The heat mirrors will make ice as
easily as they will melt steel. A few
largo sized ones will operate a machine
large enough to usher into existence
100 tons of ice a day. It is the inten
tion of the inventor to vigorously pro
tect bis patent and to shortly begin the
manufacture of his mirror furnace..
Probably be will make a lot of tbe
emaller kind convenient for tourisU,
which can" be packed away in a trunk
and yet be large enongh to do all the
cooking for the party in a few minutes.
The heat from the mirrors can be
thrown a long distance. Mr. Calver
says be can make a heat powerful
enough to melt tbe Godde&s of Liberty
on tbe cupola of the capitol by putting
his mirrors several squares away.
Ax Arkansaw editor, in retiring from
the editorial control of a newspaper,
said : "It ia with a feeling of aadness
that we retire from the active control of
this rrr. tut we leave our journal
with a gentleman who is abler than we
are financially, to handle it This gen
tleman is weU known is this commun
ity, lie is t-e aten-.
A BfwiiiKeir ( theorU8ur'i Boikood.
AtUnta (Oa.) Constitution.
Lovelace, Tbocp Cocstt, Ga.,
Augubt 12 "Yes, this is historic ground
upon which these people have assem
bled," said an old and prominent citi
zen of this county, to me to day at tbe
annual celebration of Pleasant Grove
Sunday School. "I was present at this
same place about thirty-ilvM years ago,
and heard Ben Hill deliver his first
public address after leaving college. A
singing-school was being Uugut at this
place at the time, and he came up hete
from Long Cane with a patty of young
ladies, and though he was called upon
unexpectedly to himself, he delivered
the finest address I ever listened to."
"You knew Mr. Hill then ia early
life. Tell me something of his young
"Yes, I have known Mr. Hill ever
since he first came to this county, a
little boy. He lived at the time at
Long Cane, where he attended his first
school. Afterward ho attended school
over in Heard County, and from there
ho went to the University in Athens.
But there are men here to-day that can
give you the history of his young days
better than I can. Come, let me intro
duce you to Judge Bigham, of La
Grange, and Mr. John Troylor and Dr.
Pitman. They all knew him well at that
time, and can give you all the inform
ation jou want." i then had a pleasant
conversation with each of these gentle
men, and from them learned the follow
ing facts in regard to the great states
man who now lies in his garve,
and for whom not only the people of
Troup County, his old home, but a
whole nation mourns. Judge Bigham
said: "Yes, I have known Ben Hill
a long time, and have heard him
deliver the finest speeches of his life.
Be came to this county from Jasper, I
think, and after graduating at Athens,
where he had taken the first honor, he
read law and was admitted to the bar
in Meriwether County, and afterward
located in LaGrange. And I want to
say now that the finest orations ever
delivered in Georgia by any one, was
about that time delivered by Mr. Hill
upon a temperance cause which was
known as "sons of temperance.". These
lectures by Mr. Hill had a wonderful
influence which had been felt in this
country ever since, and which will be
felt for time to come. These speeches
stamped him at once the coming states
man which he has since proven himself
to be. "Yes," said Dr. Pitman, "I
have one or two of these temperance
speeches printed in pamphlet form, and
I keep them as mementoes of the past,
something with which I could not be
induced to part. I shall give them to
my children for their counselor and
guide in future life."
Mr, John Traylor also spoke feeling
ly of his early acquaintance with Mr.
Hill, of Mr. Hill's first speech on this
ground, and as he spoke of the great
statesman, then and now, his voice
trembled. These gentlemen with whom
I talked are all old and prominent citi
zens of this county, and were Mr. Hill's
boyhood friends. These same kind
expressions I have heard on every hand
since I have been in this county, now
some two weeks ago in 'regard to Sena
tor Hill.
I asked a citizen of LaGrange to show
me Mr. Hill's old home, which he kind
ly did, and I walked down the broad
street until I came to the magnificent
mansion which was once the home of
this distinguished man. The rock
fence that surrounded the old residence
is going to decay, and in places has
fallen down ; the gronnds look desolate,
and the large oaks that 6tand thick in
the grove have a look of sadness, as
though weeping for him who will never
again behold them. There never was
a man more universally beloved than is
Mr. Hill by the people of this county,
who know him best, and it is always in
a voice of sadness that his name is
mentioned. If the prayers of his peo
ple were answered, Senator Hill would
have been restored to health.
Farms In tbe United States.
One of the late census bulletins ex
hibits the number of farms in the Uni
ted States in 1880, 1870, 1860 and 1850.
and the rate per cent, of increase from
1870 to 1880. Francis A. Waller, late
Superintendent of the Census, in a
note made before his retirement from
office, said :
The table shows no results which es
pecially required notice, except in the
case of Massachusetts. The figures for
this State seem to prove that the agri
cultural statistics of 1870 were taken
very loosely, and that the number of
farms in the State at that time was
greatly understated. The great increase
in the number of farms from 1870 to
18S9 in tbe Northern, Western and
Pacific States and the Territories is of
course satisfactorily explained by the
rapid aetlement of those regions daring
the past decade. Tne great increase
in the late slave States, especially in
the cotton region, is readily accounted
fcr by the subdivision of the large
plantations of ten and twenty jears ago,
by reason of social and industrial
changes conaeqTi4at on tbe war, and
also, in the case of Fieri Ja, Arkansas
and Texas, by immigration.
The whole number of farma in the
United State in 170 was found to be
4.0C&j7. The absolute increase from
1S70 to 1&30 was aoooriizg to the cen-1
aus, 1,318.022; tie rate per cent, was 51.
It is obvious that if the comimtatJo i
Jwu not accurate in 1870, as posaibly it
was not, tne value oi tne comparison ii
correspondingly reduced. A slight
variation in the mode of 'collecting
statistics ia the to periods would make
a great diftVreuce iu tbe results If,
for example strict inquiry were not
nude as' to farms leased aud farms
owued, or farms worked ou tbe share
system t the time both enumerations,
wore made, or if the system, iu accord
ance with which the two seta of returns
were tabulated, differed, the discrepan
cies would be very large. Inasmuch us
Uen. Walker has confessed t3 the errors
of 1S70, generally and specifically,
perhaps it will not be wise to attach
too much importance to the compari
sons mado in this table.
The reported increase in the number
of farms in New England was, as might
be expected, comparatively alight. In
Maine it was 8 percent., in New Ham p-
snue V per cent., in Vermont o per cent.,
in Massachusetts (where Gen. Walker
points out a probable error in the ecu
bus of 1870) 15 per cent., in Connect!
cut 20 per cent., in Rhode Ialaud 16
per cent. The in crease in N. Y. was 11
per oent., in Pennsylvania 23 per cent.
The Southern States show a gratify
ing increase, most of which is undoubt
edly genuine, in the number of farms.
In Virginia, where the negroes have
become landholders in larger numbers
posbeibly than other Southern State,
the increase is reported at 60 per cent.,
in South Carolina it is 81 per cent., in
Georgia 98 per cent., in Mississippi 50
per cent., in Louisiana 70 per cent.
Kentucky and Tennessee, whore the
same causes have not operated to the
same extent, show but 11 per cent, and
10 per cent of increase respectively.
Illinois, Indiana and Ohio report an
increase of but 26, 20 and 26 per cent,
respectively. There has been some
breaking up of large farms in these
States by deaths and other causes, and
much swamp and other waste land has
been brought under cultivation. Some
of the increase in Illinois also has been
due to the sale of railroad lands and
the cultivation of pastures in conse
quence of the building of railroads.
The greatest increase has been, as
was natural, in the far Norwestern
States and the Territories. The in
crease in Iowa has been 56 per cent.,
in Oregon 111 per cent., in Washing
ton Territory 109 per cent.
The growth in the number of farms
has been healthy and nominal. There
have been no bigns- of a position to
hold lands in large quantities except in
California and Northern Dakota, and in
the Southwestern States and Territo
ries, where much of the land can only
be used profitably as cattle-ranges. It
is, and will long continue to be, for
the interest of the people at large that
sma". farming shall be generally prac
ticed in this country, and there is
happily no present reason to fear that
there will soon be any serious departure
from this custom.
Tbe Future Americans.
Some idea of the importance of for
eign immigrations can be formed from
the statement that the immigration for
the year ending June 80th, 1882, 789,-
000 people, was equal to the population
of either Maine, Connecticut or Min
nesota, and the indication are that this
rate of immigration will be maintained,
if not increased, for a number of years.
Another important feature of immigra
tion is the fecundity of that portion of
our population. The census of 1880 is
said to not show the difference between
the increase by births in this country of
people of different nationalities, but
the Canadian census has kept track of
this matter, and similar conditions un
doubtedly exist on this tide of the line.
Their census gives the nationality and
descent of every inhabitant of the do
minion. It shows that for every Ger
man immigrant who settled in Canada,
there are to-day 10.8 persons of Ger
man descent in that country . That is,
the German by natural increase, have
multiplied nearly eleven fold. The
Scotchman has similarly increased 6.1
fold, the Englishman 5.1, the Irishman
1.1, the Italian 2.1. and the Scandina
vian 2.1. Tbe German therefore in
America increase twice as fast as the
Anglo-Saxon, and more that twice as
fast as the Irishman. With some 250,
000 Germans pouring into this country
annually to enforce their millions of
brethren already here, it looks very
much as if the United States would
become largely Teutonized in the near
future, with the addition of a Celtio
mixture. The effect of this admixture
of national and race traits will be the
most cosmopolitan people, in another
century, of any country in tbe world, a
people who, under the favorable opera
tion of a beneficent climate and of free
institutions which will permit the exer
cise and development of every fotm of
thought and experiment, will combine
less of the narrow and clannish and
more of the liberal and progressive
characteristics cf human nature than
any other nationality can possibly
achieve. When the 2,000th century is
reached, the American nation will have
taken on its permanent character, and
not before.
The London Jwly represents a doc
tor as asking, "WelL Pat, have you
taken the box of pills I sent you?"
And Pat as replying, "Yea, air, be
jabert, I have : but I don't feel any bet-
ter Jet-
Maybe the lid hasn't cone off
Weather, Facta and Probabilities.
As wo are passing through a period
of very accentuated and trying atmos
phurio changes, the following ten short
rules, by the use of which a person ean
stand beneath hit own vine or fig tree,
in any part of the northern hemisphere
north of latitude fifteen, and for hun
dreds of miles around him, and form an
accurate opinion of how the wind and
rain is progressing, may be of value.
They wure supplied to the Farmers' club
of the American institute by scientist
of New Jersey.
1. When the temperature falls sud
denly, there is a storm forming to the
south of you. , '
2. When tho temperature rises sud
denly, there is a storm forming north
lof you.
3. Tho wind always blows from a
region of fair weather towards a region
where the storm is forming.
1. Cirrus clouds always move from
a region where a storm is in progress to
ward a region of fair weather.
5. Cumulous clouds always move
from a region of fair weather toward a
region where the storm is forming.
6. When cirrus clouds are moving
rapidly from the north or north-west,
there will be rain in less than twenty
four hours, no matter how cold it may
7. When cirrus clouds are ineving
rapidly from the south or southeast,
there will be a cold rain storm on the
morrow, if it be Bummer, and, if it be
winter there will be a snow storm.
8. Tho wind always blows in a circle
around a 6torm, and when it blows
from tho north the heaviest rain is east
of you; if it blows from the south the
heaviest rain is west; if it blows from
the east the heaviest rain is south; if
it blows from the west the heaviest rain
is north of you.
9. The wind never blows unless
rain is falling within oni thousand
mile3 of you.
10. Whenever a heavy white frost
ocours, a storm is forming within one
thousand miles north or. northwest of
The Girl That Everybody Likes.
She is not beautiful oh, no 1 nobody
thinks to cull her that. Not one of a
dozen can tell whether her eyes . are
black or ' blue. If you should ask
them to describe her, they would only
say : "She is just right," and there it
would end. .-
She is a merry-hearted, fun-loving,
bewitching maiden, without a spark of
envy or malice in hor whole composition.
She enjoys herself and wants every
body to else do the same. She has always
a kind word and a pleasant smile for
the oldest man or woman ; in fact, I can
think of nothing she resembles more
than a sunbeam, which brightens every
thing it comes in contact with.
All pay her marked attention, from
rich Mr. Watt3, who lives in a mansion
on the hill, to negro Sam, the sweep.
All look after her with an admiring
eye, and say to themselves, "She is just
the right sort of a gitl."
The young men of the town vie with
one another as to who -shall show her
the most attention, but sho never en
courages them beyond being simply
kind and jolly; so no one can coll her
a flirt; no, indeed, the young men
would deny such an assertion as quickly
as she.
Girls wonderful to relate like her,
too, for she never delights in hurting
their feelings or saying spiteful things
behind their backs. She is always
willing to join in their little plans and
assist them in any way. They go to
her with their love affairs, snd she
manages adroitly to eee Willie or Peter
and drop a good word for Ida or J en
nie, until their little difficulties nr all
patched up, and everything goes on
smoothly again thanks to her.
Old ladies say she is "delightful"
The sly witch she- knows how to
manage tbem. She listens patiently
to complaints of the rheumatism or
neuralgia, and then sympathizes with
them so heartily that they are half
But she cannot be always with us.
A young man comes from a neighbor
ing town by and by and marries her.
The villagers crowd sround to tell him
what a prize he has won, but he seems
to know it pretty well without any tell
ing, to judge from his fate. So she
leaves us, and it is not long before we
hear from that place. She is there the
woman everybody likes.
It is understood that the Gould
roads in Texas, together with tbe
Houston and Texas Central, the Gulf,
Colorado and Santa Fe, the Galveston,
Houston and Henderson, tbe Gal Tee
ton, Harrisburg and 8an Antonio, the
Texas and St. Louis, and other roads
within the cotton-raiaiog district, are
net going to allow the fast freight agent
to meddle with the cotton this year.
The roads propose to carry their on
cotton and issue their cws bills cf la
ding hereafter.

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