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Shiner gazette. [volume] (Shiner, Tex.) 1893-current, April 04, 1895, Image 2

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86090270/1895-04-04/ed-1/seq-2/

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Uow feiirctMriil larinpnt Operate lhl
DcjRI-tiiietit of tli llmntsteuri HtutH
An to tho Carv of Hie block unit
A eT lnrk I ntiltrjninii.
At tho W Iscunsln Hound-up lnbtltuto
lield at Monrou Inst week, C E Chap
wan, of Perm illo New York made au
address on poultry raisin? lie Is n
joung man anil has been la tho busi
ness but a lev. j ears, but he exhibits
tho true Instincts ot a buslness-llkc
Iioultrynian Only about six jears ago
ho begin to kiep poultr Ills first
mcno In the bu.lntss was to rctluu.
everything to llgurei, to know Just
Bow many ho had, how much the) cost
flow much fil they consumed, how
many eggs they laid, and how great
tho profits on all his fowls and on each
It mnj bo an encouragement to our
poultry-loilng readers to know his
record for one jear Wo will take the
year 1S00 which he began with COO
liens partly brown and partlj whlto
I.eghorns Ho has settled down to tho
Leghorn fowls believing them to be the
best laj ers The record will bo of great
interest to those that take Interest In
tho lajlng capacity of each breed
Some ha e put tho Leghorns ns low
ns 100 eggs per year, while moBt books
that glio the capacities of the breeds,
Bet tho standard at 200 eggs This lat
ter figure has long been regarded as
Tory Inaccurate, though doubtless a
flock could bo bred up to that point
by careful selection
Tor tho entire jcar the 600 hens lay
on an merago 104 eggs each These
tggs brought on an aerage 21Hc per
flozen, the total receipts for the jear
for eggs being ?1 S00 Ho must have
tired a largo number of birds and have
liad numerous cockerels to sell as
his receipts for Block sold was $170
Tho manure from these flocks had a
iue of J270 This would be 45 cents
per fowl for each of the COO, but It
probably represents tho droppings
also of Ail the new stock produced Tho
total receipts were J2 210 The expens-
S!UWtTe Coht ot '" W- labor.
JdMJ, interest on money Imested In
fowls and buildings, J50 This gUes
mo total expense ns J1.070. Tho net
?,r0, "'J,1" fl0l:k for that sear was
$1,170 The net profit per bird was
This, of course, was not done by
letting tho fowls huatlo for them
selves, as they are compelled to do on
many farms The birds have been
"well housed and well fed
The houses are well and warmly
built, each one holding about 100 fowls
One of the houses as Illustrated on a
chart, had tho following proportions
Length Thirty feet
Width Twelve feet
Lower story Six and one-half feet
wan or posts
Upper story rour feet to plates
"Windows 2x2 feet on one end, on
Bldo 4x2 obove and below
One idea brought prominently to the
front In the diagram of Mr Chapman
is that too much light should nt be
Given, especiall) on the south side For
this reason the windows are small and
few In number The reason as advanced
by Mr. Chapman Is that the poultry
bouse should not undergo rapid
changes of temperature in the winter
When there are large expanses of glass
on the south side the winter sun poura
through them, heating the rooms to
mmuen, u puiiiaa-r temppramrP I tip
tic cold of the nights Fowls hnri iwt,
ter be kept at a low temperature than
to be forced to endure it half t the
time This will be a new idea to some
poultrymen, but appears reasonable
However, the advocates of houses with
glass exposures on tho south will sa),
and Justly, that if a poultry house be
constructed with double walls and
etoim sash in addition to tho first sash,
the rooms will retain through the night
much of the heat they have acquired
during the day The houses of Mr
Chapman have ventilators, but wo
learn he has discarded the use of them,
boarding them up
Wo give the table of his feeding ra
tion, which Is as follows
1. Morning, by weight, alt they will
cat, one-half bran, one-fourth corn,
one-fourth oats. Mix with milk or
boiling water. One pint of salt, two
quarts of charcoal One bushel clover
hay cut fine If no milk add Blxteen
pounds of meat.
2. Noon, whole grain by measure;
two parts oats, one quart buckwheat,
one part wheat Feed one part to every
fifty hens In chaff.
3. Night, whole grain by measure.
Same as No. 2, all they will eat.
4 Drink, milk or pure writer,
C One bushel beets or olher green
feed per day.
For chicks his ration Is as follows
A cake Sour milk, -alt and soda: stir
In sifted feed till It Is very thick and
rpake If it la all right it will o.um-
Ue when broken.
Cracked wheat.
kMllk or water.
pldes these are oyster clam, sea
ft; or bonfi pounded j6t ground
ftiust ojHLna is givn in desirable
jced that the ra-
m heas We
kany of our
a small
hm All Home-1 fit t Liter?
Nice small cheese ma bo mado for
homo use In this wnj The milk of two
cows may bo set at night in n deep pall
in cold water This will check tho ris
ing of tho cream Tho morning milk
may then ho mixed with tho milk of the
pielous eenlng after It has been
vvntmed to the same heat as tho now
milk 'lhe rennet of which one ounce
is enough for 100 pounds of milk and
10 pounds of cheese Is stiired In tho
warm milk in n proper veisel This Is
towered and left until the curd Is made,
and becomes tough enough to bo lifted
with tho finger It Is then cut by a
long-bladed knifo into squares of an
inch so ns to libeiato tho whov
When tho whey has paitl soprttated
It is dipped off bj means of a shallow
dish without breaking the curd The
whe) is then heated to 100 degrees and
N poured on to tho curd which Is eov
eted to keep In tho heat After half
an houi tho curd will become tough
enough to lift without breaking when
the whey Is all drawn off and tho curd
is broken up with tho hands and heaped
to pern li more of tho vhr) lo ilniu off
This will take up half an hour The
curd Is again broken and the whej care
fully pressed out bj band so the cream
niaj not escape
It Is then left another half hour,
when It Is again broken and salted at
the rate of two ounces of flnel) -ground
salt to seen pounds of curd, nnd Is
placed in a wooden hoop or mold, lined
wit H clean cloth dipped in 1 e who
The curd is pressed Into tho mold firm
1), nnd needs no weight or piesslng
hen It has settled in tho mold it 1h
taken out in tho cloth and set on n
board and turned once a da until It
has formed n crust It should then be
rubbed with butter and turned occa
sional!) during tho curing which will
require two or threo months in a tem
perature of about CO degrees N, Y.
Inrubilor 1 jjb
Tho rtrra-PouUrj notes that some
breeders of good repute are offering
sittings of eggs at prices which are
right for good stock and in addition,
advertise lncubatoi eggs at a ery
great reduction by the hundred Sit
tings will bo priced at 2 $3 or ?3, per
haps, while the Incubator eggs from
the samo breeder go for, sa), $6 per
hundred The Inexperienced buer
who wants to mako a start In poultry
knows something of tho reputation of
the breeder and tho strain of birds
and seeing the eggs thus advertised
argues to himself that there Is no uso
In pa)Ing sitting prices when the
prices b) the hundred from tho same
fiock are so much cheaper, and bo ho
orders tho larger quantit) at the lower
price, sets the eggs, hatches out fifty
or sixty chicks and is grievously dis
appointed The eggs arc cults, of
course, they are from birds that the
breeder would not sell or use himself
for breeding stocic, they are simply
fertile egs that will hatch a fair per
cent, of market chickens of tho breed
named, but they aro not what the
bu)er expected to get The bu)cr is
disappointed and the breeder Buffers
in repatation for whenever tho former
speaks of tho latter to others It will be
to tho effect that he bought some eggs
from Mr, and they hatched out
scrubs A breeder when he sells "In
cubator eggs," should for his own sake
bo suro that tho bu)cr knows what he
Is getting, and Is getting what he wants
There Is no wrong In selling ' Incubator
eggs," provided tho matter is under
stood, but there should bo neither de
ception by tho seller nor can ho for his
own sake afford to permit self-deception
on the part of the buyer.
Hurt. In In tlie Dlry.
An exchange contains the following
"An alleged Joko Is now current to tho
effect that an old lady tioubled with
obesit) went to consult a phjslcinu
'Madam said the man of science 'jou
aro troubled with an excess of adipose
tissue' 'Gracious!' said the old lad),
'I wonder if that is what makes me so
We aro told that certain kinds of bac
teria produce certain kinds of flavors in
butter, and certain other kinds of bac
teria produce sour milk, and certain
conditions bring forth certain kinds of
bacteria. Now all this Is nn old truth in
a new garb and sometimes wo do not
recognize it any clearet than tho old
lady recognized her surplus fat under
tho name of ' adipose tissue "
When we ask tho scientist how to kill
the bacteria that produce sour milk he
will tell us to apply heat to the vessel
after removing all the milk adhering to
the 'vessel. This Is what we do when
wo wash and scald In tho old fashioned
way, and similarly when we Inquire
what to do to produce the bacteria that
produce the fine flavor in butter, he will
give us the same instructions that any
good dairyman would give us without
regard to science Intelligent dairymen
have demonstrated that in order to get
good products from the dairy It 1b nec
essary to obsen e certain rules, and now
scientists are telling us why it is neces
sary to observe these rules
We should aim to make ourselves
master of all the Information the scien
tists have to give us, as such knowledge
can not fail to be of advantage to us, but
we should not follow blindly everything
the scientists tell us, unless experience
and hard common sense are on the side
of the scientist.
Lady Cake Take two and a half
scant teacupfuls flour and after sifting
mix well with It one heaping teaspoon
ful Royal baking powder and sift again;
add one and a half teacupfuls powdered
Bugar, blended with half a teacupful
of butter, beat tho whites of two eggs
to a froth, add gradually to the flour
half a teacupful of milk, follow with
tho sugar and the butter, and next the
whites of the eggs, finishing up with a
teaspoonful of tho essence of almond
Bake In a hot oven for three-quarters
of an hour.
TfMtlntr Iloincopntlilo Remedies.
while I rely on spongia in most all
cases of roup, yet it is not n specific by
nny means, writes E W Ainsden in
Southern Fancier, In tho first symp
toms, running at the no3trlls, and a
short quick sneeze, acconltum nux as
a remedy Is preferable Whentherolsn
thick discharge from the nose mercur
lus Is Indicated Wo have found hepai
sutphur, In alternation with spongia
effective as n cure when spongia alono
would not bo sufficient Spongia to
ver) effectlvo when there is a rattling
sound in the throat For canker, first
clean tho cankerous subetanco off tho
surface, rinso tho mouth and throat
clean and apply either burned, pul
verized atum or powdered borax, with
a tittle sutphato of copper mixed w',Mi
It put hepar-sulphur in tho drinking
w ater
Hero Is a reined) for warts or sore
head, as It is common called It is
a species of roup I have had fowls'
combs and wattles filled with these lit
tle eankeious sores beforo they wero
discovered I first bathe the head In
warm water and vinegar or boraccic
ncld Soak tho sore spots well, then
wipe dry with a clean cloth Now tako
n piece of copperns, dip it In water and
rub It on tho Bore spots, It will kill tho
cankerous matter of the sore and dr) It
up In 12 hours This Is a never-falling
remed) for canker sores You need
not be afraid of getag It In the oe,
for it wilt do no hint If the fov 1 Is
feverish give aconite in the drinking
water. Epsom salts, one tablespoonful
to n quart of water is n good preven
tive Homoepathlc remedies aro easll)
administered, and If tho right remed)
Is selected, they are a sure cure Fowls
are ver) susceptible to homoepathlc
Inn Ttatty froml
In conversation with a paity not
long since the question of feeding poul
ti) came up nnd beverat expressed
themselves 'very decldedl) against
withholding the corn or buckwheat,
emphasizing his views with ttie state
ment, "A hen knows when she has had
enough as well os n man" This was
true, perhaps, but did not touch the
point. If an animal Is fed an excess
of fat, no matter the source, It Is stored
on her body. A certain qunntlty is ne
cessary to supplv the fuel and provide
for tho wastes, but over nnd above this
the excess goes on to tho body It
shows Itself especially on the Intes
tines, around the gizzard and In clog
ging tho body, infringing on tho space
necessary for the action of the natural
functions and particular preventing
the formation of eggs if this food be
continued there Is sure to result a fntt)
degeneration of the liver. Pale combs,
black combs, dead hens under the
loosti in early morning, toss of the uso
of their legs, are all nymptoms of this
one disease tho result of overfeeding
fattening food Without doubt the loss
In this .direction Is greater than any
other In tho poultry yard Ex,
I nullah ltulter Mitrkrt
The competition In furnishing freBh
butter for tho English marl ei grows
dally keener. Once the Danes had It
all their own waj, and Danish butter
was in demand at tho highest prices
Seeing what the dairy schools had ac
complished for that littlo kingdom,
other nations followed Buit and began
a -vigorous rivalry for tho London
Sweden has been bo successful In
her efforts that by many her product Is
reckoned even superior to the Danish
article French butter at one time
ranked "very high, but carelessness and
the admixture of oleomargarine caused
it to fall In disrepute It has onl) Just
regained Us lost footing by exercising
extreme care In the preparation of the
article and by the rigid exclusion of all
adulterating substances By herculean
efforts Australia has succeeded in plac
ing on tho market a butter of excellent
quallt), and there is no room to doubt
the rapid betterment of the Canadian
andAmerlcau article The butter fctand
ard throughout the world has steadily
risen. In nothing are the benefits of
competition more clearly Bhown than in
this ono product. The averago butter
has Improved more within tho past de
cade than during the whole of tho pre
ceding centur) World.
Doubt Tuberculin.
Dr. W. L Zutll, chairman of the vet
erinary faculty of the University ot
Pennsylvania, declares that tuberculin
will not react In every case of tubercu
lar disease, but will react where no tu
berculosis exists, and therefore is not
reliable He sa)s It Is positively dan
gerous, as it may arouse a latent or
encysted tubercle Into activity, and thus
"ause an aggravated tuberculosis that
wilt render the milk unfit for food and
hasten tho cow's death, whereas with
out tuberculin Buch a cow might enjoy
health and yield perfectly harmless
milk. Prof Gulllehan of the veterin
ary school at Berne, Switzerland, ex
presses the same opinion and adds that
because of the great loss In cattle and
dangtr In milk by the use of tuberculin,
he thinks It will never be rendered
obligatory by law. Dr. 7ulll concludes:
"My position Is this: I cannot, do not,
and will not Indorse the Indiscriminate
use of tuberculin as an agent for diag
nosing tuberculosis In dairy cattle.
Every new report we get of the general
arbitrary use of this substance proves
1 ucrd'able. It is not mel by law In
any country of the world,"
Paving Clay. Towns In Florida have
a great boon in the Bo-called paving clay
found near Bartow In that state and
elsewhere farther south. It Is not sole
ly clay, but a combination of Band, clay
and oxide of Iron. It breaks up under
the pick when dug, and needs no other
preparation to be put upon sandy
streets of Florida towns. It Is laid on
several Inches deep, wet, and then
rolled. The result Is n hard, smooth
surface, that resists the wear and tear
of traffic. Railway companies In Flor
ida have used the material for ap
proaches to stations and crossings.
&0111P t'p tn l)nte Hints About ttittliu
tlon of the fe,ll uml Ip1Un Thereof
Horticulture, V Itlculture anil I lorl
Kst In full nnd Drought
To the Farmers' Review Ths h' Ju-
Ject of rainfall and how to meet a
uiouth is being n themo for much dis
cussion of lato and one, too, of vciy
great Importance
That theio has been a change
wrought in the countrv extend ng from
tho base of the Rocky mountains to tho
Aiiegnenies east, and from the Lakes
north to near the Gulf of Mexico south
in tho distribution of tho rainfall h an
observant fact, and no ono who has
given tho subject an) consideration for
the past ten and twent) )cars but
knows a change exists, which in mrny
respects has been for the better and In
others quite tho contrar), on the whole,
however, believe that tho advnntugcs
gained far exceed the disadvantages In
clined by the change
Atmospherical disturbances seem to
occur about tho samo as they did
twent) ) eats or moroago as they tourso
across the countr) from the west to tho
east, but they ore not laden with tho
moisture they formerl) would be, con
sequently tho precipitation of rain falls
Is materlall) lessened in a belt of coun
try traversed b) latitude lines 37 to 42
Inclusive As the amount of rnln ex
tending across the country depends
largely upon the degrees of tempera
ture held in the atmosphere and the
vapor arising fiom water-logged areas,
or Inundations of rivers lakes, etc, b)
rapid accumulations of great bodies of
mist which are more or less influenced
b) certain conditions for or against
rapid absorption and precipitation for
areas of country to cast of that place
A quarter of a century ago the bouico
of the Ohio, Missouri and Mississippi
rivers was a vast wilderness, covered
with a dense growth of woodland that
usually held the snow falls of winter
until spring and as it melted more
slowly the water was held back ac
cordingly to find wav down tho rivets
and Into the great Mississippi basin un
der tho Influence of a heated tempt. n-
ture that absorbed through vapor large
quantities which wns carried by tho
forco of air currents across the countr)
to tho ncrth of east until cooled by
contact with a lower temperature that
like n recoil precipitated the accumu
lated mists over a region interspersed
with ponds, lakes and rivers, which for
daj a and weeks was discharging again
their surplus by routes water-logged
with drift In woodland and logs that
kept the air moist by day and the night
wet with dew, so that if a drouth oc
curred at all east of tho ' Father of
Waters" It wob lato in tho season und of
shoit duration
Now that Is all changed, the result
of reclaiming tens of thousands of
acreB by ditching and tile draining, and
the removing of tho timber from the
surface land, laving bare to the sun
and winds, so that with tho approach of
spring and higher temperature tho wa
ter dparts more rapidly nnd the rain
fall less frequcntl) and of shorter dura
tion, and results in a drier state of
weather conditions and prolonged
Three )ears ago T made a trip west
In corapuny with an old 59 er who was
among the first to open placer mining
way up at tho head of Black Hawk
canjon, Colorado, and he pointed out
to mo the spot where the) opened up,
nnd on the 4th da) of July, 1859, began
making boards out of nice pine logs
with a rip saw for sluice boxes, by roll
ing them out on skids, one end resting
against the hillside and the other end
resting In forks proped to trees stand
ing further down the slope 1 he timber
covered the great "divide," hillside and
gulches for hundreds of miles, but now
I am informed that a tree was pot to bo
found within tw enty miles of Silver City
that would mako a creditable log, and
scarcely a shrub or stump could be
seen anywhere In the vicinity of those
little mining towns, having an disap
peared for use in the mines and
for fuel, leaving the surface baro and
unpenetrable to rain and melting snows
that Boon disappeared down the gulches
and out into the streams leaving the
At the time my friend was located
there It was in the summer and water
flowed in the ravine, but when I was
there, and understand most of the time
now, perfectly dry.
Have m friend who roamed the plains
and foothills as a cowboy for ten years,
but the last ten has been settled on n
farm near the F'atte river in Western
Nebraska, who sa)B that stream, with
his first acquaintance of it, main
tained a current all the )ear, and In
spring time great volumes of water
flowed through Its channel, but in re
cent years does not carry any such
quantities at any time, but Is dry tn
numerous places a good portion of the
Another friend writes me that irriga
tion canals and ditches in Colorado are
extending their lines that draw their
supplies from streams leaving the
mountains so aa to deprive the Platte
and other tributaries to the Missouri,
which no doubt has a telling effect on
the country eastward from the Influ
ence caused by larger streams of water
flowing through It, and greater evapora
tion and subsequent precipitation over
a large portion ot the central states
made drier by artificial means late
My obseivatlon Is that recurring at
mospherical disturbances are not laden
with the cumulous clouds to the extent
they were a few years ago and "settled"
rain Is a thing of the past by an over
shadowing of the earth for days of Inky
darkness and fallen mists.
All In all think It Is an Imperative
duty now that farmers, gardeners and
stockmen, not only prcpa.ro to meet a
diouth, hut mako their nrrnngementa,
that It's here now nnd to stay, so ihat
less dependence on rainfall must be
subservient with man's command to
lead tho way
Upland, Ind. Mlello.
Hie Open Druln
Since the tlto drnlns have come Into
such general use, wo find that there Is
a general antipathy against open ditch
es and efforts aro mndo by almost nil
farmers who drain to substitute tile for
open drains, sa)s Drainage Journal
Tho advantages of covered drains over
open ones aro so apparent,
and eo stronr nre the argu
ments for underdralns, that it
Is not Birnnge that the true ouUe and
use of open ditches should be undei
rated The objections to tho open ditch
nro several, some of which aro the fol
lowing It takes a strip of land which
with nn underdraln would be valuable
foi cultivation, and makes It of no uso
except for a water course It divides
fields Into Ehapes inconvenient for cul
tlv atinr It i equircs considerable w ork
annually to keep it free from wefds,
grasB and other obstructions It 13 a
troublesomo barrier when it is desired
to draw toads from one field to another
All of thtso aro objections and often
cerious ones
It may be asked What advantages
can be offered which will offset these
objections? In many cases none In
others tho Elnglo advnntage that tho
laigo open ditch will carry the dralnago
water of several fields which the farmet
desires to drain, while tile, of reasona
ble Bizo and cost, will not
In accomplishing successful drainace.
aB in any other enterprise, we must use
mo means which nro ndapted to tho
desired end 1 armors aro finding that
they aie tr)Ing to forco more water
through their tiles than they are capa
ble of carryinc. thoueh manv casLS ot
fnilure nre owing to Inaccurate laying
and obstructed outlet
The use of open ditches Is to carrv
tho exceHslvefiood watcrthat sometimes
falls on our land In a short time und
abovo all to give a leady nnd fieo out
let to all tile drains which are dis
charged into it A fntmer once re
marked to tho writer "Tho trouble
with tile drains Is that I must havo a
place for the water to jump off and get
awny at the outlet " He stated tho Ini
tial truth of undcrdralnlng We must
get tho water away from tho outlet
Carr)ing out this precept often makes
the open ditch a necessity. Especially
Is this true In flat nrnirie lands Slouchs
are tho v ater courses for tho natural
drainage of surrounding higher lands,
and when deepened In the center by
means of a lanro onen ditch, they
nffoi d an excellent outlet for tile drains,
and also give ready exit for surface
water which gathers in large quanti
ties from raptdl) melting Bnows, from
ratrs that fall when the ground 13 fro
zen, and from excessive rainfalls
Ponm l ertillrer lent
Tie Ohio Exneilment Station has
begun a series of experiments in which
the three irops, wheat, clover and po
tatoes, nro grown in rotation, with and
without fertilizers of different kinds
The experiment is to be carried on
both at tho Central Station in Wayno
count) , and at the North Western Sub-
Station in Fulton county, and vas be-i
run In Wajne count) In 1S94 b) planti
ing potatoes on land that had been
two )enrs in corn, following grpss and
on uowly cleared, )cllow sand of tho
oak opening region in Fulton count).
The plan or fertilizing is similar to.
that which has been pursued In tho
experiments In continuous cropping
nt Columbim except that the fertiliz
ers are used In both smallei and larger
quantities than at Columbus
Tho soil on which this test is being
made at tho Central Station is a light
clay. It was thoroughly drained In
the fall of 1893, with thieo-lnch tllo
drains laid 36 feet apart The plant
ing was done In good season In 1894, and
the fertilizers applied broadcast Tho
potatoes started off wet), but their
growth wns seriously retarded by tho
excessive drouth of the summer.
Tho general results of tho experi
ment were that while pnrtial fertil
izers, containing only ono or two of the
threo tEBential elements of fertility.
produced somo increase of crop, that lu
cre iso was Irregular and uucertun.
but when a complete fertilizer was apt
plied there was an Increase of crop In
every ease, and the increnso rose regu
larly with the quantity of fertilizer
applied, the largest ) leld, and In Wayne
county the largest net prout, alter
paying the cost of the fertilizer, com
ing from an application of 480 pounds
dissolved bono black, 320 pounds ni
trate of soda and 300 pounds mm late
of potash, a total of 1,100 pounds per
acre, costing about $20 This applica
tion Increased the total yield by b5
bushels per acre over the total yield
of the fertilized plots adjoining.
On the yellow sand In Fulton county
where the unfertilized yield was much
iimaller than In Wayne, the Inueape
from fertilizer was much smaller than
on the better land In Wayne, nnd where
Incomplete fertilizers were used it was
still more ii regular, In Bevarul cases
falling to pay the cost of the fertilizer;
but the complete fertilizers paid their
cost in every case, with potatoes at 60
cents per bushel, the largest total in
crease here being 47 bushels, from tho,
same mixture that produced the largest
Increase in Wayne.
This mixture carried approximately
50 pounds of nitrogen per acre, equiva
lent to 60 pounds of ammonia, 75 pounds
phosphoric acid and 150 pounds ot
Shade Trees In Paris After a shad
tree on the boulevards of Paris hat
died Its place is supplied by a full
grown successor, which is hauled fromi
the nearest foreBt, with Its matte ot
earth around tho roots sustained bj
boards, matting, etc , and then trans-'
ported on a special wagon to the new
site. With soil attached, such a tree
welch s, on an average, twenty tons,

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