BY MAJOR C FIELD, CLENMORE,
' LTHOUGH armorclnd ships
. V mv generally considered
O /1 O to date only from the iuld
fk die of the last century, ac
wfOIC cording to a high authority,
aruior. In the general extended use of
the word, has been used for the pro
tection of ships for linudreds, uny
thousands, of years. Not. of course,
nickel-steel or even Iron armor, but a
protective covering of various mate
rials; for as tbe warriors of tbe past
wore steel, iron, brass, leather, and
even quilted cotton armor, so have
«bips been protected by n variety of
different substances, Tbe modern
word "cuirass," which we apply solely
to IkmJ.v armor as worn by the Life
Guards. and which Is of French deri
vation, is used nlso Hi France for tbe
armor of a battleship and retuiuds one
at once that armor was originally made
i.f leather or "cuir.
As with men so with ships. • The
ships of the ancient Greeks and Ho
mans were often fortified with a thick
fence of hidea, which served to repel
the missiles of their euemies and af
ford protection to their own crews.
Hides, |K>sslbly brass and Iron, and
certainly thick timber, entered into
tbe construction of the turrets and
towers with which tbe fighting ships
of ancient and medieval times were
•fitted, especially when used for harbor
defense, ns In the Venetian turret ship
of the ninth century here Illustrated.
Felt made an early appearnuce as a de
fensive armor on Hhiptmurd, as we
find that In a joa tight off Palermo lu
1071 between the Normans and Sara
cens, tbe former bung their galleys
with this material by way of n de
fensive cuirass. Tbe Norman knights
liad probably adopted this device from
their enemies, for felt bad been used
for stme time for this purpose on board
the huge "dromons" of the*Saracens.
These, the "battleships" of those days
in the Mediterranean, usually rowed
fifty oars a side, each oar being
manned by two men, so that here we
bave a couple of hundred seamen ac
counted for at once. When tbe soldiers,
sail trimmers, and artificers who
worked the war engines aud siphons
for Greek fire are added, It is evident
that the crew must have been very
large, and have required a ship of
considerable dimensions. These great
warships were armored with woolen
cloth soaked In vinegar to render it
fireproof, and hung with mantlets of
red and yellow felt, to that their cui
rass was not only useful, but orna
mental as well. At this period, and for
many hundreds of years later, addi
tional protection was afforded to those
on deck by the ranging of the bucklers
and shields of the warriors on board
along the gunwales. loiter, in the fif
teenth and sixteenth centuries, special
"pavesades," or bulwarks, were pro
vided In lieu, composed of large ob
long shields supplied for tbe purpose.
In addition to felt, the tliue-lionored
leather armor also entered into the de
fensive panoply of the "dromons,
nnd In the war 'of the Hleilinu Vespers,
I'cdro III. of Aragon, who commenced
A* Jr * V
t ,£t V
THE FIRST IRON CLAD, "FINIS DELL!.
bis reign in 1270, covered two of the
largest ships pf his fleet with leather
bpfore sending it against Charles of
These, hy tbe way, were rot the first
We have already seen
that leather, probably in tho form of
rawhidea, formed a portion of the ar
mor of tbe Saracen dromons, while
Conrad of Montferrat, at the siege of
Tyre, In 1187, either invented or at all
event* caused a special class of leath
er protected vessels to be built, which
were called "barbotes" or "duckbacks."
They would now probably be called
"turtlebacks." They would appear to
hare been small craft covered with a
strong leather protected domed roof,
through portholes or openings In which
the archers nnd crossbowmen could
fire without exposing themselves. They
proved Terj effective against the Sar
acens, nnd in 1218 the entrance of the
Nile was forced by seventy of these
But iu thé meantime tbe Saracens
4 • i
<r ! '
FULTON « "DEMOLOGOH," OF 1815. THE FIRST STEAM WAR VESSEL.
hand-worked paddle wheels placed be
tween tho two hulls.
It is n curious but well known fact
that if we go tQ tbe far East, we can
Oud a parallel to almost any western
seem to have "gone one better" in the
evolution of armor protfctlon, for it
1« *nid that the "Great Dromon"—
whoso capture by Richard Lion-Heart
L sliil commemorated by tbe stars and
crescent In the arms of our greatest
»Aval port—was equippe^} with leaden
armor. This was in 1191, and probab
ly lead was occasionally used for pro
tective purposes throughout the next
two or three centuries, although there
Is no record of any ship so protected
In this year the Knights of St. John,
those fcworn opponents of the Turk,
built one or perhaps two "leadclads.
At any rate, one account says that they
built such a ship in .this year at Mnltn,
while another describes a ship of this
kirnt called the
SA „ ,
k -V.V -SafA
TIIE SPANISH FLOATING BAT TEIUES BEFORE GIBRALTAR.
launched at Nice in the same year. Tbe
Santa Anna's leaden armor plates were
attached to her sides by bolts of brass,
nnd it was claimed for her that she
could "resist the artillery of a whole
army," and at the same time could
sail or row as fast ns any % of her un
nrmored contemporaries. She was' a
big ship, with six decks, a receptlou
saloon, a chapel, a specially construct
ed jiowder magazine, nnd a bakery.
She was present at tbe taking of Tunis
iu 1535, aud played an important part
in its capture.
Lend, it may be remarked In passing,
was not infrequently used at this pe
riod for sheathing ships under water,
in tbe same way that copper is still
found so useful. Thus, tbe Freueh
ship Grande- Françoise, launched in
1527, one of the largest nnd most fa
mous ships of her day, was sheathed
witli lead from her keel to tbe first
wale above her waterline.
According to a short paragraph In
Hayden's Dictionary of Dates, "chain
netting of iron was suspended to the
sides of men-of-war, which were also
strengt belied by plates in tbe time of
Henry VIII. and- Elizabeth,
tbority I* quoted, nor is tbe material
of tbe "plates" specified.
The Spaniards attempted to protect
AN ENGLISH GALLEY OP THE TIME OF
their galleons of the Invincible Arma
da by building their sides four or five
feet thick, but the heavy English guns
lashed them through aud through."
But now at last we arrive at a real ar
mored ship in the present day accept
ance of the word. Not only an armor
clad, but a real ironclad. This was
constructed in Antwerp In 1585, with
a view of breaking through the lines
of (lie Spanish army under Alexander
of Parma, which was at that time
closely investing the city. It was a
large fiat-bottomed craft, with a cen
tral casemate or battery built of thick
balks of timber nnd plated with iron.
It was intended to be. nui very likely
was, impenetrable to any artillery that
the Spaniards could bring against it:
nnd in hopeful anticipation that their
ironclad ship would raise the siege
aud put an end to hostilities, the men
of Antwerp christened her the Finis
Belli. In addition to a heavy battery
of guns, the Finis Belli carried a large
body of musketeers, some of whom
were stationed aloft in lier four fight
ing tops, while the rest were well pro
jected by the looplioled bulwark* on
the upper deck. Unluckily for the be
sieged Dutchmen, she ran aground i>e
fore she bad effected anything at all.
and fell into the Hands of the Span
iard*. who uicknamed her the Caran
jainula, or as we would say, "Bogey."
They contrived to keep her afloat and
brought her down to the camp of Alex
ander of Parma, where she became a
great attraction to the sightseers of
the period. As for the Dutchmen in
the doomed city, they henceforward
only referred to their fruitless experi
ment as the "Perditae Expensae," or
"Wasted Money." Ten years previous
to this, others of the Dutch patriots
bad built a somewhat similar contriv
ance, which very possibly was also ar
mored. This was the "Ark of Delft."
a twin vessel supporting a floating
fortress, which was propelled by three
invention. It Is therefore not aston
ishing to And that the Japanese pos
sessed a paddle propelled nrmorolnd
In the year 1G00. This quaint craft,
like the old leatherelad "barbotes" of
the twelfth century, was turtle
backed, with ports for firing from. She
was covered with Iron and copper
plates fitted together like the cells of
a honeycomb, mounted ten guns, and
like the Ark of Delft, was moved by
n central paddlewheel. Though there
is no record of any more ironclad ships
before the nineteenth century, our own
navy, at any rate, used various de
vices to protect its ships In the eigh
teenth. According to a French writer,
the sailors of his Country were aston
ished at the perfection to which the
English had attained in this direction.
"Old cables," he writes, "held in place
by pieces of iron, barricaded the whole
length of the bulwarks;'mantlets of
old rope hung over the ship's sides to
diminish tbe shock of onr cannon balls,
nnd beneath a thick rope netting,
stretched from poop to bowsprit, tbe
English fought under shelter, mnneu
vring without censing out of musket
range, so ns to riddle our detachments
of fusileers with their cannon shot. So
TUKBET SHIP USED IN THE I)EFEN tB
OF VENICE. NINTH CENT USX.
we lost 200 men for er ery thirty of the
English put out of action.
This system of armoring was, how
ever, soon adopted by the French, ns
Termes de Marine Anglois et Fran
cois," published in 1777, we find the
"'Blinder un vaisseau,' to cover (lie
ship's side with fenders of o!d cal »les
to preserve her from an enemy's shot,
when employed to defend a harbor,
The Spaniards endeavored to im
prove on this, and in 1782 hoped great
things from the celebrated floating bat
teries employed at the great siege of
Gibraltar by the Duke de Crillon.
The fate of these experimental ar
morclads offered no inducement to the
naval constructors of the day to make
further researches In the direction of
protection, so that till comparatively
recent times we find our sailors de
pending only on their "wooden walls"
to resist the projectiles of the enemy.
In the fight between the Glatton.
fifty-six-gun ship, and four French fri
gates, a brig, and a cutter, mounting
220 guns between them, their twelve
and twenty-four jiounders failed to
penetrate her sides, and she beat them
all off with great loss at the cost of
one officer and one man wounded.
But the Americans, from the wry
commencement of their exlstcuee as
a nation, set themselves'to make im
provements in naval warfare. David
Bushnell constructed a practical sub
marine boat iu 1773. Torpedoes were
used by him and ojhers iu the war
with this conntry, and for the purpose
of towing these contrivances alongside
our ships, they invented and built, in
1814, a paddle-propelled turtle-backed
iioat lying low in the water and cov
ered with "half-inch iron plates, not
to lie injured by shot.
About the same period the celebrated
inventor, Robert Fulton, who had al
ready constructed one or two subraar
> ' r
A SEVENTEENTH C'ENTUKX JAPANESE
ine boats and various classes of tor
pedoes, buljt a steam frigate which be
called tbe Demologos," or
tbe People," hut which is sometimes
known as the Fulton I. This, the first
steam warship ever constructed, had
her sides no less than thirteen feet
thick of alternate layers of oak and
ash wood, a thickness absolutely ini
penetrable by any gun then afloat. In
1829 this vessel was blown up by ac
cident, and was succeeded in tbe
American Navy by tbe Fulton II. a
ship which appears to bave been pro
tected by some kind of iron armor.
Various proposals were made to ust
iron plating to protect the sides of ship?
of war from this time forward, but
until tbe French constructed a mini
her of armor-plated batteries for us*
in the Crimean War, nothing practical
came of the suggestions of luventors
Their success at the bombardment ol
Kinburn demonstrated tbe value ol
armor piHting. England at once fol
lowed suit with other* of the samt
kind, some of which are still doing
duty as hulks. Thren came the French
La Gloire, the British Warrior, tht
ironclads, and monitors of the Arneri
cau war, and henceforward the steady
evolution of the armored fighting ship,
which has provided us with the ma
Jectic battleship* of the present day.—
Some Essentials For
Success in Business.
Bar J, H. Hapgood.
MMUOnUi are Mftail valuable hints to bo gained by studying the ca
reers of men who have succeeded. Although the paths by wb c
these men have won success are widely different, there are cer
tain features which stand out prominently in all of them.
Some of the essentials for business success «re promptness,
courtesy, loyalty and hard work. Promptness Is the * e y. not ®
tnis age of hustle. Opportunity waits for nobody, and toe man
who is always behind is playing a losing game. Business hours should DO nit *
ly observed. Five or ten minutes in the morning, trivial as it may be usei ,
is a pretty sure Indication of the degree of promptness you will show m mor
important matters. *
"I know of no Investment more certain to pay large dividends than cour
tesy," raid a successful business man. In the nerve-racking, endless rush or
affairs there Is nothing which leaves a stronger impression than a pleasant
word or a kind act, especially if it be something most men overlook. Business
courtesy is largely a matter of habit and 1» one of the habits we can afford '°
cultivate. In the army and navy loyalty is an essential for success, and it is
no less so In the business world. Enthusiasm and loyalty go hand in hand; a
man cannot succeed unless he has an employer to whom he is loyal. The man
of the hour is the faithful man, the man who makes his employer's interests his
3wn and whose loyalty never wavers. .
Associated more or less with all these requisites, and overshadowing them
all, Is hard work. "For this," said President James J. Hill, of the <îreat North
ern Railroad Co., "there is no substitute." You may be lacking in ability, in
personality or some other way and still succeed; but if you have not the ca
pacity for hard work you will see In ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, their
achievements are due to the possession of this capacity. William E. Corey,
the new president of the United States Steel Corporation, attributes his first
success to "not being afraid to do $2 worth of work for $1:" When a laborer
he wheeled so much more iron than the other workmen that he was soon made
toreman over them.
There is one thing which may cause failure even after you have done your
best along the lines suggested by the experience of others, and this is staying
In a position which you have outgrown and which offers no chance for ad
vancement. Hundreds of men are making this mistake by becoming fossilized
and letting their ability and experience go to waste when they might be earn
ing large salarias. Certainly there is no excuse for this. While giving your
riraployer the beat of promptness, courtesy, loyalty and hard work, you should
<n justice to yourseelf keep constantly on the lookout for better opportunities,
its It Is by following up such principles that your employers owe their success
in the business world.—Salesmanship.
ßy Henry Foljambe Hull.
f IUEE of the commonest delusions about Waterloo are—
1. That Napoeion had the finest army he oyer commanded.
The men mistrusted their officers, the
Nothing is more false,
officers mistrusted the future. Every department was hopelessly
short of capable leaders; and as for the Marshals whom he had
relied on for his former triumph*, ha now lacked Massena, Lan
nes, Davoust, Marmont, Murat, Berthier, 4o take but six.
the Old Guard of Austerlitz. Jena and Wagram it had died in Russia, and es
pecially at Vilna. while those of his men who,were not "Marie Louises" had
either been cowed in Prussian fortresses or Russian prisons or broken at \ it
toria or after Leipsic. His cavalry were undisciplined and badly led, their
horses untrained and half starved.
2. That Wellington, as he declared, had an "infamous army." the worst
he ever commanded. It is true that the Americans can iay unction to their
souls from the fact that the best regiments we had at Waterloo were those they
had Just so severely repulsed at New Orleans. Henceforth theirpride in Water
loo is that "des vainqueurs des vainqueures du monde." Yet men of the Rifle
Brigade, of the King's Own and of the Forty-fourth Regiment were not troops
that even Wellington could juBtly decry. It is true that of his 68,000 troops
only 24.000 were English, but the German Legion, the Hanoverians and the
Brunswickerg were as good.
3. That (as Sir William Fraser considered) Wellington, unassured of
Bluecher's aid, would have declined the battle. Whether Wellington could
have declined battle without losing Brussels or the campaign is a problem for
experts, but he had certainly no right to count on Bluecher for the 18th. Well
ington had half promised to help Bluecher at Ligny, but found himself unable
to do so, though pinned by an inferior general and a smaller army -than his own.
After Ligny Wellington might hope for a juncture with Bluecher. but he could
not reasonably expect sufficient of the Prussian Army to extricate him. Bluecher
himself was likely enough to turn up—in fact, Napoleon told Oourgaud that
this cerveau brûle would have rushed to Wellington, if only with two battalions.
Advice to Salesmen.
By Maraliall Field.
LL FIXTURES and property of the house should be treated with
the greatest care; the first scratch paves the way for carelessness.
Each day should find us doing things better than previously. Ac
quire the habit of promptness in every matter, large or small,
> ■ "j
Wh ''Know the^ta" r <5T«ood personal appearance; do not think
that any detail of your attire will eacape notice.
Spend wisely your spare time; count every hour golden, every moment
opportunity; don't waste a minute at any time. I
Avoid being influenced for the wrong by other persons; have a purpose otD
your own; weigh counsel, but act from your own best thought.
Cultivate a happy expression and a happy manner; feel it; mean it; the
advantage is wonderful in every way.
Learn to ask questions as will draw out the most profitable information.
Let every effort be toward the idea of permanence: do things to last;
make the casual customer a permanent one through satisfaction.
Salesmanship may be made a profession, and receive the same degree of
respeçt accorded to an artist of any class. Be emphatically unwilling to ask or
receive favors from any person who expects a return in business favors.
Make friends of visitors to the store, and do not hesitate to politely call
them by name if you know it
The great majority of errors are made through carelessness. L^arn to
care; be exact; strive to have It absolutely right—making a mistake in business
is like falling down in a foot race; it is a setback.
Cultivate a good, clear, legible handwriting; many people judge quickly
on this point; a good band is always appreciated.
However attached to your business, do not allow* the commercial sense to
deaden, but rmher to quicken, the moral, artistic and all wholesome sentiments.
In giving orders give reasons, thus teaching subordinates to think for tbem
Learn to show a thorough interest in a customer or any person approach
ing you: try to look at the matter from his standpoint as well as your own.
Make memoranda of little points while you think them; run over the
various subdivisions of your work to recall any points you may have forgotten.
Responsibility of the Press.
HE responsibility of the press, or of the conductors of the press,
for civic spirit is not different in kind from the responsibility of
every individual in the community for civic spirit, although as
different in degree as their opportunities for influence are greater
than those of most men.
The perpetuation of democracy in its essential character is at
stake today as never before in the history of the American peo
ple. 'ihe danger is, if the drift Is not checked, that while the forms of democ
lacy are continued, the people will lose control of their affairs and plutocracy
will wield the real power. The new and tremendous problem of democracy is
how to control wealth and provide for its just distribution. The new demo
cracy will be based on a combination of altruism and enlightened selfishness,
and service, cooperation, mutual aid will be its watchwords. The civic spirit
means not only good government, but richer, happier, worthier living; that
self-interest and the love for children and their welfare demand that we should
cultivate it more and more, and that it is a matter of individual responsibility
in our daily actions. ,
Agitation and education are the two agencies by which the civic spirit is to
be cultivated, strengthened and maintained. The schools and public libraries
to perform this service more and more for fitting our youths for citizen
ship, but upon the public periodical press, falls especially the responsibility to
keep alive this spirit. It affords the natural, convenient and effective means
to carry on the incessant agitation of public affairs essential to successful self!
government. There I* a notion somewhat prévalent in these days that tho
has lost its power over the public mind. I believe this is a mistake, and
press -, - • , -
that on the contrary, it is to-day a greater power for good or ill among the
people than ever before in the history of the world. It is true that the im
portance of the editorial page has relatively declined, not necessarily be
cause the editorials are weaker than in the old days of personal journalism,
because the new 3 department has undergone so wonderful a development.
the men who do the effective work," said an observant
"The reporter* are^Ht ■ m „«■ sbu , .,
friend of mine, and I acknowledge that there is not a little truth in his saying.
Be instructive to consider what the public have a right to expect of
First, that the press shall be conducted honestly. To my
mind honesty for a newspaper editor means absolute independence, and free
dom to do through his publication what he believes to be for the best interest
of the public. The community has also a right to demand that the newspaper
Fhall be so Conducted that at least no immoral or degrading influence shall
flow from its pages.
is placed a small ring, not much
larger than a wedding ring, and then,
without the slightest prompting, the
The latest craze in London society
is to make a pet of the small green
French frog, numbers or which are
being sent over from Paris for frog frogs commence to Jump through the
parties. The frogs, after their educa- [ rings, and continue their perform
has been perfected, are placed i ance as long as there remains a ring
table, and in front of each frog ] to Jump through. '
: , 1
SQUIRRELS IN CENTRAL PARK.
Winter is a hard time for all the
tittle squirrels, especially for those
that live in yards or in public parks,
because they have been made tender
md in a degree helpless by their man
ner of life and by the scarcity of
auts, which their wild cousins have
In Central Park, In New York city,
there are a great many equlrrels and
they are on such friendly terms with
the men and women and boys and
girls who pass through the park that
they run right up to thorn and ask
them in squirrel language, "Have you
4 ny nuts for me?"
A great many times the squirrel
gets a nut for the asking. Then he
runs away with it, sits on his haunch
!8, flourishes his tail and eat3 the nut
in plain sight. Or, if he is not hun
rry just then, he takes it to his home
in a tree and stores it away for future
use. The squirrels get to know their
friends who go through the park of
ten and who are likely to have nuts
to give away, and they lie in wait for
them. One day a man who nearly
always has something for his rquirrel
friends forgot the nuts. No sooner
was he in the park than a squirrel
who many a time had hai peanuts,
hickory nuts and English walnuts
from him came running after him and
ran up his trousers' leg and oiMo the
lape of his coat.
"I fm sorry,"
have no nuts 'today.
The squirrel would not believe him
said the man, "but I
and kept on begging. Finally, when
he saw that there were really to be no
nuts for him, he became so angry that
he took the cigar which the gentleman
had in his mouth and ran away with
it, tearing it to bits.
In the winter there are not so many
people who vielt the park and many
of those who do go do not bother to
feed the little squirrels, go the little
animals get fewer nuts in that way.
And there are not many nut trees in
the park, so that even if the squirrels
were as provident as their wild broth
ers they could not lay in sufficient for
the winter. To keep them from starv
ing the *persons who have the care of
the park go about In snowy weather
with a bag of nuts and scatter them
Recently, in a heavy snow, the keep*
ers distributed two big bags of peanuts
among the squirrels. One little chap
greedy that he kept running
after the men when all the nuts had
been given out. and finally hid himself
in a pocket of one of the men's coat,
He was not discovered until after they
had left the park, and then the man j
had to take him back and put him
around for the little long tailed crea
»'here he belonged. !
I" Central Park there Is a very good
shepherd dog that w'atchcs a flock of
I sheep that grazes there.
a g 0 he came upon a poor little squir
re i one evening that had fallen out
very sorry and barked loudly for ;
of a tree and hurt itself.
help, but it was so cold and stormy j
that no one came to see what was ;
the matter. The dog knew that if -the
poor little squirrel had to spend the
night outside its own home it would
freeze to death unless he took care
He lay down beside it, there
fore, and 4he little squirrel snuggled
up into the nice, long, warm hair of
the shepherd dog, and so they spent
the night together. The next morning
a man found them and took care of
the little squirrel. He also gave the
dog a pat and called him "Good fel
low" and saw that he had a warm
breakfast.—Felicia Ruffner, in Birm
ingham (Ala.) Age-Herald.
No one was more'«hocked at John
Tasihirasan than 0 Tara, the little
JAPAN'S TEARLESS CHILDREN.
For God's sake, rtop that crying!"
To hear this good missionary Eng
lish in a nest of Japanese houses—and
Japanese houses are so thin that
everything that the neighbors say is
easily heard—was startling. In four
months we had never H ard any
scolding or seen a child punished.
This unusual event proved to be in
one of those international households
not uncommon in the East. It was
the Anglo-Saxon haif of the child that
roared and tyrannized over its sub
missive Japanese mother.
His English father had bought him
a bright blue ulrter with brass buttons.
In this he strutted up and down Ne
gisha Mura, boesing all the children
of the quarter. A plainer instance of
heredity and racial traits is rarely
niece of our maid, O Yen. "The Hon.j
Mis* Dollar." Even when O Tara had
the toothache sie smiled through her
"Bad boy," said O Tara. "His nide
ness-to-honorable foreign-lady-is. Evil
matter-to-respected-ear8-of the • august
ly-honorabie-one-iS;" with great digni
ty, and bowing her little head to the
Even Japanese babies are popularly
supposed to never cry. This comes
pretty near the truta, for the land
and all there is in it seem to be theirs. I
In any country where Shintoism or
ancestral worship prevails the chil
dren are bound to hare a good time,
A son is necessary to carry on the i
worship of his parents, and to keep
Japanese girls are by no means so I
highly valued, but, as cau be seen, j
they werk into the general scheme. }
Children being a religious necessity, 1
their place is fixed. Supplementing
this la the natural joy of parents In
the ancestral fires lit.
their own progeny and the sense of
When a Japanese child is born,
everybody brings It gifts. Fish and
eggs are the proper presents, partic
ularly eggs, on which the family prob
ably subsists until satiety seU in.
On the taird day it is named and
goes to the temple to be blessed by
iLe priest. Girls are generally named
after some flower or fruit, as "Ume,
plum blossom, or "Klku," chrysanthe
! A ^by wears la > er8 of lI,<>3e ,on «
j eaE y sl, l* we know - as k,monos > which
cover its feet and its hands. Conse
Boys are nicknamed, as "El
glorious big one;" or perhaps
meaning No. 3, the third
Few persons, probably, are aware
; sugar was unknown to the an
f ien, s. Neither («reek nor Latin has .
a lue word saccharon,
ffom wh,ch our "saccharine" is de
rlvcJ ' 'Rifled a sweet juice crushed
* :i, ' m :1 Ent * women who need
u e 1 hut sparingly even by the
' to-do. Today it is one of the great
quently, it has no cause for crying
when it is dressed.
Even the poorest baby has its daily
; hot hath. Hot in Japan means 110
degrees Fahrenheit, a temperature
that gives even a grown person lively
not yet acknowledge that they are
can remember when sugar was a
raie luxury in a working man's family,
foßd staples of the world, produced in
Quantities beyond the power of the
untrained mind to comprehend, and
Gl-^tri hut : «1 to every part of tbe globe.
j According to the latest estimate, the
production of the world this year
will bo nearly ten and one-half mil
lion tons. Those families who buy it
! v ! pound may like to kSOW that
! Ms quantity represents more than
j enough to give every inhabitant of the
: globe fifteen and a half pounds.
The place of production and the
pou mis — or
natural source are matters of especial
interest to Americans, for in a sense
they furnish tae reason for the extra
i ordinary session of Congress.
Most persons know that the sugar
cane and the sugar beet are the two
groat natural sources, but' many, in
country at least, do not know that
beet and not the cane which
j furnishes the larger part of the world's
su PPly* This year's estimate of the
baet su ß ar c «'op of Europe alono is a
little more than five and three-quarter
million tons. That is more than the
j fane sugar product of the whole world,
In the United States and the coun
! tries Iron, which we draw a large part
of onr aupply-Cuta. Porto Rico. Java.
Hawaii and t/m I lubppines it is the
Tb e beet sugar industry has not yet
become well established here. The
< an e aBf i not the beet Avhich produces.
entire product of beet sugar in tbe
; United States has never reached two
j hundred thousand tons in a year, nor
; has the increase in it kept pace with
the annual Increase in the consump
tion of sugar.
The national pride is often stirred
hy references to the independence of
this country in food supplies and our
ability to feed the nations of the Old
World on our surplus. Wheat, corn,
meats and many other farm products
we do produce in amendante. For our
sugar we are more dependent upon
the outside world than is Great Brit
ain for its bread.—Youth's Companion. .
SIMPLE WAY TO MEASURE.
To measure the width of any ordi
nary stream, or even of » good sized
river, it is necessary to make use of
only your eyes and the brim of your
hat. Thai seems queer, doesn't it?
But it's true, and here is the way to
Select a part of the river bank
where the ground runs back level, and,
standing at the water's edge, fix your
eyes on the opposite bank. Now,
move your hat down over your brow
until <h3 edge of tho brim is exactly
on a line with the water line on the
This will give you a visual angle
that may be used on any level sur
face and if, as has been suggested, the
ground on yoaf side of the river is
flat, you may "lay off" a corresponding
distance on it. To do this you have
only to hold your head perfectly
steady and, after getting the angle
with your hat brim, supporting your
chin with your hand, if necessary
turn slowly around until your back
is toward the river.
Now, take careful note of where
your hat brim c"ta the level surface
of the fc rcun dasyou look out over the
have short tails, and if a cat does
come into the world with a lengthy
caudal append ago it is usually chop
ped off for tho Japs detect a likeness
i to snakes in the long tail and cannot
endure It. The Japanese cat ha.-; the
usual number of bones in its tail, but
I they an* not developed,
J-atter, and from where you stand to
that point will be the width- of the
river, a distance that may readily be
measured by stepping. If you are care
ful in ail these details ycu can come
within a fow feét of the river's width.
Cata In Japan.
Cats in Japan almost universally
President Loabct, of France attrlb
utes his good health to taking Jong
walks ©very morning batwton six and
xml | txt