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ARMORCLADS. 4K*—+>■*> BY MAJOR C FIELD, CLENMORE, / ENGLAND. ' LTHOUGH armorclnd ships . V mv generally considered O /1 O to date only from the iuld fk die of the last century, ac wfOIC cording to a high authority, aruior. In the general extended use of the word, has been used for the pro tection of ships for linudreds, uny thousands, of years. Not. of course, nickel-steel or even Iron armor, but a protective covering of various mate rials; for as tbe warriors of tbe past wore steel, iron, brass, leather, and even quilted cotton armor, so have «bips been protected by n variety of different substances, Tbe modern word "cuirass," which we apply solely to IkmJ.v armor as worn by the Life Guards. and which Is of French deri vation, is used nlso Hi France for tbe armor of a battleship and retuiuds one at once that armor was originally made i.f leather or "cuir. As with men so with ships. • The ships of the ancient Greeks and Ho mans were often fortified with a thick fence of hidea, which served to repel the missiles of their euemies and af ford protection to their own crews. Hides, |K>sslbly brass and Iron, and certainly thick timber, entered into tbe construction of the turrets and towers with which tbe fighting ships of ancient and medieval times were •fitted, especially when used for harbor defense, ns In the Venetian turret ship of the ninth century here Illustrated. Felt made an early appearnuce as a de fensive armor on Hhiptmurd, as we find that In a joa tight off Palermo lu 1071 between the Normans and Sara cens, tbe former bung their galleys with this material by way of n de fensive cuirass. Tbe Norman knights liad probably adopted this device from their enemies, for felt bad been used for stme time for this purpose on board the huge "dromons" of the*Saracens. These, the "battleships" of those days in the Mediterranean, usually rowed fifty oars a side, each oar being manned by two men, so that here we bave a couple of hundred seamen ac counted for at once. When tbe soldiers, sail trimmers, and artificers who worked the war engines aud siphons for Greek fire are added, It is evident that the crew must have been very large, and have required a ship of considerable dimensions. These great warships were armored with woolen cloth soaked In vinegar to render it fireproof, and hung with mantlets of red and yellow felt, to that their cui rass was not only useful, but orna mental as well. At this period, and for many hundreds of years later, addi tional protection was afforded to those on deck by the ranging of the bucklers and shields of the warriors on board along the gunwales. loiter, in the fif teenth and sixteenth centuries, special "pavesades," or bulwarks, were pro vided In lieu, composed of large ob long shields supplied for tbe purpose. In addition to felt, the tliue-lionored leather armor also entered into the de fensive panoply of the "dromons, nnd In the war 'of the Hleilinu Vespers, I'cdro III. of Aragon, who commenced to a •* • æpsi ■MSSSUilii wm MG w ' \ YU'A' v s?4,. S'v'-V 1 A* Jr * V m - M ■ f IU t ,£t V I ■» - ? m. « -• »> THE FIRST IRON CLAD, "FINIS DELL!. bis reign in 1270, covered two of the largest ships pf his fleet with leather bpfore sending it against Charles of Anjou. These, hy tbe way, were rot the first ••lentberclads. We have already seen that leather, probably in tho form of rawhidea, formed a portion of the ar mor of tbe Saracen dromons, while Conrad of Montferrat, at the siege of Tyre, In 1187, either invented or at all event* caused a special class of leath er protected vessels to be built, which were called "barbotes" or "duckbacks." ■ They would now probably be called "turtlebacks." They would appear to hare been small craft covered with a strong leather protected domed roof, through portholes or openings In which the archers nnd crossbowmen could fire without exposing themselves. They proved Terj effective against the Sar acens, nnd in 1218 the entrance of the Nile was forced by seventy of these little armorclads. But iu thé meantime tbe Saracens ; 7.VjP #1 J SM M J; : hr i .»j \ a « »! H - « - ' & < fV, I 4 • i ...f a . <r ! ' I i£Jm FULTON « "DEMOLOGOH," OF 1815. THE FIRST STEAM WAR VESSEL. hand-worked paddle wheels placed be tween tho two hulls. It is n curious but well known fact that if we go tQ tbe far East, we can Oud a parallel to almost any western seem to have "gone one better" in the evolution of armor protfctlon, for it 1« *nid that the "Great Dromon"— whoso capture by Richard Lion-Heart L sliil commemorated by tbe stars and crescent In the arms of our greatest »Aval port—was equippe^} with leaden armor. This was in 1191, and probab ly lead was occasionally used for pro tective purposes throughout the next two or three centuries, although there Is no record of any ship so protected until 1530. In this year the Knights of St. John, those fcworn opponents of the Turk, built one or perhaps two "leadclads. At any rate, one account says that they built such a ship in .this year at Mnltn, while another describes a ship of this kirnt called the Santa Anna, is no of all, ern the he best In and ing rnmmm & 1 - ■;Tf I • - -• SUàu. il I - _ », ■ t / / f ill is* A » < M SA „ , *' ii V ■ ■ V * V. ►te* "K ymt A - * •fij ■ M w k -V.V -SafA ■ i ■ mSM TIIE SPANISH FLOATING BAT TEIUES BEFORE GIBRALTAR. launched at Nice in the same year. Tbe Santa Anna's leaden armor plates were attached to her sides by bolts of brass, nnd it was claimed for her that she could "resist the artillery of a whole army," and at the same time could sail or row as fast ns any % of her un nrmored contemporaries. She was' a big ship, with six decks, a receptlou saloon, a chapel, a specially construct ed jiowder magazine, nnd a bakery. She was present at tbe taking of Tunis iu 1535, aud played an important part in its capture. Lend, it may be remarked In passing, was not infrequently used at this pe riod for sheathing ships under water, in tbe same way that copper is still found so useful. Thus, tbe Freueh ship Grande- Françoise, launched in 1527, one of the largest nnd most fa mous ships of her day, was sheathed witli lead from her keel to tbe first wale above her waterline. According to a short paragraph In Hayden's Dictionary of Dates, "chain netting of iron was suspended to the sides of men-of-war, which were also strengt belied by plates in tbe time of Henry VIII. and- Elizabeth, tbority I* quoted, nor is tbe material of tbe "plates" specified. The Spaniards attempted to protect No an •• M ,s »^ v n\ ■■ w m w.. lé s t It Jfi a ? [idkà'A «MSI V-i ' ; - J L mt J 04 ■ ■ ■ » ■ mt 1 Î : irOMB» mm W. t LJ ••ir> AN ENGLISH GALLEY OP THE TIME OF HENRY VIII. their galleons of the Invincible Arma da by building their sides four or five feet thick, but the heavy English guns lashed them through aud through." But now at last we arrive at a real ar mored ship in the present day accept ance of the word. Not only an armor clad, but a real ironclad. This was constructed in Antwerp In 1585, with a view of breaking through the lines of (lie Spanish army under Alexander of Parma, which was at that time closely investing the city. It was a large fiat-bottomed craft, with a cen tral casemate or battery built of thick balks of timber nnd plated with iron. It was intended to be. nui very likely was, impenetrable to any artillery that the Spaniards could bring against it: nnd in hopeful anticipation that their ironclad ship would raise the siege aud put an end to hostilities, the men of Antwerp christened her the Finis Belli. In addition to a heavy battery of guns, the Finis Belli carried a large body of musketeers, some of whom were stationed aloft in lier four fight ing tops, while the rest were well pro jected by the looplioled bulwark* on the upper deck. Unluckily for the be sieged Dutchmen, she ran aground i>e fore she bad effected anything at all. and fell into the Hands of the Span iard*. who uicknamed her the Caran jainula, or as we would say, "Bogey." They contrived to keep her afloat and brought her down to the camp of Alex ander of Parma, where she became a great attraction to the sightseers of the period. As for the Dutchmen in the doomed city, they henceforward only referred to their fruitless experi ment as the "Perditae Expensae," or "Wasted Money." Ten years previous to this, others of the Dutch patriots bad built a somewhat similar contriv ance, which very possibly was also ar mored. This was the "Ark of Delft." a twin vessel supporting a floating fortress, which was propelled by three • * ■ff» invention. It Is therefore not aston ishing to And that the Japanese pos sessed a paddle propelled nrmorolnd In the year 1G00. This quaint craft, like the old leatherelad "barbotes" of the twelfth century, was turtle backed, with ports for firing from. She was covered with Iron and copper plates fitted together like the cells of a honeycomb, mounted ten guns, and like the Ark of Delft, was moved by n central paddlewheel. Though there is no record of any more ironclad ships before the nineteenth century, our own navy, at any rate, used various de vices to protect its ships In the eigh teenth. According to a French writer, the sailors of his Country were aston ished at the perfection to which the English had attained in this direction. "Old cables," he writes, "held in place by pieces of iron, barricaded the whole length of the bulwarks;'mantlets of old rope hung over the ship's sides to diminish tbe shock of onr cannon balls, nnd beneath a thick rope netting, stretched from poop to bowsprit, tbe English fought under shelter, mnneu vring without censing out of musket range, so ns to riddle our detachments of fusileers with their cannon shot. So tait ■ t < I ÜB -iRTCi: LiTi ■ ■>< - TUKBET SHIP USED IN THE I)EFEN tB OF VENICE. NINTH CENT USX. we lost 200 men for er ery thirty of the English put out of action. This system of armoring was, how ever, soon adopted by the French, ns Lescallier's Termes de Marine Anglois et Fran cois," published in 1777, we find the following: "'Blinder un vaisseau,' to cover (lie ship's side with fenders of o!d cal »les to preserve her from an enemy's shot, when employed to defend a harbor, etc. • * Vocabulaire des in • • The Spaniards endeavored to im prove on this, and in 1782 hoped great things from the celebrated floating bat teries employed at the great siege of Gibraltar by the Duke de Crillon. The fate of these experimental ar morclads offered no inducement to the naval constructors of the day to make further researches In the direction of protection, so that till comparatively recent times we find our sailors de pending only on their "wooden walls" to resist the projectiles of the enemy. In the fight between the Glatton. fifty-six-gun ship, and four French fri gates, a brig, and a cutter, mounting 220 guns between them, their twelve and twenty-four jiounders failed to penetrate her sides, and she beat them all off with great loss at the cost of one officer and one man wounded. But the Americans, from the wry commencement of their exlstcuee as a nation, set themselves'to make im provements in naval warfare. David Bushnell constructed a practical sub marine boat iu 1773. Torpedoes were used by him and ojhers iu the war with this conntry, and for the purpose of towing these contrivances alongside our ships, they invented and built, in 1814, a paddle-propelled turtle-backed iioat lying low in the water and cov ered with "half-inch iron plates, not to lie injured by shot. About the same period the celebrated inventor, Robert Fulton, who had al ready constructed one or two subraar •• v. •: ■ » : « %>%££££* **** :Tâ 1 rv a "V- - > ' r 4 ■ mm A SEVENTEENTH C'ENTUKX JAPANESE AHMOHCLAD. ine boats and various classes of tor pedoes, buljt a steam frigate which be called tbe Demologos," or tbe People," hut which is sometimes known as the Fulton I. This, the first steam warship ever constructed, had her sides no less than thirteen feet thick of alternate layers of oak and ash wood, a thickness absolutely ini penetrable by any gun then afloat. In 1829 this vessel was blown up by ac cident, and was succeeded in tbe American Navy by tbe Fulton II. a ship which appears to bave been pro tected by some kind of iron armor. Various proposals were made to ust iron plating to protect the sides of ship? of war from this time forward, but until tbe French constructed a mini her of armor-plated batteries for us* in the Crimean War, nothing practical came of the suggestions of luventors Their success at the bombardment ol Kinburn demonstrated tbe value ol armor piHting. England at once fol lowed suit with other* of the samt kind, some of which are still doing duty as hulks. Thren came the French La Gloire, the British Warrior, tht ironclads, and monitors of the Arneri cau war, and henceforward the steady evolution of the armored fighting ship, which has provided us with the ma Jectic battleship* of the present day.— Scientific Amerieau. Voice of Some Essentials For Success in Business. Bar J, H. Hapgood. MMUOnUi are Mftail valuable hints to bo gained by studying the ca reers of men who have succeeded. Although the paths by wb c these men have won success are widely different, there are cer tain features which stand out prominently in all of them. Some of the essentials for business success «re promptness, courtesy, loyalty and hard work. Promptness Is the * e y. not ® tnis age of hustle. Opportunity waits for nobody, and toe man who is always behind is playing a losing game. Business hours should DO nit * ly observed. Five or ten minutes in the morning, trivial as it may be usei , is a pretty sure Indication of the degree of promptness you will show m mor important matters. * "I know of no Investment more certain to pay large dividends than cour tesy," raid a successful business man. In the nerve-racking, endless rush or affairs there Is nothing which leaves a stronger impression than a pleasant word or a kind act, especially if it be something most men overlook. Business courtesy is largely a matter of habit and 1» one of the habits we can afford '° cultivate. In the army and navy loyalty is an essential for success, and it is no less so In the business world. Enthusiasm and loyalty go hand in hand; a man cannot succeed unless he has an employer to whom he is loyal. The man of the hour is the faithful man, the man who makes his employer's interests his 3wn and whose loyalty never wavers. . Associated more or less with all these requisites, and overshadowing them all, Is hard work. "For this," said President James J. Hill, of the <îreat North ern Railroad Co., "there is no substitute." You may be lacking in ability, in personality or some other way and still succeed; but if you have not the ca pacity for hard work you will see In ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, their achievements are due to the possession of this capacity. William E. Corey, the new president of the United States Steel Corporation, attributes his first success to "not being afraid to do $2 worth of work for $1:" When a laborer he wheeled so much more iron than the other workmen that he was soon made toreman over them. There is one thing which may cause failure even after you have done your best along the lines suggested by the experience of others, and this is staying In a position which you have outgrown and which offers no chance for ad vancement. Hundreds of men are making this mistake by becoming fossilized and letting their ability and experience go to waste when they might be earn ing large salarias. Certainly there is no excuse for this. While giving your riraployer the beat of promptness, courtesy, loyalty and hard work, you should <n justice to yourseelf keep constantly on the lookout for better opportunities, its It Is by following up such principles that your employers owe their success in the business world.—Salesmanship. T 'sw«?» » Popular Errors About Waterloo. ßy Henry Foljambe Hull. f IUEE of the commonest delusions about Waterloo are— 1. That Napoeion had the finest army he oyer commanded. The men mistrusted their officers, the Nothing is more false, officers mistrusted the future. Every department was hopelessly short of capable leaders; and as for the Marshals whom he had relied on for his former triumph*, ha now lacked Massena, Lan As for Pi nes, Davoust, Marmont, Murat, Berthier, 4o take but six. the Old Guard of Austerlitz. Jena and Wagram it had died in Russia, and es pecially at Vilna. while those of his men who,were not "Marie Louises" had either been cowed in Prussian fortresses or Russian prisons or broken at \ it toria or after Leipsic. His cavalry were undisciplined and badly led, their horses untrained and half starved. 2. That Wellington, as he declared, had an "infamous army." the worst he ever commanded. It is true that the Americans can iay unction to their souls from the fact that the best regiments we had at Waterloo were those they had Just so severely repulsed at New Orleans. Henceforth theirpride in Water loo is that "des vainqueurs des vainqueures du monde." Yet men of the Rifle Brigade, of the King's Own and of the Forty-fourth Regiment were not troops that even Wellington could juBtly decry. It is true that of his 68,000 troops only 24.000 were English, but the German Legion, the Hanoverians and the Brunswickerg were as good. 3. That (as Sir William Fraser considered) Wellington, unassured of Bluecher's aid, would have declined the battle. Whether Wellington could have declined battle without losing Brussels or the campaign is a problem for experts, but he had certainly no right to count on Bluecher for the 18th. Well ington had half promised to help Bluecher at Ligny, but found himself unable to do so, though pinned by an inferior general and a smaller army -than his own. After Ligny Wellington might hope for a juncture with Bluecher. but he could not reasonably expect sufficient of the Prussian Army to extricate him. Bluecher himself was likely enough to turn up—in fact, Napoleon told Oourgaud that this cerveau brûle would have rushed to Wellington, if only with two battalions. Advice to Salesmen. By Maraliall Field. LL FIXTURES and property of the house should be treated with the greatest care; the first scratch paves the way for carelessness. Each day should find us doing things better than previously. Ac quire the habit of promptness in every matter, large or small, A > ■ "j Wh ''Know the^ta" r <5T«ood personal appearance; do not think that any detail of your attire will eacape notice. Spend wisely your spare time; count every hour golden, every moment opportunity; don't waste a minute at any time. I Avoid being influenced for the wrong by other persons; have a purpose otD your own; weigh counsel, but act from your own best thought. Cultivate a happy expression and a happy manner; feel it; mean it; the advantage is wonderful in every way. Learn to ask questions as will draw out the most profitable information. Let every effort be toward the idea of permanence: do things to last; make the casual customer a permanent one through satisfaction. Salesmanship may be made a profession, and receive the same degree of respeçt accorded to an artist of any class. Be emphatically unwilling to ask or receive favors from any person who expects a return in business favors. Make friends of visitors to the store, and do not hesitate to politely call them by name if you know it The great majority of errors are made through carelessness. L^arn to care; be exact; strive to have It absolutely right—making a mistake in business is like falling down in a foot race; it is a setback. Cultivate a good, clear, legible handwriting; many people judge quickly on this point; a good band is always appreciated. However attached to your business, do not allow* the commercial sense to deaden, but rmher to quicken, the moral, artistic and all wholesome sentiments. In giving orders give reasons, thus teaching subordinates to think for tbem an selves. Learn to show a thorough interest in a customer or any person approach ing you: try to look at the matter from his standpoint as well as your own. Make memoranda of little points while you think them; run over the various subdivisions of your work to recall any points you may have forgotten. Responsibility of the Press. BySamuel Bowles. HE responsibility of the press, or of the conductors of the press, for civic spirit is not different in kind from the responsibility of every individual in the community for civic spirit, although as different in degree as their opportunities for influence are greater T than those of most men. The perpetuation of democracy in its essential character is at stake today as never before in the history of the American peo ple. 'ihe danger is, if the drift Is not checked, that while the forms of democ lacy are continued, the people will lose control of their affairs and plutocracy will wield the real power. The new and tremendous problem of democracy is how to control wealth and provide for its just distribution. The new demo cracy will be based on a combination of altruism and enlightened selfishness, and service, cooperation, mutual aid will be its watchwords. The civic spirit means not only good government, but richer, happier, worthier living; that self-interest and the love for children and their welfare demand that we should cultivate it more and more, and that it is a matter of individual responsibility in our daily actions. , Agitation and education are the two agencies by which the civic spirit is to be cultivated, strengthened and maintained. The schools and public libraries to perform this service more and more for fitting our youths for citizen ship, but upon the public periodical press, falls especially the responsibility to keep alive this spirit. It affords the natural, convenient and effective means to carry on the incessant agitation of public affairs essential to successful self! government. There I* a notion somewhat prévalent in these days that tho has lost its power over the public mind. I believe this is a mistake, and are press -, - • , - that on the contrary, it is to-day a greater power for good or ill among the people than ever before in the history of the world. It is true that the im portance of the editorial page has relatively declined, not necessarily be cause the editorials are weaker than in the old days of personal journalism, because the new 3 department has undergone so wonderful a development. the men who do the effective work," said an observant "The reporter* are^Ht ■ m „«■ sbu , ., friend of mine, and I acknowledge that there is not a little truth in his saying. Be instructive to consider what the public have a right to expect of First, that the press shall be conducted honestly. To my It may the newspapers. mind honesty for a newspaper editor means absolute independence, and free dom to do through his publication what he believes to be for the best interest of the public. The community has also a right to demand that the newspaper Fhall be so Conducted that at least no immoral or degrading influence shall flow from its pages. is placed a small ring, not much larger than a wedding ring, and then, without the slightest prompting, the The latest craze in London society is to make a pet of the small green French frog, numbers or which are being sent over from Paris for frog frogs commence to Jump through the parties. The frogs, after their educa- [ rings, and continue their perform has been perfected, are placed i ance as long as there remains a ring table, and in front of each frog ] to Jump through. ' tion on a 1 y 5Ä i a *5v' 4, : , 1 :c ') /C. * r * » jtf'i f o /■j • S Q r*->T é 'J*' Ô 0 J St • , v SQUIRRELS IN CENTRAL PARK. Winter is a hard time for all the tittle squirrels, especially for those that live in yards or in public parks, because they have been made tender md in a degree helpless by their man ner of life and by the scarcity of auts, which their wild cousins have in adundance. In Central Park, In New York city, there are a great many equlrrels and they are on such friendly terms with the men and women and boys and girls who pass through the park that they run right up to thorn and ask them in squirrel language, "Have you 4 ny nuts for me?" A great many times the squirrel gets a nut for the asking. Then he runs away with it, sits on his haunch !8, flourishes his tail and eat3 the nut in plain sight. Or, if he is not hun rry just then, he takes it to his home in a tree and stores it away for future use. The squirrels get to know their friends who go through the park of ten and who are likely to have nuts to give away, and they lie in wait for them. One day a man who nearly always has something for his rquirrel friends forgot the nuts. No sooner was he in the park than a squirrel who many a time had hai peanuts, hickory nuts and English walnuts from him came running after him and ran up his trousers' leg and oiMo the lape of his coat. "I fm sorry," have no nuts 'today. The squirrel would not believe him said the man, "but I > • and kept on begging. Finally, when he saw that there were really to be no nuts for him, he became so angry that he took the cigar which the gentleman had in his mouth and ran away with it, tearing it to bits. In the winter there are not so many people who vielt the park and many of those who do go do not bother to feed the little squirrels, go the little animals get fewer nuts in that way. And there are not many nut trees in the park, so that even if the squirrels were as provident as their wild broth ers they could not lay in sufficient for the winter. To keep them from starv ing the *persons who have the care of the park go about In snowy weather with a bag of nuts and scatter them Recently, in a heavy snow, the keep* ers distributed two big bags of peanuts among the squirrels. One little chap greedy that he kept running after the men when all the nuts had been given out. and finally hid himself in a pocket of one of the men's coat, He was not discovered until after they had left the park, and then the man j had to take him back and put him around for the little long tailed crea tures. was so »'here he belonged. ! I" Central Park there Is a very good shepherd dog that w'atchcs a flock of I sheep that grazes there. a g 0 he came upon a poor little squir re i one evening that had fallen out Not long The dog very sorry and barked loudly for ; of a tree and hurt itself. was help, but it was so cold and stormy j that no one came to see what was ; the matter. The dog knew that if -the poor little squirrel had to spend the night outside its own home it would freeze to death unless he took care He lay down beside it, there of It. fore, and 4he little squirrel snuggled up into the nice, long, warm hair of the shepherd dog, and so they spent the night together. The next morning a man found them and took care of the little squirrel. He also gave the dog a pat and called him "Good fel low" and saw that he had a warm breakfast.—Felicia Ruffner, in Birm ingham (Ala.) Age-Herald. No one was more'«hocked at John Tasihirasan than 0 Tara, the little JAPAN'S TEARLESS CHILDREN. For God's sake, rtop that crying!" To hear this good missionary Eng lish in a nest of Japanese houses—and Japanese houses are so thin that everything that the neighbors say is easily heard—was startling. In four months we had never H ard any scolding or seen a child punished. This unusual event proved to be in one of those international households not uncommon in the East. It was the Anglo-Saxon haif of the child that roared and tyrannized over its sub missive Japanese mother. His English father had bought him a bright blue ulrter with brass buttons. In this he strutted up and down Ne gisha Mura, boesing all the children of the quarter. A plainer instance of heredity and racial traits is rarely seen. niece of our maid, O Yen. "The Hon.j Mis* Dollar." Even when O Tara had the toothache sie smiled through her pain. "Bad boy," said O Tara. "His nide ness-to-honorable foreign-lady-is. Evil matter-to-respected-ear8-of the • august ly-honorabie-one-iS;" with great digni ty, and bowing her little head to the floor. Even Japanese babies are popularly supposed to never cry. This comes pretty near the truta, for the land and all there is in it seem to be theirs. I In any country where Shintoism or ancestral worship prevails the chil dren are bound to hare a good time, A son is necessary to carry on the i worship of his parents, and to keep Japanese girls are by no means so I highly valued, but, as cau be seen, j they werk into the general scheme. } Children being a religious necessity, 1 their place is fixed. Supplementing this la the natural joy of parents In the ancestral fires lit. their own progeny and the sense of possession. When a Japanese child is born, everybody brings It gifts. Fish and eggs are the proper presents, partic ularly eggs, on which the family prob ably subsists until satiety seU in. On the taird day it is named and goes to the temple to be blessed by iLe priest. Girls are generally named after some flower or fruit, as "Ume, plum blossom, or "Klku," chrysanthe mum, taro." "Saburo, j | j )OJ * ! A ^by wears la > er8 of lI,<>3e ,on « j eaE y sl, l* we know - as k,monos > which cover its feet and its hands. Conse »» Boys are nicknamed, as "El glorious big one;" or perhaps meaning No. 3, the third j SUGAR, Few persons, probably, are aware ; sugar was unknown to the an f ien, s. Neither («reek nor Latin has . a lue word saccharon, ffom wh,ch our "saccharine" is de rlvcJ ' 'Rifled a sweet juice crushed !ro:n bamboo, * :i, ' m :1 Ent * women who need u e 1 hut sparingly even by the ' to-do. Today it is one of the great quently, it has no cause for crying when it is dressed. Even the poorest baby has its daily ; hot hath. Hot in Japan means 110 degrees Fahrenheit, a temperature that gives even a grown person lively recollections. not yet acknowledge that they are can remember when sugar was a raie luxury in a working man's family, foßd staples of the world, produced in Quantities beyond the power of the untrained mind to comprehend, and Gl-^tri hut : «1 to every part of tbe globe. j According to the latest estimate, the production of the world this year will bo nearly ten and one-half mil lion tons. Those families who buy it ; I ! v ! pound may like to kSOW that ! Ms quantity represents more than 1 twenty-three j enough to give every inhabitant of the : globe fifteen and a half pounds. The place of production and the billion pou mis — or natural source are matters of especial interest to Americans, for in a sense they furnish tae reason for the extra i ordinary session of Congress. Most persons know that the sugar cane and the sugar beet are the two groat natural sources, but' many, in country at least, do not know that beet and not the cane which j furnishes the larger part of the world's su PPly* This year's estimate of the baet su ß ar c «'op of Europe alono is a little more than five and three-quarter million tons. That is more than the j fane sugar product of the whole world, In the United States and the coun ! tries Iron, which we draw a large part of onr aupply-Cuta. Porto Rico. Java. Hawaii and t/m I lubppines it is the Tb e beet sugar industry has not yet become well established here. The < an e aBf i not the beet Avhich produces. entire product of beet sugar in tbe ; United States has never reached two j hundred thousand tons in a year, nor ; has the increase in it kept pace with the annual Increase in the consump tion of sugar. The national pride is often stirred hy references to the independence of this country in food supplies and our ability to feed the nations of the Old World on our surplus. Wheat, corn, meats and many other farm products we do produce in amendante. For our sugar we are more dependent upon the outside world than is Great Brit ain for its bread.—Youth's Companion. . SIMPLE WAY TO MEASURE. To measure the width of any ordi nary stream, or even of » good sized river, it is necessary to make use of only your eyes and the brim of your hat. Thai seems queer, doesn't it? But it's true, and here is the way to do it. Select a part of the river bank where the ground runs back level, and, standing at the water's edge, fix your eyes on the opposite bank. Now, move your hat down over your brow until <h3 edge of tho brim is exactly on a line with the water line on the ether side. This will give you a visual angle that may be used on any level sur face and if, as has been suggested, the ground on yoaf side of the river is flat, you may "lay off" a corresponding distance on it. To do this you have only to hold your head perfectly steady and, after getting the angle with your hat brim, supporting your chin with your hand, if necessary turn slowly around until your back is toward the river. Now, take careful note of where your hat brim c"ta the level surface of the fc rcun dasyou look out over the have short tails, and if a cat does come into the world with a lengthy caudal append ago it is usually chop ped off for tho Japs detect a likeness i to snakes in the long tail and cannot endure It. The Japanese cat ha.-; the usual number of bones in its tail, but I they an* not developed, j } 1 eight o'clock. J-atter, and from where you stand to that point will be the width- of the river, a distance that may readily be measured by stepping. If you are care ful in ail these details ycu can come within a fow feét of the river's width. —Indianapolis News. Cata In Japan. Cats in Japan almost universally President Loabct, of France attrlb utes his good health to taking Jong walks ©very morning batwton six and 9 « "