Newspaper Page Text
SECOND YEAR OF
Germany Holds More Territory in Europe Than It Did Twelve Months Ago. LOSER IN OTHER RESPECTS Entente Allies Now Hammering Teutons Hard on All Sides. AUSTRIA SEEMS WEAKENING British Naval Blockade Still Effective After Great Battle of Jutland— Chief Developments of Year in Terrific World Conflict. PRESENT MILITARY AND NA VAL FORCES OF THE WAR RING POWERS. Great Britain (Asquith's statement less losses). FYance . 4.600.000 2.600.000 Russia (little definite known)7,000,000 Italy . Belgium . Serbia . Montenegro . Portugal (little known) . Japan (only officers at front) . .1,600,000 . 150,000 . 200,000 Practically none definite 75,000 300,000 Total, entente allies.15,225,000 Germany . Austria-Hungary Turkey . Bulgaria . Total, central powers—9,700,000 .6,000,000 .2,500,000 .1,500,000 , 700,000 TOTAL KILLED, WOUNDED AND PRISONERS. (In considering the losses it must be remembered that many listed as wounded are only slightly hurt and return to the front. Some ar© wounded several successive times and each time appear in the casu alties.) 5.500,000 France (about 900.000 killed).2,300,000 Great Britain Italy ... Belgium Serbia . Russia 800.000 400.000 180.000 230,000 9.410.000 4,000,000 2.760.000 600,000 50,000 Total, entent© . Germany, (estimated 700,000 killed) . Austria-Hungary . Turkey . Bulgaria . Total, Teutonic allies.7,300,000 Grand total, killed, wound ed, prisoners .16,710,000 In the Napoleonic wars, 1793-1815, 1,900,000 men were killed; in th© American Civil war 494,400; in th© Russo-Japanese war 565,900. What the War Is Costing. The war Is now costing In direct governmental expenditure 3110,000, 000 a day; 34,580,000 an hour; 376,000 a minute; and 31,270 a second. The end of the second year of the great War finds the Germans in posses sion of more of Europe than they held on August 1, 1915, the first anniversary of the start of the great conflict. This is practically the only respect in which the situation is more favor •able to them. Russia, her vast man power at last organized and furnished with Implements of destruction in plenty, is battering the Teuton lines on the east and has already won back Great Britain 4,500 square miles, boasts five million men in her army and navy. France fights as strongly as Italy Is increasing her form! ever, dableness. Austria appears to be losing heart and efficiency. Bulgaria refuses to send re-enforcements to the west or Russian fronts. Turkey shows slight offensive power. The British navy, following the much-disputed naval battle of Jutland, still shuts off Germany from use of the seas. One German merchant sub marine has reached America, but the supplies which can be carried over to the besieged nations in U-boats will be of little account. Germany and Austria both feel the pinch of hunger. Their armies are sufficiently fed, but their industrial workers complain of lack of nourish ment. The present harvest is watched with anxiety, and If it fails or ,1s only of fair size, famine will stalk Into the situation next spring, or earlier. Germany Seeks "Reasonable Peace:" The German chancellor three times in the reichstag has offered peace to the entente. On account of this, for midable opposition has arisen to him at home, although he is the kaiser's "other self." His friends are rallying to his defense, and on August 1 of the present year begins the curious coun try-wide lecture campaign to prepare the minds of the hitherto docile Ger man people for a "reasonable peace. Meanwhile, with the sky brightening, the entente allies reaffirm their resolu tion, taken In the dark hours of last winter, never to cease their efforts till Germany Is crushed. The Teutons not only must be beaten in war, according to the allied formula, but must be re pressed economically for many years after the signing of a treaty of peace. On August 1, 1915, the Germans and Austrians were In the midst of their brilliant campaign against Russia. The "pincers" were closing in Irresistibly. That day Lublin, an Impartant city In southern Poland, fell. Von Mackensen, with Galicia con quered, was pressing northward, while on the north side of the Polish salient Von Hindenburg bore with his host of field-gray warriors. Without guns, without ammunition. INTERESTING INFORMATION Panama Is rising three feet in each fcentury. Iron rings were used as money by the ancient Britons. In Asia tusks are possessed only by the male elephants. The normal dally consumption of milk in Paris and its suburbs exceeds 1,000,000 quarts. More than 3,800 illegal distilleries were seized by the United States rev enue department last yegr. •r- 5c.: 4 with nothing except myriads of Slav giants, some of whom resisted charges with sharpened sticks In their hands, Russia was forced to fall back rapidly. Twice it seemed the flower of the czar's army would be surrounded, once In the vicinity of Warsaw, and again in the great battle near Vllna. The tale of the taking of great towns grew almost tedious. It seemed the Germans would never stop. Whether they did stop of their own accord or were finally checked by the Russians is not yet clear. They settled down for the winter on a long line stretch ing from the Baltic just west of Riga southeast along the Dvina river, and then almost due south through Polles sle, the I'insk marsh district, to the Roumanian frontier. Reawakening of Russia. On September 8 Czar Nicholas took command of all his armies in the field, sending his cousin, the Grand Duke Nicholas, to the less Important com mand of the Caucasus operations. With their "Little Father" at their head, the Russians forgot their long, discouraging retreat. Millions of new young soldiers joined them, drawn from Russia's great reservoir of hu man beings, which produces three and a half million men of military age ev ery year. On September 10 the Russians won a success near Tarnopol and Trembowla, and two days later they drove the Teu tons back 14 miles in Galicia. In other parts of the front the Germans were still seizing large slices of territory, but their enemies were regaining their On September 26 the Rus energy. slans recaptured Lutsk, but were driv en out in a short time. On October 20 they recaptured Czartorysk, but they were not able to prevent the Germans storming Uluxt five days later. Czar torysk was lost and again taken by the czar January 8. Meanwhile the conquest of Serbia, the greatest tragedy of the war, ex cepting only the massacre of 800,000 Armenians, was being enacted. Invasion of Serbia. The real Invasion of Serbia started in the first days of October. A great diplomatic battle had been fought in Sofia, and the allies had lost. On Oc tober 7 Bulgaria in an ultimatum to King Peter of Serbia, peremptorily de manded the immediate cession of the Macedonian lands in dispute between the two countries and then in the pos session of the Serbs. After a general bombardment the Teutons crossed the river boundaries of Serbia in many places on October 8. Two days later they occupied Bel grade. On the thirteenth Bulgaria in vaded her neighbor at three points. The successes of the Teutons and the Bulgarians were almost unbroken. The invading forces consisted of a vast amount of heavy artillery, with small infantry supporting forces. They shelled the Serbians out of position after position in an avalanche of steel to which the Serbians could make no reply. Small forces of French and English landed at Saloniki, a Greek port to which Serbia had certain entry privi leges, and did something to cover the retreat of the Serbians by englging the Bulgarians in the South. At the beginning of winter, Novem ber 22, the Serbian soldiers crossed their western border and struck the trails of the dreary, snow-covered mountains of the coast. Great num bers perished of cold and hunger on the way. On November 29 Germany proudly announced that the Serbian campaign had ended, having met with complete success. Two Blows to the British. The winter also saw the humilia tion of the British in Mesopotamia. The Indian government recklessly pushed a small, poorly supplied expe dition up the Tigris valley and actu ally penetrated to within seven miles of Bagdad. Here the Turks, with Ger man officers directing them, adminis tered a defeat and the invaders fell back with the enemy harassing them to the town of Kut-el-Amara, where they were besieged December 10. Another expedition, also insufficient, was sent to relieve the first. It was beaten off \flth large losses a few miles below Kut, a flood of the river and swamps assisting the Turks, and on April 30 the 12,000 defenders of Kut capitulated by order of the Brit ish higher command. A further British humiliation was the evacuation of Gallipoli peninsula, where the British held on doggedly month after month, losing perhaps 200,000 men, until they were finally withdrawn in confession of failure the first week of January. These two British fiascos were what was needed to arouse the sluggish fighting blood of John Bull. They finally brought England Into the war fully and uncompromisingly, to the same extent as the other great pow ers. On August 10 Great Britain started her national register, or census of all men of fighting age. The result showed a vast reserve of man power. Certain sections demanded immediate con scription, but they were not success ful. Instead the earl of Derby was commissioned to start a vast recruit ing campaign. This produced a num ber of classes of "attested men," who bound themselves to come Into the ranks with their age groups. But there were still hundreds of thousands unreached, and the public began to see that it was discriminating In favor of the »'slackers" and the cowards. On December 21 David Lloyd George, the minister of munitions and greatest man the war has produced In Great Britain, declared the country faced defeat unless greater efforts were made. A week later he threat ened to resign from the cabinet un less conscription was adopted. Conscription was fiercely fought, but Tools kept In damp places can be kept from rusting if some unslackened lime, which absorbs moisture from the air, is kept near them. Among nature's freaks Is a tree from the fruit of which oil and tallow extracted. The tree grows in the Azores, in Sumatra, iu Algeria and in China Daniel Miller of Shevers Creek, Huntingdon county, Pa., is using a wagon which was built in 1831. The date is stamped on an iron plate on the wagon. on January 6 a bill Introducing It passed its first reading In jthe house of commons by a large majority. The bill was finally signed by King George May 26. Allies Get Together. Their defeats finally taught the al lies that their efforts must be co-or dlnated, like their enemies', if they were to be effective, council, with all the allies represented, met in Paris December 7 and a kind of international general staff was or ganized. It is known that General Jo seph Joffre, French commander In chief since the beginning of the war, and the hero of the battle of the Marne, was the presiding genius. The effects of the council werè not to be seen for several months, but now they are being realized in full measure. To check a simultaneous allied of fensive, which they clearly saw com ing, the Teutons decided on two at tacks of their own. This follows the well-known axiom of German mili tary strategy that the best defense Is an energetic attack. The first of these offensive defen sives was the attack on the French fortress of Verdun, where the works were subjected to a whirlwind of fire beginning February 21.—The gains of the first week were great, and German critics foretold the collapse of the French. Two of the defending forts, Vaux and Douaumont, fell, and impor tant positions were taken west of the Meuse river as well. But Joffre rallied his men In splen did fashion and sold each yard of ground at an awful cost in German blood. Step by step the crown prince's men pushed forward, but today they are still more than two miles from the ruined fortress town and the resist ance of the French is as strong as ever. A new war Austrian Drive Checked. The second Teutonic offensive was organized by the Austrians in the Trentino, and they struck in the di rection of Vicenza- with the object of cutting off the northern end of Italy from the main portion. On May 26, as the result of several days' vio lent artillery fire followed by Infantry rushes, they were able to announce the capture of 24,000 Italians. General Count Cadorna hurried about a hundred thousand men Id mo tor cars to the scene, while many more arrived on foot or trains. Just when it seemed the Austrians must reach the lowlands the counter-attacks were delivered. On June 30 Rome announced a splen did victory. In bloody fighting the Austrians, perhaps weakened by drafts to bolster up their Russian front, were driven from peak to peak almost to where their lines had stood throughout the winter. In March the Russians delivered vast but futile attacks on the Ger man front at many points, probably to distract attention from Verdun. The Germans seemed to have been lulled Into security by these efforts, which they probably considered the best the czar could do. But the tens of thou sands of Muscovite bodies lining the Germans' barbed wire were but a pat ter of rain compared with the storm that was brewing behind the Russian lines. At the beginning of June this storm broke with full force and, following the principle of attacking the weakest point, the Austrians holding the line from the marsh district southward were forced to bear the brunt of it. Russia's Big Push. Millions of shells, manufactured largely in British, Japanese and American factories, blasted away wire, trenches, dugouts and observation points. Then the hordes of Sibe rians, Cossacks and others swept over the field. The Austrians could not withstand the impact and they gave way steadily. June 6, General Brusiloff announced the capture of 13,000 Austrians; June 8, the number for the three succeed ing days alone was 43,000, and the numbers kept mounting until on July 20 General Shoovaieff, Russian min ister of war, estimated the number of Austro-Hungarian prisoners at 270, 000. The killed and wounded are un told, but the number must be large enough to bring the total loss well over half a million. German support was rushed to the Austrians, but the foe captured Lutsk and Dubno, and reached the Stokhod and Lipa rivers In Volhynia; overran all Bukowina to the Carpathians and sent patrols of Cossacks into Hungary to ravage the country. That the czar is anticipating further great gains of territory Is seen from Russia's action In mobilizing the males of the island of Saghalien, Tur kestan, and one other district to build roads, dig trenches and do other work of organizing the ground won. Allies' Drive In Somme Region. Almost a month to a day following the beginning of the great Russian of fensive French and British opened their drive in the vicinity of the Somme river. They have gained grad ually but steadily, and the official re ports assert the losses of the attack ers are comparatively small. It is also the claim of the allies that the Franco-Brttlsh offensive can be kept up at its present rate indefinite ly, and will not have to be slackened for lack of shells, guns or men. The rate of progress is much greater than the Germans' at Verdun, but the coun try traversed is less difficult. On the other hand, the Verdun assailants have the advantage of attacking from the outside of a curve, while the French and British now attack from Inside the salient they have made In the line. Meanwhile the Verdun offen sive of the Germans continues. Outside of Europe the Germans have lost their Cameroon colony on the west Minnesota farmers in four years have spent aSout $20,000,000 for new buildings. * - Females of the Australian wild tur key lay their eggs In common nests holding half a bushel or more, cover them with soil and decaying vegetable matter, and leave them to hatch. There Is an extraordinary echo In the cathedral at Pisa. If you sing two notes there Is no reverberation, but if you sing three they are taken up, swelled and prolonged into a beautiful harmony. ' I i - - ■- 4 : I coast of Africa, the remaining defend« ers having crossed Into Spanish ter ritory and been Interned. The army of East Africa still resists the converg ing columns of Belgians, French and British but, shut off from re-enforce ments, Its doom would seem to be sealed. On April 25 Sir Roger Casement, Irish knight, tried to land from a Ger man warship on the coast of Ire land, but was captured. The next day a revolt In Dublin and other Irish cities broke out and the center of the Irish capital was burned. The revolt was easily quelled, the British announcing resistance had ceased on May 1. More successful was the revolt of the Arabs, led by the grand shereff, against their Turkish overlords. Mec ca, Medina and others towns have been captured and are held still, probably with British assistance. Doings in the Air. Recent months have seen a cessa tion of Zeppelin raids on undefended British and French towns. The cause of this Is somewhat of a mystery, as the Germans have claimed Important military results from their attacks. On September 7-8 there were two raids on London, thirty persons being killed and a proportionate number wounded. Fifty-five were killed by Zeppelins In a raid on London October 13. On January 20 the German dirigibles bombarded Paris, killing 23 and on February 1 Liverpool and other Eng lish centers were visited and 59 slain. On April 2 a Zeppelin killed 28 in England and was destroyed on the British coast as it returned. On March 6 13 were killed. On April 6 It was announced that the fifth Zeppelin raid in six days on the British coast had been made. The Germans declared that war munition factories and supply depots had been destroyed. Since then England apparently has been Immune from the Zeppelins. This may he due to the large number of dirigibles lost, or. to the outcry against the inhumanity of the practices of the Germans which was raised in neutral countries. One other important moral defeat was sustained by the Germans when they hurried Edith Cavell, a British nurse, to execution, as announced by Brand Whitlock, American minister of Belgium, on October 22. The greatest naval engagement of history in number of men engaged and number slain was fought June 3 near the Skaggerrak, in the North sea. The result was Inconclusive, each side claiming a great victory and the re ports varying widely in estimates of losses on the two sides. If the Germans, as they assert, seri ously crippled the British grand fleet, we will probably soon see them come out of Kiel again, to finish their task. At present, however, the British block ade is broken only by the merchant submarine Deutschland, which reached Baltimore July 9. Kaiser Yields to America. * The year has also been the culmi nation of the submarine dispute be tween the United States and Germany, which terminated in the kaiser's capit ulating and promising to warn mer chantmen before attacking. A U-boat sank the liner Arabic Au gust 20, two Americans being among the slain. Two more of our nationals died when the Hesperian was torpe doed September 6. On November 10 several Americans died In the torpç doing of the Italian liner Ancona. It Is thought two Americans were lost in the sinking of the Persia in the Medi terranean January 2. The crisis was precipitated March 26, when the Brit ish channel ferry steamer Sussex was torpedoed without warning. Two hun dred and thirty-five persons were killed and several Americans were in jured. This flagrant violation of the rules of war caused President Wilson to press Germany for sweeping assur ances, which were given in a note May 6 on condition that the United States force Great Britain to conduct her Mr. Wilson an blockade legally, swered he would accept the promise, but without the proviso. The many times heralded Turco-Ger man invasion df Egypt has not yet ma terialized and probably never will. On the other hand, the Russian grand duke has added to his laurels by cap turing the Important inland city of Erzerum February 17, Bitlis March 4 and the seaport of Trebizond April 19. The Turks In counter-attacks pressed back the Russians In Persia, but recently the czar's men have ad vanced rapidly in the northern part of Asia Minor and the resistance of the Turks seems to have been broken. Exploits of the Moswe. Only one German commerce raider net a submarine distinguished itself in the year, many allied ships off the coast of Africa and reached a home port In safety March 6. On February 2 a Ger* man prize crew brought the Appam, a British capture, into Hampton Roads, having come all the way across the At lantic with her. The ownership of this vessel Is still In the American courts. Two more nations have been drawn Into the war. The entrance of Bul garia has been described. On March 10 Germany declared war on Portugal. Portuguese and German troops had clashed in Africa some time before and Portugal had just seized the Ger man ships In her harbors. The ac tions of the republic were Induced by a treaty according to which she prom ises to come to Great Britain's assist ance whenever requested to do so. The British lost the equivalent of several army corps when Lord Kitch ener was drowned June 7 in the sink ing of the cruiser Hampshire by a mine while on his way to Russia. The fast Moewe sank Mark Twain. way from city hall northward to One Hundred and Fifty-fifth street—New *<> rk Telegram. Mark Twain'3 popularity Is in no danger of diminishing to judge by an order just given by his publishers for 16,000 yards of cloth to be used in binding his books. If Mark Twain were still alive and this cloth were stretched out along the New York pavement, we might see the familiar white-clad figure walking over this ! green carpet 40 inches wide all the sgjg. ù BATTLE CHANGES OF 2*S> YEAR OF WAR. trocbaD ^7 % H 0 k RIGA / J iDMMSK \ NORTH SEA c UB^U \ <0 \ O OK0VN0 I j oGROONO SIA O * v r / ©BERLIN G E R MANY /o WARSAW * ©RADOH V £ tfes£* v W> v . o. PIN SX \ > a. .Hin FAR! 4 ? ENNA 8 S*»** §r sT BU Ul KiriPOLfNffi AU STRIA" HUNGARY U k *lTX**M* 4 Z < ROUMANIA CC T C=ac; t^ERVIA y u. O % t* BULGARIA 0 C NKR3I Y RO > 9 - < n 1 z. J > wmm—mUllEAUG.U9JSi" BU °PR£J£tfrUf1E ; —~*-FARTH£JT TEUTOff ADM/VCf CHIEF EVENTS OF Aug;. 1—Teutons take Lublin. Aug. 2—Teutons take Cholm; announce 170,000 Russians captured in July. Aug. 6—Germans capture Warsaw. Aug. 7—Teutons take Ivangorod. Aug. 9—Germans take Serock. Aug. 10—Great Britain starts register of all men. Aug. 11—Germans take Lomza. Aug. 12—Allies land 60,000 more men on Gallipoli. Aug. 14—Germans take Stedlce and Soko low. Aug. 16—Teutons start Belgrade bom bardment Aug. 19—Russians lose Kovno. Zeppelins kill ten in Loudon suburbs. Aug. 20—U-boat sinks liner Arabic, two Americans killed. Aug. 21—German seize Novogeorgievak. Aug. 24—Germans capture Ossowiec. Aug. 25—Germans take Kovel. Aug. 27—Brest-Litovsk falls. Aug. 28—Germans take Olita. Aug. 29—Teutons cross Zlota Lipa. Sept. 2—Germany announces 1,100,000 Russians captured since May L Lutsk is taken. New York sterling exchange drops to 14-50. Sept, ft—Russians lose Brody. Sept. 4—Russians give up Grodno. Brit ish slaughtered In attempt to storm Hill 70. Sept ft-Hesperian torpedoed, 2 Ameri cans killed. Russians check Teutons on the Dvina and Sereth rivers. Sept 8—Czar Nicholas takes command of all the Russian armies in the field. Sept. 7-8—Two Zeppelin raids on Lon don; 30 killed. Sept. 10—As Teutons take Dubno, czar wins victory near Tarnopol and Trem bowla. Sept. 12—Russians drive Teutons back 14 miles in Galicia. Sept. 17— Von Mackensen seizes Pinsk. Sept. 20—Germans take Vilna. Sept. 26—Russians recapture Lutsk. Sept. 27—French in two day battle ad vance on wide front in Champagne, while British attack south of La Bassee Canal. Oct. 2—Germans announce 96,000 Rus sians were captured In September. Oct. 6—Germans estimate allied loss in futile West front offensive at 190,000 men. Oct. 7—Bulgaria sends ultimatum to Serbia. Oct. 8—Teutons begin great Invasion of Serbia. Oct. 10—Teutons occupy Belgrade. Oct. 13—Bulgaria invades Serbia at three points. Fifty-five killed by Zeppelin raid on London. Oct. 20—Russian recapture Czartorysk. Serbians lose Vranja. Oct. 22—Brand Whitlock. U. S. minister to Belgium, reports hurried execution of Edith Cavell, English nurse. Oct. 25—Bulgarians capture Uskub. Oct. 25—Germans storm Illuxt. Oct. 28—Bulgarians and Teutons effect junction In Serbia. Nov. 2—Austro-Germans take Kragu jevac. Nov. 4—First of German "no meat" days. Nov. 7—Bulgarians take Nish, Serbian war capital. Nov. 10—Italian liner Ancona sunk with large loss of life. Nov. 22—Serbians begin retreat into Montenegro. Nov. 25—British defeated 18 miles from Bagdad. Nov. 27—Italians land at Avlona, Al bania, Nov. 29—Germans announce operations against Serbia have ended in complete success. Dec, 7—New war. council with all allies represented meets at Paris. Dec. 10—German chancellor makes peace bid In reichstag speech. Dec. 10—Turks begin siege of Kut-el Amara. Dec. 16—Sir Douglas Haig assumes com mand of British In France. Dec. 20—Ford peace band reaches Chris tiania with delegates quarreling. Dec. 21 — Lloyd-George declares Britain faces defeat unless greater efforts are made. Dec. 28 — Lloyd-George threatens to re sign unless conscription is adopted. Dec. Jl—Italians occupy Durazso, Al bania. Jan. 2, l»lft—Word received liner Persia sunk In Mediterranean; two Americans lost Jan. 4 — Germans abandon Cameroon colony. West Africa. Russians take Czer nowitz. Jan. 6—Conscription bill passes first reading In house of commons. Jan. 7—British complete evacuation of Gallipoli. Jan. 8—Russians take Czartorysk. Jan. 29—Zeppelins kill 23 in Paris. Ger take two miles of trenches at Pe mans ronne. Feb. 1—Zeppelins raid Liverpool and other British cities; kill 69. Feb. 2—Germans bring British prize steamer Appam into Hampton Roads. Feb. 17—Russians capture Erzerum. Feb. 21—German drive at Verdun begins. Feb. 23—Czar visits Duma for first time in history. Feb. 24—Germans announce two mile advance at Verdun. Feb. 27—Germans capture Fort Douau Bargaining for the Feather. "My dear, I wish you would learn to make a good cup of tea. It Is not dif ficult to learn, and it would be a feather In your cap. If I learn, will you buy me that wil low plume?" Patience and Good Nature. Good nature is the oil which lubri cates the machinery of society and Patience and good nature business. will get away with any situation in life. mont, Verdun. Austrians capture Duraz zo. Russians take Kermanshah. Mar. 4—Russians take Bitlis by storm. Mar. 6—The Moewe, German raider, reaches home port. Zeppelins kill 13 in England. Mar. 7—Germans take Forges, near Ver dun. Mar. 10—Germany declares war on Por tugal. Mar. 11—Relieving force repulsed seven miles from Kut-el-Amara. Mar. 26—Channel steamer Sussex de stroyed by submarine; 235 killed; several Americans injured. April 1—Germans capture Malancourt, near Verdun. April 2—Zeppelin destroyed on British coast after killing 28. Germans take Vaux. April ft—Germans make fifth Zeppelin raid in Bix ■Mays on British coast. April 7—Germans capture Haucourt. April 19—Russians capture Trebixond, on Black sea. April 21—First Russian contingent dis embarks in France. April 25—Sir Roger Casement, Irish plot ter, captured attempting to land In Ire land from submarine. April 2ft—Irish, revolutionaries seize Dub lln. April 29—British battleship Russell sunk by mine in Mediterranean. April 30—British In Kut-el-Amara capit ulate. May 1—British announce Irish revolt Is quelled. May ft—Germany in note agrees to modi fy submarine warfare. Allied warships bring down two Zeppelins. May 20—Austrians drive into Italy near Lake Garda. May 21—Austrians announce capture of 13,000 Italians. May 22—Cossacks from Russian army In Asia Minor Join British in Mesopotantfa. May 26—Compulsion bill signed by King George. May 26— Austrians advance In Italy, taking 24,000 prisoners. June 1—Russians begin great offensive against Austrians. June 8—Greatest naval battle In history off Skaggerrak. Both sides claim victory. June 6—Russians announce capture of 13,000 Austrians. June 7—Kitchener and staff drown when cruiser Hampshire strikes mine north of Scotland. June 8—Germans capture Vaux Fort at Russians announce capture of Verdun. 43,000 Austrians in three days. June 9—Russians take Lutsk. Greece disbands army at command of entente powers. June 10—Russians have forced back Aus trian 26 miles. June 11—Russians take Buczacz, Galicia. June 12—Russians take Dubno. June 13—Italians rally and check Aus trian drive. June 19—Austrians evacuate Czernowitz, Bukowina capital. June 21—Allies in Paris conference agree on boycott of Germany after the war. German re-enforcements halt Russian drive in Volhynia. June 24—All Bukowina swept clear of Austrians by Russians. June 25—Russians seize Kuty 15 miles from Kolomea. June 26—Russians capture Klmpolung, Bukowina. June 28—Italians recapture Corsiero and Poslna. June 30—Russians in battle near Kolo mea take 10,000 prisoners. July 1—Anglo-French "big push' Somme begins. July ft—British and French continue ad vance on Somme. July ft—Russian patrols crowd Carpa thians Into Hungary. July 6—French take German second line south of the Somme. Turks drive Rus sians from Kermanshah. Persia. July 9—British and French gain in West. Russians advance toward Kovel. German submarine merchantman Deutschland en ters Chesapeake Bay. July 10—Russians advance 1ft miles in Volhynia. July 11—French storm hill one mile from Peronne. Russians reach Stokhod river. July 12—British capture German trenChc ; on eight-mile front. July IS—Russians capture Marnakhatum, 80 miles west of Erzerum. July 1 ft—British announce advance of a mile on four mile front. July 16 —Widespread peace agitation in Russians take Baiburt, Ar on Germany, menia. July 17—Russians capture 15.000 men. Force foe over Lipa river in Volhynia. July 18—Great Britain publishes black list of pro-German American firms.* July 19 —Russians drive Austrians back Into Hungary. July 20—Allies make big advance on Russians resume offensive west front, before Kovel. July 21—British reach German third line Russian left wing in Foureaux wood, drives Von Llnsingen back 15 miles. July 22—British cavalry defeated near Suez. July 23—British patrol squadron routs six German destroyers off Holland coast. British renew great drive in Somme re gion. entering Pozieres. July 24—Anzacs and Germans flgnt fiercely In Posieres. Russians pierce Ger man front south of Riga and drive Aus trians into mountains on Hungary fron tier. July 26—Turkey sends troops to aid Teu tons against Russia. Terrific fighting con tinues on Somme front. British states blacklist was not directed against neu trals. Superfluous Solicitude. "Willie, I don't want you to go to that river resort with the rest of the boys. "Why not, ma?" "I'm skeered you'll git hurt going up on one of them there parachutes." Lazy. Smitty (taking his watch from un der Jils pillow)—"Quarter to eight and has come to wake me yet. I no one shall certainly be late for class if they »> don't come soon. Is not recommended for everything; but if you have kidney, liver or bladder trouble It may be found just the remedy you need. At druggists in fifty cent and dollar sixes. Tou may receive a sample sixe bottle of this reliable medicine by Parcel Post, also SWAMP ROOT pamphlet drees Dr. N. Y., and tton this telling about it. r. Kilmer & Co., Binghamton, enclose ten cents, also men paper. Ad W. N. U., MEMPHIS,. NO. 32-1916. Modern Way. "Do you wait for inspiration before wriMng your novels?" we asked the distinguished author. "Not at all," he replied. I merely wait for the advance check from mj publishers. •• A HINT TO WI8E WOMEN. Don't suffer torture when all female trouble« will vanish in thin air after using "Femenina." Price 50c and #i.oo.—Adv. Unexpected Explanation. Banks—I had a new experience yes terday, one you might call unaccount able. I ate it hearty dinner, finishing up with a Welsh rabbit, a mince pie and some lobster a la Newburg. Then I went to a place of amusement. I had hardly entered the building before ev erything swam before me. Bonks—The Welsh rabbit did It. Bunks—No, it was the lobster. Bonks—I think it was the mince pie. Banks—No, I have a simpler expla nation than that. I never felt better In my life. I was at the aquarium. ITCHING, BURNING SCALPS \ Crusted With Dandruff Yield Readily to Cuticura. Trial Free. Cuticura Soap to cleanse the scalp of dandruff crustings and scalings, and Cuticura Ointment to soothe and heal Itchings and irritations. Nothing bet ter, surer or more economical than these super-creamy emollients for hair and scalp troubles of young or old. Free sample each by mail with Book. Address • postcard, Cuticura, Dept. 1% Boston. Sold everywhere.—Adv. ^ Not Without Avail. Peter Cooper, stand up. The raw-boned "poor-white trash, holding his ragged hat in one hand and the tail of his shabby coat In the other, walked slowly up to the stand. "Yes, judge. "You are accused of profanity in a public place. "I guess I did it, judge. Nigger was tryin' to steal ma hoss." "But you should know better than to take the name of the Lord In vain, Mr. Cooper. It warn't in vain, Judge. You jes' ought ter have seen that nigger run!" —Case and Comment ■ •< *» ■ »• BABIES AND GROWING CHILDREN need a tonic to tone up the system and regulate the liver. Mothers are con stantly using with wonderful success, our "Plantation" Chill and Fever Ton ic. Pleasant to take—contains no Cal omel. Price 50c.—Adv. Called Down. They were enjoying a plunge In the surf, he and she. He of New York and she of Boston. She of Boston accidentally got be yond her depth and it looked like a cinch bet that she would never view the "Hub" again through her specta cles. But he of New York was on the job in the role of an animated life pre server. She of Boston was about to make her third and farewell disappearance when he reached her side. Hold on tight," gasped he of New York, as he felt a pair of arms abont his neck. Pardon 1 me," gurgled she of Boston as she expectorated a quart of the ocean from her Interior department, but you should say 'hold on tightly.' " And the sad sea waves rolled on. ■ Reason. Abroad girls have chaperons—they never are left alone with a young man —and it is very difficult to get married over there. The speaker was Harrison Fisher. He continued: "An old maid said to a pretty girl at the seashore : " 'What I saw on the beach in the moonlight last evening shocked me, horribly. L for my part, think it*s most improper for a girl to kiss a man unless they're married.' 'Ah,' said Nellie, 'do you? Sup pose that accounts for your never be ing engaged. 4. «4 > »> Tea and Coffee For Children? These beverages contain drug elements that hinder development of both body and mind, especially in children. Nowadays, for their chil dren, wise parents choose POSTUM > This delicious table bev erage, made of cereals, has a wonderfully satisfying flavor—a flavor much like the higher grades of coffee (but without any of cof fee's harm.) Postum is a true, pure food-drink that has helped thousands to forget the coffee habit There's a Reason" tt Grocers everywhere sell POSTUM • .