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Cov, Ireland' luaugnral Address.
jn nssuming t"e dnties ' df ninuitratc of this, the most splendid JJpxnonwealth ou earth, I do so with Soulits and forebodings, as to my capac ity for the task. Looking back a few years, we he bold Texas a part of tbo Spanish King dom; hv tho revolution of 1824 she Wame'a imrt of the republic of Mex ico; Mexico refused to her distant territory that just and equal place in the family that was duo to tho people, aud Texas having been sought by blood that knew what freedom and equal ' .jpiits were, this blood, aided by many noMo families descended from that of Castile, soon inaugarated the move ment that culminated at San Jacinto and spoke a new nation into life. For many years the Republic of Texas consisted of her ancient and nolle settlement in eastern Texas, the lower Brazos settlement and the missions, includiug San Antonio; her progress was slow, but soon the idea of annexation began to grow and was made a finality m 1845; her popula tion was then about lSO.OUO souls, and as late as' 1870 the total , popula tion was but little over 800,000. Up to near that period we had no disturb ing questions about public lauds, our free schools consisted in what was known as the indigent system ; wo had no perplexing questions of taxation, the penitentiary was almost mythical and our asylums wero only known in name. The principal duty of the ex ecutive was to sign patents and look to the frontier. HOW CHANGED THE SCENE ! Over 2,000,000 population, and, instead of the small settlements be fore mentioned, we find the entire country, "from the Red river to the Rio Grande and from the coast to El Paso," peopled, and yielding all the material products for the consumption of our race, while the Pan Handle supplies Chicago, New York, the Indian tribes and portions of Europe with beef, each section constantly struggling for the mastery, and endeavoring to im press its ideas and laws upon the state. The public lands are exciting that energy and calling forth that same spirit of gain that the gold-fields of Australia and those of California did. The growth and settlements of the distant pcrts of our territory have demonstrated the fact that laws that are suitable for the Red Eiver country do not prove beneficial to the Rio Grande, and those that the coast de sire are not welcome at El Paso. With all this difficult and conflicting ele ments and interests must we deal. Shall we float along in the avenues of the sluggard, caring nothing for the future, or shall we deal with these great interests as though we, and not posterity, are to be affected by our action? Prominent among the objects that will challenge the attention of this adminstration are: The preservation of our common school fund, including the lands set apart for that purpose, and the im provement of our school system. It is known to the country that, frior to my nomination at Galveston, severely criticised the practice of paying 40 per cent, premium for our bonds, and no amount of reasoning or financial skill can satisfy me that the practice is justifiable, either in retiring our bonded indebtedness, or as an investment for the school fund. Tt. KOfma t.r Iib fl.dmit.Wl hv all that the constitution should be so amended as to permit the legislature to levy and collect a school tax, without re fering to the amount of the general revenue that may be necessary. THE PENITENTIARY! WHAT SHALL BE DONE WITH OUR CONVICTS? It would seem that experience has taught us that there are but few "peni tents" and but few reforms accom plished in that institution, and, there fore, that it is probably mis-named. It will be for the wisdom of the law making power to prescribe the proper management. I do not doubt but there are numbers sent to that insti tution forjpetty offenses, who should be punished in some other way; and for youths a house of correction of or other place of confinement, and punishment should be devised. I doubt the propriety of sending any, no matter what the age, to the peni tentiary for a short periods of time. THE JUDICIAHT. Shall we amend our constitution so as to enable us to have a judiciary equal to our demands, or shall we continue to multiply judges of courts of last resort? A little reflection will satisfy all that the eTil in the system i radical, and we must begin the remedy in the trial court. TAXATION. The earlier idea about occupation tax was that it should be laid on those occupations and pursuits that were ta disccixagtd; but the aedera prac tice appears to bo to raiso money, even at the expense of those most useful aud desirable. As to an advalorem tax, thero is no just power to take from the citizen one mill, if it is not absolutely required to carry on his government in an economical manner. What belongs to the citizen is his ab solutely, and his agents have no right to demand more, than is necessary. Again.no greater temptation and invit ation to extravagance, and even cor ruption can exist, than a plethoric treasury. We need no other evidence of this than that offered in our landed system. After all the hcadrights, tho augmentations, the donations and the bounties had been provided for, there still remained, 6ay 120,000,000 acres of land. This was about tho sum at the close of the war between the states. These lands then began to attract tho attention of the capitalists, tho land hungry and greedy, and scheme after schemo was resorted to to get hold of them. When standing in the thirteenth legislature there wero a few a splendid band who protest ed against opening the door that was felt to be the first break upon these lands. These men stood amidst tho jeers and scoffs of those who were clamorous for the golden egg, and casting a glance to the distant future I and foreseeing that this rich field could not be longer, guarded, as a last resort they introduced and had passed the law setting apart one-half of the entire public domain for educational purposes. They took the only step left them to secure to posterity a small pittance of that splendid educational fund; but the door was broken down and it has gone, until now there is but a remnant. I think I see away down the corri dors of time, this splendid territory teeming with millions. No more pub lic lands ; no more cheap home pov erty and squalid want gathering fast and thick around the inhabitants; when some one of them will gather up the fragments of our history and read to the gazing and mind-famished multitude how this generation had in its power and keeping a fund that should have gathered like the snow hall as time rolled on, and how, if we had been true to ourselves, to posteri ty, to them, they could have educated all their children, paid ail their taxes reared school-houses, built roads and bridges and then I see them turn with deep mutterings from the wicked folly that crazed our people trom 1865 to 1882. I know that there is a popular fal lacy abroad that finds expression in such language as "damn posterity, let it take care of itself. 1 pity the heart that can thus sneak. Not so spoke our ancestors the fathers They saw not to-day, but looking with an eye of faith and wisdom away in the distance, they saw us and labored and toiled for us. OUR COMMON HIGHWAYS. Our laws on this subject are defect ive. There seems to be no reason why all who own property or reside near the roads should not contribute to support them. The youth, the aged and the non-resident, having property that is benefitted by a high way, should bear a proper proportion of its burdens, as well as those within certain ages. OUR RAILWAYS. The constitutional requirment that the legislature shall pass laws to regu late and control these institutions has been only partially performed. The people demand the fulfillment of this plain, constitutional duty. It is not the work of an hour, nor to be performed without mature 6tudy. These railways are our institutions; their value and utility to the country are not to be questioned; their man agement has challenged and baffled the highest order of talent, and whatever is done, it is to be hoped will be done in the spirit of justice and equity, that will prove adequate to our wants., without crippling or injuring the railways. THE FRONTIER. That the time is rapidly approach ing when we will have no frontier, in the sense of an Indian border con stantly subject to incursions of hos tile savages, is certain, and yet, those familiar with onr borders, and the enforcement of our laws will readily concede the fact that the time naB not arrived for the disbandment of our (state forces. EXECUTION Or THE CRIMINAL LAW. m, a ro f lirp things imperatively demanded to a proper execution of these laws: Wo rnnct Lit a rood ludi- A U - ' 7 9 ciary, which cannot be had but in !Al A 1 . , exceptional caes wiujou iiti salaries. Second A salary to me prosecuung .r-, that will ensure talent and fidelity to duty, that will be equal to OUr TOUEff, TlgC-rOUI ana Ificmtuu wx. and, Third A higher sense of duty on tho part of our juries. CIVIL SERVICE REFORM. This is a theme dwelt upon by statesmen of all parties, state aud federal; it goes forth iu stato papers of tho most solemn character; we get it iu prose aud poetry, and no sooner had the party triumphed, by tho force of its logic than it dies; often a silent death, without so much as u prayer being offered at its obsequies. Happily for the American people tho last and most daring breach of public decancy has been rebuked by an outraged people, iu a manner so 6cvcrc that wo shall not likely, in the next few years, hear of a llubbell or ganization or a cabinet minister ten dered by the chief magistrate of our Federal agency for governor of a state; or of quarantine guards ami revenue offi cials undertaking to conduct elections. While theso things have been severe ly rebuked, it has not been done by a people unfaithful to the spirit of our iustitutions, for all governments hero are the people's, no less that of the states than the Federal, and whether inproper interference with tho freedom of elections comes from those in au thority in the state or Federal govern ment, it is the right and bounden duty of the people to rebuke it the moro severely the higher the source from whence it comes. In assuming the duties of this very responsible office, I do, to-day, al though elected as a partisan, declare that the oath of office disarms the politician and leaves me free to deal with all alike, and whatever asperi ties may have been engendered in political contests, I thank God that I have moral courage enough to remem ber that I am the chief magistrate of a great people and state, and that it is their affairs, and not my own, with which I have to deal. To those "around me, charged with a portion of the same public trust, I dare to say, that while a degree of in dividuality in all is a necessary ingre dient, still I trust that we meet with that spirit of forbearance and conces sion that will render the aggregated will useful to our country, and in in viting their hearty co-operation, I deem it proper to say that they will find in me, at all times, not only a willingness to hear others and con sult their views, but to make all nec essary concessions in order that the incoming administration may meet the expectations of this splendid com monwealth. Fidelity to the constitutions of our country, state and Federal, is the true test of loyalty, and he who tram ples upon these or does other illegal acts in the name of the law, is the vilest of law-breakers. May we hope that our school lands and the common school fund will be guarded with that spirit of jealousy and devotion to the trust and duty that the magnitude of the subject de mands. It is not unknown that the section of our state where these lands are sit uated feels a deep interest in this sub ject, and, while the public servant must do nothing that can be avoided to retard or annoy any section, still I know that that gallant people will not require a guardian of a great pub lic trust to lose sight of the fact that he does, indeed, represent all the people and all sections of the state, and that devotion to this great trust is of the first and highest consider ation. OUR INSANE. Shall the Institution intended for the treatment, care and cure of this unfortunate class be longer a thing in name, or shall we make it equal to the demands of justice and humanity? These and many other subjects, not necessary now to enumerate, will re ceive more elaborate attention in di rect communication to the two houses. With regard to the management of our various institutions, or appoint ments to office therein, I wish to say that the first great consideration has, and will continue to be, the good of the public service, and when I do not think this service can be bettered, no removal will be made. I believe in the fullest and freest ballot, and do not cherish the slight est animosity toward those who of fered a manly opposition to my elec tion, and as the executive, I have no enemies to punish. We can have but few state secrets; this governmentbelongs to the people; it is republican in form and should be in fact; the peoples' agents in time of peace can rightfully have but few matters before them that should be withheld from the people. If unjust criticism ensues a discerning and just public sentiment will sooner or later do justice. The true theory of republican gov ernment is that each individual shall have an equal chance in life, and ex clusive or extraordinary privileges should be riven to none. Let each pursue the journey of life La Lis iwb way, the government taking care only that no oue obstructs or molest the other, so long as each attends to his own affairs. Let us multiply tho machinery of government as little as possible, ad here to tho simplicity, purity and honesty of tho fathers, aud sco how best to excel in virtue, purity of char acter aud in all those things that make us a light to our nice. Wo are blessed by nature's Aunties far beyond the majority of our race. That theso blessings aro appreciated by the world is shown in our woncr ful growth. Where, in tho history of the past, has a state risen from less than a million to nearly two millions of people in ono decade? When bo fore has tho wealth of a peoplo grown as ours in tho last ten years? To hharo these wonderful blessings of climate, cheap homes, fertile soil, health and low taxes, wo invito and welcome tho industrious, tho well disposed and enterprising of all the world. To onr retiring chief let us ex tend the best wishes of a people whom he has served long, and must believe, to the best of his ability, If, in our judgment, wo aro led to bclievo that ho has committed mis takes, let our misson bo to avoid the quicksands pointed out by those mis takes, and not detract from the lau rels of a life of public srvico. Aud we know that his sterling good sense will tell him to accord to us no other motive than that of tho good of the people of Texas. A Wonderful Invention. PlillaclolpliU Tinica. The Lcggo patent sends as many words over a single wire in a minute as the most skillful Morse operator can send in an hour, delivers at the receiv ing station a fao simile of tho copy furnished, and does it all without the help of a skillful operator. Anybody who can turn a crank can send a mes sage, in his own handwriting, with any private marks or other devices he pleases, simply by first writing his message on a chemically prepared piece of paper furnished by the com pany. Practical trials of this appara tus have shown a speed of 2500 words a minute, but it can be enlarged so as to do even better. A Morse operator who can send or receive 2000 or 2500 words any hour can command the highest salary, and even then there is nothing to guarantee him against mak ing a mistake a thing which by the Leggo process is impossible. Pictures can be transmitted in this way, and an enterprising reporter can send, not only the words, but the music of the new opera by wire ; but the great ad vantage the company claims for it is the transmission of correspondence. It is expected that the energetic busi ness man who has an important letter to send to a distance will no longer drop it in the postoffice unless, in deed, an arrangement can be effected by which the postoffices will be made receiving and delivering stations for the postal telegraph but will bring it to the company's office, place it with his own hands in the machine, and send it humming in a moment to its destination. Hart it l'ef. WaU Street Htwi. Ons of the old veterans of Wall street was the other day giving some fatherly advice to one of his clerks about to be married, and in closing his sermon said: "Directly after the ceremony there will be a banquet, of course. When your wife turns over her plate she will find a check for $50,000 under it." "Do you really think so?" "Oh, I know it. That's the pre vailing style now-a-davB. Tho check will be passed around, and finally given to you to pocket." "And next day I will draw the money on it." "Oh, no; you won't." "Why not?" "Because there won't be any to draw. Don't make a dolt of yotrself by rushiflg to the bank." "But I thought" "No matter what you thought. Save the check to frame and hang up. When I was married thirty years ago my wife fouiid one under her plate. I've got it yet. I thought too much of her father to mortify his feelings, and I know he has always respected me for it. That's all, my son. If you run short on your bridal tour, tele graph me." When CapL Cook visited Tahiti the natives were using nails of wood, bone, shell and stone. When they saw iron nails they fancied them to be shoots of some very hard wood, and, desir ous of securing such a valuable com modity, they planted them ia their garden. Taluage oa Leiclh of Life, Nw York Sun. "If any oue dies in youth," said Dr. Talmago yesterday morning, "we say, 'What a pity!' If ono bo iu pleasant circumstances, ho never wauls to go. William Cnllcn Bryant, at 82, stand ing in my house and reading Thau.i topsis, was just as anxious to live a when ho wrote that immortal threnody, Cato, at 1)0, was afraid ho wouldn't live to learn Greek. Thurlow Weed, at 80, found life as pleasant as when ho snuffed out his first politician. I suppose that Mcthupuleh, at DUO, was afraid to go out in a storm and get his feet wet, lest ho should shorten his days." Dr. Talmago said that if ho were ou an agnostio ho would call a man blessed according to tho number of years he could stay on terra firma. But, since man believes in immortali ty, an abbreviated existenco on earth is a blessing, because it makes ono's life more compact. Somo men do their day's work in ten hours, some in live, and some iu one. And, other things being equal, the man is to be congratulated who can get through with his work in ono hour. If a per bou dies at fivo years, he gets through his work at 0 in the morning; if he dies at 40, ho gets through at noon; if he dies at 70, he gets through at 5 in the afternoon, and if ho dies at 00, he had to toil up to 11 o'clock at night. "All wo ought to do is to get our work done, and well done," said Dr. Talmage, "and the sooner the bettor. The number of men who fall into ruin between 50 and 70 years of age, is simply appalling. If they had died at 80, it would have been better for themselves and their families. The great temptation of a man's life some times comes far on in middle life. At about 45 years of age a man's nervous system changes. By the advice of some friend he takes stimulant to keep him up, and ho keeps on taking stimulants till it Keeps mm uown. Concerning a vast multitude, it seems that it would be better if they disem bark from this earth early in life. Why do bo many die before they are 80 years old? Becauso God sees the storm coming up lroin the uann bean, and runs them into the first harbor. As a soldier who has been on guard all night is glad when some body comes to relieve him, ought not that man shout fer joy who can lay down his weapons and enter the King s castle?" Illustrating how men escape perils early in life and fall into them later, Dr. Talmago said: "The first time I crossed the Atlantic ocean, it was as smooth as a mill pond, and I wrote a magazine essay about the calm sea. If 1 hadn't written it then, before I crossed the ocean again I never would have written it." Another reason why it is a blessing to die young, Dr. Talmage said, is because those who die early in youth escape so many earthly bereave ments. He enumerated some of the arrows which King David would have escaped if he had been taken from life early in youth, and said that he would have eBCaped the crime of un cleanness and murder. "When God takes little children," the preacher continued, "He usually takes the brightest. Why? Because they would have the greatest capacity for suffering if permitted to live." "Again, to die' early in life," Dr. Talmage said, "brings one bo much sooner to the center of things. All astronomers agree that the universe swings around some great center. God's favorite figure in geometry is the circle. Somewhere is the great hub around which the wheel of the universe turns, and that is heaven. Our standpoint in this world is defect ive. We are at the wrong end of the telescope. We are down in the cellar of life, and yet trying to scan the broad heavens of immortality, while our Christian friends have gone up stairs to study it. The child who died at five years of age a few days ago, at whose funeral I officiated knows more of God to-day than An dover, or Princeton, or Edinburgh or all the theologians of the world. Yet men are rushing around among the apothecaries wondering if this medi cine is good for theumatism or that for neuralgia, and others for other diseases, lest they should suddenly be ushered into heaven. Men ought not to go around complaining because an other year is gone. We ought to be not living according to the old maxim, winch says that men should live as though every day might be their last, but as though we were to live forever. But don't let us be nervous, lest we should have to move out of a shanty into an Alhambra. A HEX-rECEED husband said in ex tenuation f his wife's raid upon his scalp: "You see she takes her own hair off so easily, sae doesn't know Lew it hurts to bare rain l pulled ctl"