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THE MONTICELLO GAZETTE.
I'KINTED AND HSBI.HHK1) EVKIIY SATEUD^Y BY"MILLS’TjURSChIu?, JEFKERSON aTtfr.l- AIQNTirriW'Mi.^pp, ' ‘ JVOLJj___ SXTPKDAY, JULY 12, I M3. > [NTlSj** ^ TERMS: Four dollars per annum, half in advance, the bal iuce at the expiratiou of the year. Advertisements, not exceeding ten lines, in- : serteJ once for oue dollar, fifty cents for each con- J tin nance; longer ones in the same proportion. 0^7“ VIvertising customers will please mark the number of insertions required cm the margin of their a h •rt'sements; otherwise, they will be continued until forbi l, and charged accordingly. INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. | The splendid success of the New-York canals has given ri«e to numerous projects I for the improvement of inland navigation in almost every part of the United States. In Massachusetts a canal was proposed sometime since from Worcester to Frovi dence (R. I.) a distance uf 40 miles. The expense is estimated by tbeenginer at 5*29 - 000 dollars. The manufacturing interests of the district of country which would be ben filed by this improvement probably surpass in importance those of any equal extent of territory in the Union. lo Connecticut, a canal is in contempla tion to pass from New-Haven through F .nn ingb n, and to enter Connecticut river at Northampton in Massachusetts. The effect ot it would be (o divert the trade of the up per part of Conneciicu river from Hartford and other towns, on the bank of the rivpr, to New Haven. I'lie expense is estimated at $ '00,000. The subscriptions in the city of New H I«en amount, it is said, to $100,000. He hive prepared the billowing notices from Reports oi Commissioners and other documents, which ha e recently come into our possession.—x Ubs. i Potomac River Canal —The Commission ers apioin'ed by the law of Virginia, and the resolutions of Maryland, of the year 1821, to examine the affairs of the Potomac coni piny, and to de>ise the best means of effect ing an improvement |p the navigation of the river, have recently*'made a report, from vhich we have derived much interesting in formation- i The Potomac flows through a mountain ous region, and the current is very r-*pid, the descent from Cumberland to tide water, a distance of 185 miles, being 537 feet. The river is naturally navigable only during the floods and fre'hjtj, and the-e are so uncer tain in their du ran on, that very little depen dance can be placed upon them. The navi gation too is of a dangerous character, aris ing from the wildness of the torrent, and the suddenness of its bends, the stream having worn its wa v, in the lapse of ages, through countless ridges of rocks, among which boats and cargoes are frequently destroyed. The mode in which the Potomac company have ittemp’ed to improve the navigation, has been principally by sluices The sluices, ill the upper part of 'he river, con-ists chief ly of channels f-rmed by low walls running from each shore towards the middle of the stream, and elevated about eighteen inches or two feet from the bottom. They are made of ro n stone, taken from the lied of the river, generally of a size not larger than a man's bead, and raised on a broad basis In m ten to twenty feet in width. These trans verse walls ordains, are usually rounecied witli two walls of about the same height, hut bullion a narrow basis, and placed parallel to each other, and to the shores. The two last mentioned walls are usually* twenty feet a par!, through the pa-sage, or artificial can al, thus formed, the current of the river is made to run. for the purpose of deepening the waters. These walls ami sluices are very numer ous anil have cost large sums of money, but they have not been found to answer ibe pur pose, and they are scarcely to he distin guished from the fish dams, erected along the whole course of the stream. In some cases, sluiies have been formed t by excava'ing the rocky bottom of live river, but these also have proved of no service, there being a fundimental error in the attempt to obtain a level, by partial Cutting or deepen ing the butt in, when the rapids extend through the whole line i f the river. Unless you bring water in -uch a case to a level in e>ery part of tile line, and partial cutting,' or deepening in spots, only serves to trans fer a shallow further up the line, or to make i hollow basins o: no serv ice. Ow ng to these radical errors in their plan, the Potomac company have expended large sums, and incurred a heavy debt, to no purpose. Instead of rendering the river na vigable in dry seasons for vessels drawing one foot water, as required by tlieir charter, the commissioners ascertained, by actual (OeasurmenL that at the timo of their exarain t »tion, there w as not a -umcient depth lor' aoats drawing 6 inches; and in one place, for more than eighty miles, obstructions from shallows, -ufficienl to stop a skiff, were met with, almos every half mile. Iti consequence ot tht'-e facts, the Commissioners have're commended, that the Potomac company should he divesled of their charter, that some effectual mode he adopted for improving the navigation of the river. After an examination of different plans,; the Commissioners have reported ip favour of abandoniug' fhe hed of the rfvpr, and forming a regular canal along its banks from Cumbeiland to tide water, lff5 miles. The cost of a canal, thirty feet wide at the lop, twenty feet at the bottom, atltt three feet deep, for 182 miles of that distance, is ascer-1 taiued to be $1,578,924; for the remaining i three miles, the canal of the Little Falls,! when enlarged, may be u-ed. The Cominis-i sinners suppose ihat the revenue, arising: fiom the lolls, might be safely calcula'ed at! $240,000 annually, which would yield a net profit of 15 per cent, on the estimated cost. Among the advantages of such a canal, mentioned by the Commissioners, are the following 1. Coal, which i-found in abun drtiice in the v icinit y of the North Branch of the Potomac, and of a quality equal to that of the best Liverpool coal, might be afforded in Georgetown, tor 16 cents a bushel. .M Slate, which h found in still greaier quanti ty than coal, and of an excellent quality for roofing, might he furnished as cheap as the be-l oi -liingle.-:. 3. The immense mines of ol iron ore, which are yet unopened along the river, would be extensively wrought, es |fciallyas ihe price of luel would be so con siderably reduced. To defray tbe expenses, the Commission ers recommend, dial a loan .-hould he obtain ed, and tiial books be opened, under tbe di rection of tlie two States, for the subscription of stock, by individuals, each individual to be eiviiled to t e stock he subscribes for, up on condition of paying annfa.ll> to the slates the interest of theHmuunt, until the annual profitts of ti e canal shall be adequate in an r xtinguisbment of ihe loan, and a discharge of the annual interest. In case the legisla tures should deem it inexpedient, at present to raise so large a -uni by loan, the Com nii-sioner- recommend thai ai least the sec tion of the canal between tide water and Harper’s Feiry should be completed, tbe expense of this part being estimated at only $6tiU. 127. Potomac and Ohio Canal.—The Commis sioners appointed, as mentioned in the pre ceding arnrle. to report on the best means of improving ihe navigation of the Potomac ri ver, have suggested the practicability of o pening a water communication between the Atlantic and Western Stales, by means of a canal, to extend from Cumberland on the Potomac, acro.-s the Alleghany mountains, to the iiumongaliela, a branch of the Ohio. Ii seems that a copiou-, stream, called Deep creek, one of the head waters o. the iMonongahela, rises within about ilOO feet of the summit of the Alleghany mountains. In the first part of its course, this cieek runs through a narrow pass m a ridge where by erecting a dam fifteen teet high, and not inure than forty or fitly yards long, an im mense pond may be loaned, equal, al least, to three 01 four miles in length, and half a mile in bread Ii. This reservoir, the Conimis aiouei> wuuu. iuiiiimj >uiucicm wa ter tor locks, and a cannal. In order to des cend on the east side of the mountains, how ever, it would be necessary 10 carry the can al through the dividing ridge by a tunnel two miles long. The cost of this tunnel and of the locks, would place the project, un doubtedly, beyond the means of Maryland and Virginia; but the Commissioners think that Pennsylvania, Ohio and Kentucky, as well as the general government, are all im mediately interested, and, as it is ascertain ed that the necessary supply of watei can be fount), nothing i.- wanting to the -ucce s of the plan bu funds, which might easily he furnished by the joint effort of all the parties concerned. The whole expense, it is suppos ed, will fall far short of what the public would na'urally imagine. If such acaual were completed, the com missioners anticipate, that Washington, 01 some cily in this neighborhood, would have decided advantages, as an emporium for the trade of the western states, over New-York or New-Orleans. The advantages over New York would consist in the shorter distance, in the freedom from the neces-ity of navi gating lakes, which requites vessels of a dif ferent construction from those useu on can il>. and consequently demands a charge ot lands, and the repeated removal of the car I 5° t>o*n one vessel to another; and lUtally, I n the circumslanie. that the Potomac canal I would be free from ice one month longer i ban that from lake Erie to the Hudson. The advantages over New Orleans would consist, I in the greater ease and safety of the naviga ; tion; in the superiority of the climate, the treat of New-Orleans being injurious to nor thern constitutions, and frequently damag ing flour, bacon, and all vegilable and ani mal productions; and finally, in the case of the approach from sea, much difficulty being experienced by ships in ascending the Mis sissippi to New-Orleans. Chesicpeakt and Deleware canal.— This canal, which was first proposed more than 20 years ago, and upon which g 100.000 were expended many years since, will pro bably soon be recommenced and prosecuted to completion. In 1812, the legislature of Maryland passed an act authoiizing a sub scription on the part of the state, of two hun dred and fifty shares, (or 50,000) to the cap ital stock of the company, provided the United States should subscribe seven hun dred and fitly shares, the commonwealth of Pennsylvania three hundred and seventy-five shares, and the state ot Deleware one hun dred shares. The United States -and Penn sylvania, not having ili-cove^ed a disposition to subscribe their respective quotas, lie Gen eral Assembly of Maryland, in February of the present year passed a supplementary law, dispensing with this condition, so far as relates to them, and authorising the Treasur er to subscribe Iwo'hundred and fifty shares. Him Iflpfl C i l I r* r i»v I i ■ a Irv ....a C $225,000 shall be obtained from other sour ces. in addition to the amount to he furnish ed by the state of Delaware. Within a few weeks, more than $200,000 have been sub scribed towards the canal by individuals in l eunsyl'ariia. Jt only remainsTherefore, tor Del. waie to subscribe $20,000. when Mary land, agreeably to her pledge, will subscribe $ O.OOO. I he whole expense ot the canal, according to the estimate in the Report ol the Secretary pi the I reasurv to Congress in' 1808. w ill be $850.000* Of this gum $200,^ 000, were subscribed many year!since, and! i* would seem, therefore, that about g300,-| 000 are still wanting to complete the neces sary amount. i he citizens of Philadelphia appear to consider the formation of this canal an oh jecl of great importance, as its effects will be to give them a share in the trade of the Suscpiehannah river and Chesapeake hay, which is now enjoyed exclusively by Balii more. James Rh-er and the Ohio.—The Virgin ians have, lor several years, had it in con templation to open a communication between James river and Ohio; the effect of which would be to divert a considerable portion of the trade of the western country to Rich mond and Norfolk. At the last meeting of the legislature, the James river company were authorised to borrow a considerable sum, to enable them to^proceed with the work It is intended immediately to improve the navigation of James river for a consider able distance above tidewater; to make a road fiom the mouth of Dunlap's creek (a branch of James river) to the Great Falls of Kanawha, and to render the Kanawha navi gable from the falls of Ohio. A loan of $100-} 000 has recently been effected by the com- j pany, to enable them to proceed with these -eertonsofthe work, and it is expected that it will soon commence and will be executed uUltlk finarnir 1 Hudson and Deleware canal.—A bill has recently been presented to the legislature of New-York to incorporate a company, for the 1 purpose of opening a water communication between the rivers Delaware and Hudson, 1 through the counties of Ulster and Sulivan. 1 The object is to open a channel, through 1 which the city of New-York, and other ' parts of the state, may be supplied with coal from Pennsylvania; large quantities of that J mineral being found near the head waters of the riverLackawasen, which empties itself ^ into the Deleware opposite the county of 1 Suliran. I ^ 1 J M The Wabash River.—The Wabash is a I beautiful river, about 600 miles in leng h bv t its meanders. It enters the Ohio about 140 1 miles from 'he confluence of the latter with i the Mississippi, and may be considered as t' largest tributary stream, coming in on t the west side. The breadth, at (he mouth, is 400 yards. Its head w aters rise in th.-Nor'h-j w est part of the state of Ohio, and its gener-j ■- Mi ,T I course to the Ohio river is south of west. t> principal tributaries are. White river, .idle Wabash. Embarrass. Big and Little jel Rivers, Sugar Tree creek, Ponce Passu, lT ” ildcat, 1 ippeconoe, and Mutsissiniway. 1 he river flows through a rich level coun ry well adapted to the cultivation of wheat Hid rye, and cotton has of late been raised vdb success. There are, both on the east md west sides of this river, a great many irairies or natural meadows, which are very rich and ferine. The country is now settling l,ery h»st and will, in a few years, if the pre >ent prospect continues, be in a high stale at cultivation. The principal (owns situate in tins river, are Harmony Vincennes, and I erre Haute, with several more, which are >et new, and contain but few inhabitants. This river forms the western boundary of the stale having Illinois on the west, and In , on theeast, for a considerable distance. It affords excellent spring navigation for flat boats, for the distance of 460 or 500 miles bom its mouth, and is navigable for craft ora wing two or three feet water as far as V iucelines, At almost any season AMERICAN HISTORY. There are a number of inteiesling facts relative to early American History scattered thro Holmes' Anftals. The editor of the De mocratic Press has read the work for the pur pose of selecting such matter as may inter est—the Ameiican people:—He submits the Roberson and Anderson concur in stating that in the year 1506 some slips of the sugar cane were brought from the Canary Islands and planted in Hispaniola, (St. Domingo) where they were lound to thrive so well as to become an object of commerce. Roberson says that a tew negro slavet were sent to America in the year 1503. In 1508 negroes were imported into St. Don in go by the Spaniards from the Portuguese settlements on he Guinea coast. The reason assigned was that 'he natives were too lee* hie to work in the fields and in the mines It is clear that in modern times slavery is the offspring of cupidity. Charles V. of Spain, granted to a Flemish favorite an exclusive privilege of importing into An.eiica |.,ur thousand negroes. Tie Fleming -old the pri vileges for 25,000 ducats to some Genoese merchants, who first trough! into a regular form the commerces for slaves between Afri ca and America A commerce which is now happily at an end. It is an honorable fact in the history of the United Stales, that it was, the first government which prohibited the importation, of slaves The first charter for a colony giarted by crow n of England was granted by queen E lizaheth to Sir Humphrey Gilbert. By this character he was authorized “to take poises sion of all remote and baibarous lands unoc cupied by any Christian prince or people.’’ I he first English colony every planted in America was at Roanoke Island, Virginia, in 1585.—One hundred and seven persons were left there by Sir Richard Greenv ilie un der the grovernment of Mr. Lane, On the 18th of August 1587, Mrs. Dare was delivered of a daughter in Roanoke, which was baptised the next Lord’s day by the name of Virginia. She was the first En i_a._ . 5. vuuuiijr. In 1593 the English sent some English “hips to Cape Breton for Morse, for whale * ishing. This is the first mention we find of die whale fishery by the English. They ound no w-haies, but they discovered on an Island about 8 hundred whale fins' where a Biscay ship had been lost about 3 years he ore, and this is the first account that we have >f whale fins or whole bone by the English. In 1607 the English settlers built a town n Virginia, and in honor ofkmg James, call id it James tow n. This was the first perma ient habitation of the English in Ameri a. In 1508 John Laydon was married to Ann durras, and this was the first marriage in Virginia. The first Marriage in New-Eng and was in 1621 between Eeward Winslow nd Susanna White, In 1610 a member of parliament came to America. The commons declared his seat acant, because by accepting a colonial office e was rendered incapable of executing his rust. This appears to be the first time^ihat "irginia was noticed by the English parlia lenl. In 1616 tobacco was first cultivated by le English in Virginia. BLJAK DECLAIM TIOJVS For Sale at tlus Uffice.