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SAN UABCOS FREE PRESS.
t XL JULIAN, Publisher. BAN MARCOS, TEXAS TEXAS TOPICS. Tho receipts at the Stato Treas ury 0110 day last week from land sales were $50,000. Only nine members of the pro sent senate were members of the pre vious body. Palestine is discussing a prospect: for a S25.00O public school bhlding. Also for illuminating the city with! tho electric light. The gritty deputy U. S. Marshal Joe Sbcely, who arrested Treasurer Polk near Larado, will reap the re ward of his bravery and integrity. On the very day that he nabbed tho fugitive and refused a bribe of 8,000 to "hands off," the legislature of Ten nessee passed a resolution offering a reward of 5,000 for Polk's capture. Two hoodlums from Gonzales county stood on tho platform at Se guin the other day and as the cars nnsr(l umiisfid themselves bv smash ing the windows to the great tenor of tho passengers. They were arrested, tried nd lined 170, which consider ing the high order of fun they enjoyed, was cheap enough to prevent them trying any more of the same kind of fun. A telegram from Larado says: Ex-ConstaHe Damiotto on the night of tho 8th undertook to arrest one of the pickpockets who have been doing tho city, and for that purpose donned n. fine irold watch and chain, so ar ranged that when the chain was dis turbed a pin would prick him and give him the alarm. Thus prepared, he appeared on the fiesta ground, and at the end of fifteen minutes found, to his extreme mortification, that he had been robbed of his watch and chain. Tho Lrlauger's preliminay sur veys in Texas are completed. The branch from Shrcvoport strikes the Brazos near tho toAvn of Courtney. The line from Alexandria pusses through Drenham, Lagrange and Gonzales, and strikes the 1'io Grande at Prcsideo(not Presideo del Norte, but a jtlaco below Eagle Pass). Tho lino between Alexandria and Presided is about as near an air line as could bo well constructed with reference to easy grades, and as the English Syn dicate is wealthy, we hope to see some progress this year in construction. Certainly the completion of the road from Meridian to New Orleans and from Vicksburg to Shrevcport is not as much work as should be accom plished in the next twelve months. Mfiiij'liin AijkuI. Woman in Texas. IlOUHllUl 1'lint. The founders of our state were a great set of men; not that they were individually heroes or saints, but as a class, they rose perhaps to higher lev els in legislation fur the future than any other American body. See what! they did for education ! The children, indeed, are only half provided for, but if the gracious lu tiucst of our fathers : had been carried out in integrity and with intelligence, the prairies would be dotted over with school-houses, and a denser and more cultivated popula tion would have been the result of the schoolmaster's philanthropic labors. They called into being the university, which, if properly managed, will be come the pride- of the state as well as the chief source of its mental excellen cy. They provided for the unfortun ate in a princely fashion, and to con victed criminals they gave a solemn pledge of humane and decent treat ment, which the present Legislature is just beginning to realize. Put it is concerning none of these things that we desire to comment to-day. We desire simply to say that it is a good thing for a woman to live in Texas and marry in this state. Not content to be gallant toward woman, as our western men naturally arc, the Texan fathers laid it down as the lirst rrin- cijue of law that largely and safely matters of property terest, even if it be . ... . woman shall be protected in all and personal in somewhat at the expense of men. A woman bv the fact of marriage heirs one third of the husbands proiertv and Kcomcs an equal joint partner in the ownership of every dollar that has Itch accumu lated during the torui of their married life. e U lu vc that this enlightened and liberal provision for women has no counterpart in the laws of any oth er f tat in the Union. If the women cf other states only knew which 6ide Of their tread was substantially bat tered tLf re would Le quite a feminine exodos to the Lone Sur SUte! Tex as Las the men and the lands, and ttaj wiJ net ran away. Our men may ce, as a cats, m need ox a LU: r4-1 ish and higher education, but, in all the- manly qualities that go to maKo up the workers who subdue nature and command respect for strength and vig or, they will compare favorably with the yeomanry of any state or country. There is however, not much demand for aesthetic damsels yet in Texas. Then, again, there is the homestead law, a blessing that can only bo ade quately appreciated by an otherwise un protected woman. A certain class of our people begin to growl so soon as the homestead law is mentioned It must bo allowed that the provisions of this beneficent statute nave ueen ire , vm ,1 1 .1 W " - . , nuentlv and flagrantly auuu, , ja fairly regarded in some uhplxuj uo a serious drawback to tho thorough operations of business in the state, become of them were it not for the But then its positive good results are so palpable that it is esteemed a con stitutional charity that will cover a multitude of sins. No other state has so great an instrument for the support and comfort of its women. Hundreds of trusting, faithful and intelligent women marry, year by year, worth less, selfish, dishonest or incompetent men; their fate is hard; their h tie dream of love and romance, that comes like angels' visits once to all, being dissipated by the dull or des ,.m.i;t oa nf iito wiiai oum asylum which the state has wisely and J M It 1. MIL nobly granted lor tne weu. un protected in tho homestead law. Therefore let the law work badly in tho hands of rascals and men of no honor-but may the day never come whoso light shall not show the moth er and her infants protected from the brutality, the weakness, the villainy and the desertion of their husbands and fathers, by the safeguards of the homestead law. Progress of Southern Cotton Mills. The National Cotton Exchange's re port of the movement of the staple to January 1, affords still further evi dence of tho prosperity of the south ern cotton mills and their large in crease of production. The following are its figures of the amount of cot ton taken by the southern and north ern mills for the four months of Sep tember, October, November and De cember : 1!1. Southern mills 1OO.0U0 Northern mV.U l.Olb.lnl 13(1,0(10 Total.... 1,110,151 LOSSES Tl.n Northern mills hero show decrease in their takings of nearly 9 per cent., while those of the south in creased theirs 30 per cent., and their proportion of the consumption of all the American mills from 9 to 13 per cent. There is no mistake about the movement and tendency. That it is coming south there is no question. It has already begun in earnest. During the past two years, cotton mills containing 301, G00 spindlers, and aggregating 10,592,000 in capi tal, have been esta blished south of the Potomac and all of these are nourish ing and making money. A correspondent of the New York llnald, Mr. Dallard Smith, who has been t ravelins through the south for j the purpose of getting the view of our people on ttie tanlx question, nas m tfi viewed manv of the cotton manu- i facturers of Georgia and the two Caro- linas, the seat of the most prosperous mills in the country, and finds them wonderfully indifferent about the duty on cotton goods. "It may hurt the northern mills," they say, "to repeal this duty, but it will scarcely affect us, and the reduction in the cost of machinery that will ensue from a change in the tariff will more than compensate us for any reduction in the value of cotton goods, that may follow the repeal of the duty on them." And he made another important discovery, which was the southern cotton mills were not only supplying the home market, but exporting large amounts of goods abroad, one of the Georgia mills having a Ibig con tract for China. It would be inter esting to discover how much of the cotton goods exported from this coun try are manufactured in southern mills; we feel convinced, from Mr. Smith's showing, that they furnish considerably more than their percent age of our exports. It is illustrative of the situation' to read the laments of the Philadelphia papers ever the disorganized and un satisfactory condition of the textile manufactories of that city, nearly a third of which are now idle. Phila delphia is the most important cotton manufacturing centre of our larger cities, and the bad condition of the cotton poods business there explains the figures of the National Cotton Ex change, showing, as they do, a large decrease in those of southern mills. Pallas I'lanlrr and Farmrr. WATiaraoor, La-, has 177 drinking places ont of 513 Looses. The man who named the town was certainly spired. THE CATTLE COUNTRY. Itttl HlniW-lMi"" .... r iJ l'tll niiihft.Damocrtt. January 17. 1883. Never in tho history of the cattle iaja flifl northwest has the futuro flmt Pntrmrisfl looked brighter or more promising than at the present time. Unless there are unprecedent ed reverses in the next threo mouths, ifift.4 will nlace this country in the very foremost rank of the great stock growing anu pruuuv of the west. Great cattle Ulrfl the railroad monop olies east, are busily engaged in filling up all unsettled country anu are rap icily swallowing all the smaller fish in tho business. Rand & Co., of Cheycne, in connec tion with eastern capitalists, are cov tiimisnnds of acres with lmi'r honla in Wvomincr. Utah and TVlnliv A IT. Rwnn. of Swan Bros., has just received a cablegram from parties in Edinburgh, Scotland, who have been negotiating the largest transac tion for many years in this trade, re questing him to come immediately, with full power to close the bargain. IIo will sail next week. This 'sale is a transfer of 07,000 head of cattle and a few hundred horses, tho considera tion being 2,500,000. The cattle were sold at a valuation of 35 per head, including calves, yearlings and upwards, from which tho enormous rise in cattle during the past twelve months may be understood, their val ue a year ago being only 20 to 22. The Powder Eiver Cattlo Company has just filed at Cheyenne and other necessary points its articles of associa tion and of incorporation, and also a copy of tho English laws under which it is organized. The company has a capital stock of 300,000, or 1.500, 000, and includes among its Direc tors the Duke of Manchester, Wm. Tipping, Lord Henry Neville, Earnest Docket Denison and Andrew Whitton, while connected with the enterprise are Alfred Sartoris, C. Fitch liemp, Morton Frewen and many other weal thy Englishmen. The ranch of the company is on the Powder Eiver and Crazy Woman's Fork, and the prop erty is now valued at 258,111. The papers are fiendishly voluminous not a detail beincr omitted that English technicality could suggest. W. P. Noble, of Lander City, 150 miles north of Eawlins, on the Union Pacific Railroad, sold out his stock interests last week to A. Gilchrist, II. C. Plunkett and II. J. Windsor, of Cheyenne, for the jsuni pf 103,000. The cattle number 7,000, and their range is on the No Wood Eiver, a treeless stream running through the northern part of Sweetwater County. The Swan Brothers, who started in the cattle business fifteen years ago, with less than 10,000, are to day the wealthiest cattle men in Wyoming, their herds being in the central part of the Territory. Their shipments last season aggregated 12,U00 head, amounting to over 5U0, 000. They own a farm of 3,300 acres adjoining Indian ola, Io., near Dcs Moines, which is stocked with about 1,100 head of cattle, including thoroughbred Hcrcfords and other equally famous breeds. They also have a large number of blooded bulls on their ranches in Wyoming, all ot which are imported. They are in partnership with the wealthy firm of George F. Morgan & Co. in import ing blooded stock, a consignment having been shipped last week of 250 thoroughbred llerefords from Scot land, which will be distributed throughout their vast herds. Large numbers of young English men are coming to Wyoming, Utah and Colorado, to engage in the cattle business a colony having lately set tled in Southern Utah, where the ranges for sheep are large and scarcely occupied. Many of the cattle men have sold out their interesis and are investing in sheep, the past season having been unusually profitable, many of the sheepmen having cleared 100 per cent. Owing to the close grazing of the sheep, the ranges are in some localities being ruined for the cattle. There is trouble brewing in consequence on part3 of the Piatt River and other localities. On the headwaters of the Kiowa, for a year past, the sheep men have received anonymous letters, warning them to move their herds out of that section or stand the consequences. No at tention was paid to these threats by the sheep men. On Thursday evening last an armed body of masked men rode up to the ranrVi rf fr. Ktrilipn IlnlJpn. inst after the sheep had been corraled for the night, and alter brutally beating the herder, and leaving him uncon scious upon the cround, they set fire to the cabin and corrals, and began of j shep not killed strayed away cpoa ' In rdains. and at the time of writing had not been found. It is thought to Anln ilia lirifrinninff of an open warfare between the cattle and sheep men of that section. Florida Shell Heaps. fnrinl And nrrimration of XUO ixiuww.i," 1 A ' the Florida shell heap vessels differ from that of other raounds as those along tho coast region of that same state and others found throughout tho United States; the clay elsewhere is mingled with broken shells and sand, in the Forida specimens almost pure clay is used, seldom showing any ad mixture of sand, though at times vegetable fiber is present, which pro duces a cellular and porous structure, which the original makers have, in part, overcome by the use of an out slip clay. In ornamentation tho speci mens are markedly inferior to those from other localities less elaborately nIornpd. and dismayed only a rude and primitive conception of artistic tlesin. xney muiciuu m than the fiictile wares UAA VUHtV v 0 from tho coast mounds or those found in later burial places. Stone imple ments were found in considerable numbers, though numerous enough to move the acquaintance of tho shell- heap makers with flint chipping, and though but seldom buried deep in the piles, were iucontestably coeval with their formation. They consist ot rudely-cut celts, stone chisels. knives or scraners. arrow-heads, chips and fmcrments. all clearlv the work of men's hands. Implements of bone were more i . ii ... v :i-J i rrequent, but apparency umiieu iu awls and piercers, an office for which bone, then and since, seems very gen erally reserved. Implements of shell, as might have been anticipated, were rnTnTnoii. thoucrh verv siignuy, ii ai all varied in form, consisting of rect angular bits, ground down to edges cm one side, forming an efficient scraper, cleaner or bone wedge. Perforated shells, possibly used for ornament, nvfl fnnnd Tipfir t.he iimier surface of the mounds, and drinking cups made from the large univalve (Busycon per versa') are similarly found near the surface. These last objects are recent, and may have been known to flifi Indians who succeeded, at a long remove, the aboriginal inhabit ants. Pipes and metals are both absent. Human bones were found rom top to bottom of these heaps skulls, legs, arms and bodies and while some were unbroken and entire, the condition of others suggested the unwelcome thought of their having formed a part of a cannibal's repast, a conclusion which some recent ex aminations by Lieutenant Vogdes strengthened. He found large bones, whose marrow might justly form an attractive feature in an aboriginal din ner opened lengthwise and bearing evidences of a designed cleaveragc. Cannibalism was really so common among our Indians at the arrival of the white men that it would scarcely seem surprising to find its antecedents hidden in these early works. The American A ntiquanj. OmiHiercial Value of Loiii J;u:a JIoss. "Twenty years ago, as a commer cial staple,1' says the New Orleans Picayune, "moss had no status, and was not quoted on the New Orleans market, so verv ktsismificant were the i receipts and so little did it enter into consumption at that time in' the vari ous industries which now absorb all that is gathered. Since the war, however, and especially within the last eight cr ten years, the value and importance of moss "as a factor in several manufacturing and industrial branches has become manifest. In the upholstering department, in the carriage and harness industry, in mat trass and pillow making, omitting sev eral other lines, moss has in a great measure supplanted the article former ly used (hair and wool), and this sub stitution of material in these various industrial departments is notdue alone to advantages of price and cost, but to causes and reasons more urgent those of health and durability and to other technical advantages which are better understood by those en gaged in the industries to which we have refercd. At the present time, the moss factories of this city if such establishments can with accuracy be so designated are driven to their ut most capacity to supply the demand from Northern, Eastern and Western manufacturers. There are at present iu New Orleans three of these moss cleaning establishments, each hand ling and manipulating daily fifty to sixty bales of the article, and a total during the yearof thirty to forty thou sand bales. There is no reason what ever why the receipts at New Orleans should not be one hundred thousand bales. The swamps and forests of Louisiana can furnish any supply for Fenerations to come. One rn'i alone, that of Lafourche, is capable of an annual yield of twenty thousand I applied " "JIAKDS IT." k Kselting oa Union Pwfe ttu Ltrmla Boomerang. Passengers on yesterday's bound express were treated to a ce uine Western scene something Ih' Uie Buffalo Bill style Fortunaffi ended without bloodshed, though ail that was wanting was the pressured a trigger by a determined man. Th circumstances are as follows' ' In tho second-class car were tares soldiers, cavalrymen and recruits en route from Fort Sidney to Fort Wash, akio, W. P. The ono in charge, named Daily, was somewhat under the in fluenco of liquor, and making so much" noise that the conductor, N. A. Heath finally told him to shut up. The fell low answered back in an impudent manner, but finally subsided. When the train reached Sherman, he lit a car. Mr. Heath informed him that ..u the presence of ladies, but Daily said he didn't care a d n whether it was or not. He was told that he must throw away his cigar or it would 1 taiien iroin mm, ana he sullenly dropped tho weed and reached for hig f! 1 . . 1 . j i ... revolver, wmcu wus m me liolstn DUiu iuuuuu ma wmsi" -and in quired whether there was ... - ' anything conductor else Heath wanted. The told him that now he now he had t.hmtm t V 1111 away the cigar he would not be mo- lestea lr no Kept quiet. The fpi m men, growing ooiaer, drew his mm and said if Heath wanted n.Tnrr.i,; vuuxt; moru lie wuuiu ui uim witu tliat" but Mr. Heath leisurely walked away! as thoucrh he had let the mntfor 1m Beaching the baggage car, he took his shot-gun, winch he always Kept on hand in case of an emersrencv. anil seeing that it was in erood order pulled the bell cord. When the train slacked up he dropped off, catching on to the rear platform. He then opened .1 1 Mil the door or the car in which the be. ligerent Daily sat, and cocking both barrels of the shotgun, walked for ward a few stens. leveled it sit tliA fellow's head and cried, "Hands up!" T ' 1 - J. , -1 1 ,1 uaiiy luiueu, ami seeing uie mourns of the aforesaid weapon staring him in the face, threw both hands up so quickly that he almost jerked his arms from the sockets. While in this posi tion he was disarmed the revolver beincr found on the seat beside him. On the arrival of the train Daily was turned over to tne ijararme city au thorities, and is now in iail. He will have a hearing to-night on the charge of an assault with intent to commit murder. Texas Cuttle-Drive of 1883. Since the annual drive of cattle from Texas assmed such grand proportions all trustworthy information has heen eagerly sought. A few years ago those who gathered this lniorrnation were content to wait until the cattle had passed Bed Eiver on their way to the North. This took place sometimes in May and sometimes later, but no ap nroximatelv accurate idea of the vol ume of the drive . could be obtained until near the end of summer. Now, however, quite accurate estimates of the number and the character of the animals which will be driven North during the year are placed before the first month of the year is half gone. In its issue for last week the Texas Ucc-Slock Journal gave the number of cattle which will come over the trail from that State as coming close to 220,000. Of this number, it thinks, not more than 120,000 will be put on tho open market; the other 100,000 will be sold for ranch purposes. On t.lipv start the prices ior which these cattle have been contracted range from 10.50 to S12.50 for yearlings, 14.50 to16.50 for 2-vtar-olds, and 18 to 19 i 3-vPsir-n Ms. Nenr v all the ieruaiw to be driven are for ranch purposes, t-Ail of n-liot ins t now are uuu nac dviu tu ttuuw nr-r o! Arvrt1 fonnTT rVlTQ I ho noiiftnnompn RflVS! Alio 4rpi, Ha. o rAA cfcrs lms been largely in excess for the supply, ana the entire crop will, in all prowuwy. be brought out by the high ftflfprpd Tho dpmnnd for voung steers fnr rflnrli nnrnoses in the State IS greater by one-half than it was Usj L n- i tlifl fact that t i ?i Tr-nrf)i as mien lCliiUC tuiuc - - money on Southwestern ranches u thev are in the North, and are re; not for sale. The tendency to BJ on to breeding stock evidences u fart Hint Knnth western rancnises prefer to breed cattle to grow beeve uiu ilia i, iv i uiCTut i -i country in tne wona trw - west Texas. Ihe sman r 3-year-old steers to be driven 4V. V,a demand for I . cuwna uiaa u ... .V I been unusually great, u , " rd. o were irm3! rerr closely for tha pt tvo je1 sister, mother, or tonfrT'.'tei msde the picture of ketA7 y bottles of Ho Bitters, -hen tvferf Aea ao e2 eata