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The Monticello gazette. (Monticello, Miss.) 1823-18??, July 12, 1823, Image 1

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THE MONTICELLO GAZETTE.
I'KINTED AND HSBI.HHK1) EVKIIY SATEUD^Y BY"MILLS’TjURSChIu?, JEFKERSON aTtfr.l- AIQNTirriW'Mi.^pp, ' ‘
JVOLJj___ SXTPKDAY, JULY 12, I M3. > [NTlSj** ^
TERMS:
Four dollars per annum, half in advance, the
bal iuce at the expiratiou of the year.
Advertisements, not exceeding ten lines, in- :
serteJ once for oue dollar, fifty cents for each con- J
tin nance; longer ones in the same proportion.
0^7“ VIvertising customers will please mark the
number of insertions required cm the margin of their
a h •rt'sements; otherwise, they will be continued
until forbi l, and charged accordingly.
INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. |
The splendid success of the New-York
canals has given ri«e to numerous projects
I for the improvement of inland navigation in
almost every part of the United States.
In Massachusetts a canal was proposed
sometime since from Worcester to Frovi
dence (R. I.) a distance uf 40 miles. The
expense is estimated by tbeenginer at 5*29 -
000 dollars. The manufacturing interests of
the district of country which would be ben
filed by this improvement probably surpass
in importance those of any equal extent of
territory in the Union.
lo Connecticut, a canal is in contempla
tion to pass from New-Haven through F .nn
ingb n, and to enter Connecticut river at
Northampton in Massachusetts. The effect
ot it would be (o divert the trade of the up
per part of Conneciicu river from Hartford
and other towns, on the bank of the rivpr, to
New Haven. I'lie expense is estimated at
$ '00,000. The subscriptions in the city of
New H I«en amount, it is said, to $100,000.
He hive prepared the billowing notices
from Reports oi Commissioners and other
documents, which ha e recently come into
our possession.—x Ubs.
i
Potomac River Canal —The Commission
ers apioin'ed by the law of Virginia, and
the resolutions of Maryland, of the year 1821,
to examine the affairs of the Potomac coni
piny, and to de>ise the best means of effect
ing an improvement |p the navigation of the
river, have recently*'made a report, from
vhich we have derived much interesting in
formation- i
The Potomac flows through a mountain
ous region, and the current is very r-*pid,
the descent from Cumberland to tide water,
a distance of 185 miles, being 537 feet. The
river is naturally navigable only during the
floods and fre'hjtj, and the-e are so uncer
tain in their du ran on, that very little depen
dance can be placed upon them. The navi
gation too is of a dangerous character, aris
ing from the wildness of the torrent, and the
suddenness of its bends, the stream having
worn its wa v, in the lapse of ages, through
countless ridges of rocks, among which boats
and cargoes are frequently destroyed.
The mode in which the Potomac company
have ittemp’ed to improve the navigation,
has been principally by sluices The sluices,
ill the upper part of 'he river, con-ists chief
ly of channels f-rmed by low walls running
from each shore towards the middle of the
stream, and elevated about eighteen inches
or two feet from the bottom. They are made
of ro n stone, taken from the lied of the
river, generally of a size not larger than a
man's bead, and raised on a broad basis In m
ten to twenty feet in width. These trans
verse walls ordains, are usually rounecied
witli two walls of about the same height, hut
bullion a narrow basis, and placed parallel
to each other, and to the shores. The two
last mentioned walls are usually* twenty feet
a par!, through the pa-sage, or artificial can
al, thus formed, the current of the river is
made to run. for the purpose of deepening the
waters.
These walls ami sluices are very numer
ous anil have cost large sums of money, but
they have not been found to answer ibe pur
pose, and they are scarcely to he distin
guished from the fish dams, erected along
the whole course of the stream.
In some cases, sluiies have been formed
t by excava'ing the rocky bottom of live river,
but these also have proved of no service, there
being a fundimental error in the attempt to
obtain a level, by partial Cutting or deepen
ing the butt in, when the rapids extend
through the whole line i f the river. Unless
you bring water in -uch a case to a level in
e>ery part of tile line, and partial cutting,'
or deepening in spots, only serves to trans
fer a shallow further up the line, or to make i
hollow basins o: no serv ice.
Ow ng to these radical errors in their
plan, the Potomac company have expended
large sums, and incurred a heavy debt, to no
purpose. Instead of rendering the river na
vigable in dry seasons for vessels drawing
one foot water, as required by tlieir charter,
the commissioners ascertained, by actual
(OeasurmenL that at the timo of their exarain
t
»tion, there w as not a -umcient depth lor'
aoats drawing 6 inches; and in one place, for
more than eighty miles, obstructions from
shallows, -ufficienl to stop a skiff, were met
with, almos every half mile. Iti consequence
ot tht'-e facts, the Commissioners have're
commended, that the Potomac company
should he divesled of their charter, that some
effectual mode he adopted for improving
the navigation of the river.
After an examination of different plans,;
the Commissioners have reported ip favour
of abandoniug' fhe hed of the rfvpr, and
forming a regular canal along its banks from
Cumbeiland to tide water, lff5 miles. The
cost of a canal, thirty feet wide at the lop,
twenty feet at the bottom, atltt three feet
deep, for 182 miles of that distance, is ascer-1
taiued to be $1,578,924; for the remaining i
three miles, the canal of the Little Falls,!
when enlarged, may be u-ed. The Cominis-i
sinners suppose ihat the revenue, arising:
fiom the lolls, might be safely calcula'ed at!
$240,000 annually, which would yield a
net profit of 15 per cent, on the estimated
cost.
Among the advantages of such a canal,
mentioned by the Commissioners, are the
following 1. Coal, which i-found in abun
drtiice in the v icinit y of the North Branch of
the Potomac, and of a quality equal to that
of the best Liverpool coal, might be afforded
in Georgetown, tor 16 cents a bushel. .M
Slate, which h found in still greaier quanti
ty than coal, and of an excellent quality for
roofing, might he furnished as cheap as the
be-l oi -liingle.-:. 3. The immense mines of
ol iron ore, which are yet unopened along
the river, would be extensively wrought, es
|fciallyas ihe price of luel would be so con
siderably reduced.
To defray tbe expenses, the Commission
ers recommend, dial a loan .-hould he obtain
ed, and tiial books be opened, under tbe di
rection of tlie two States, for the subscription
of stock, by individuals, each individual to
be eiviiled to t e stock he subscribes for, up
on condition of paying annfa.ll> to the slates
the interest of theHmuunt, until the annual
profitts of ti e canal shall be adequate in an
r xtinguisbment of ihe loan, and a discharge
of the annual interest. In case the legisla
tures should deem it inexpedient, at present
to raise so large a -uni by loan, the Com
nii-sioner- recommend thai ai least the sec
tion of the canal between tide water and
Harper’s Feiry should be completed, tbe
expense of this part being estimated at only
$6tiU. 127.
Potomac and Ohio Canal.—The Commis
sioners appointed, as mentioned in the pre
ceding arnrle. to report on the best means of
improving ihe navigation of the Potomac ri
ver, have suggested the practicability of o
pening a water communication between the
Atlantic and Western Stales, by means of a
canal, to extend from Cumberland on the
Potomac, acro.-s the Alleghany mountains,
to the iiumongaliela, a branch of the Ohio.
Ii seems that a copiou-, stream, called
Deep creek, one of the head waters o. the
iMonongahela, rises within about ilOO feet of
the summit of the Alleghany mountains. In
the first part of its course, this cieek runs
through a narrow pass m a ridge where by
erecting a dam fifteen teet high, and not
inure than forty or fitly yards long, an im
mense pond may be loaned, equal, al least,
to three 01 four miles in length, and half a
mile in bread Ii. This reservoir, the Conimis
aiouei> wuuu. iuiiiimj >uiucicm wa
ter tor locks, and a cannal. In order to des
cend on the east side of the mountains, how
ever, it would be necessary 10 carry the can
al through the dividing ridge by a tunnel
two miles long. The cost of this tunnel and
of the locks, would place the project, un
doubtedly, beyond the means of Maryland
and Virginia; but the Commissioners think
that Pennsylvania, Ohio and Kentucky, as
well as the general government, are all im
mediately interested, and, as it is ascertain
ed that the necessary supply of watei can be
fount), nothing i.- wanting to the -ucce s of
the plan bu funds, which might easily he
furnished by the joint effort of all the parties
concerned. The whole expense, it is suppos
ed, will fall far short of what the public
would na'urally imagine.
If such acaual were completed, the com
missioners anticipate, that Washington, 01
some cily in this neighborhood, would have
decided advantages, as an emporium for the
trade of the western states, over New-York
or New-Orleans. The advantages over New
York would consist in the shorter distance,
in the freedom from the neces-ity of navi
gating lakes, which requites vessels of a dif
ferent construction from those useu on can
il>. and consequently demands a charge ot
lands, and the repeated removal of the car I
5° t>o*n one vessel to another; and lUtally, I
n the circumslanie. that the Potomac canal I
would be free from ice one month longer i
ban that from lake Erie to the Hudson. The
advantages over New Orleans would consist, I
in the greater ease and safety of the naviga ;
tion; in the superiority of the climate, the
treat of New-Orleans being injurious to nor
thern constitutions, and frequently damag
ing flour, bacon, and all vegilable and ani
mal productions; and finally, in the case of
the approach from sea, much difficulty being
experienced by ships in ascending the Mis
sissippi to New-Orleans.
Chesicpeakt and Deleware canal.— This
canal, which was first proposed more than
20 years ago, and upon which g 100.000
were expended many years since, will pro
bably soon be recommenced and prosecuted
to completion. In 1812, the legislature of
Maryland passed an act authoiizing a sub
scription on the part of the state, of two hun
dred and fifty shares, (or 50,000) to the cap
ital stock of the company, provided the
United States should subscribe seven hun
dred and fitly shares, the commonwealth of
Pennsylvania three hundred and seventy-five
shares, and the state ot Deleware one hun
dred shares. The United States -and Penn
sylvania, not having ili-cove^ed a disposition
to subscribe their respective quotas, lie Gen
eral Assembly of Maryland, in February of
the present year passed a supplementary
law, dispensing with this condition, so far as
relates to them, and authorising the Treasur
er to subscribe Iwo'hundred and fifty shares.
Him Iflpfl C i l I r* r i»v I i ■ a Irv ....a C
$225,000 shall be obtained from other sour
ces. in addition to the amount to he furnish
ed by the state of Delaware. Within a few
weeks, more than $200,000 have been sub
scribed towards the canal by individuals in
l eunsyl'ariia. Jt only remainsTherefore, tor
Del. waie to subscribe $20,000. when Mary
land, agreeably to her pledge, will subscribe
$ O.OOO. I he whole expense ot the canal,
according to the estimate in the Report ol
the Secretary pi the I reasurv to Congress in'
1808. w ill be $850.000* Of this gum $200,^
000, were subscribed many year!since, and!
i* would seem, therefore, that about g300,-|
000 are still wanting to complete the neces
sary amount.
i he citizens of Philadelphia appear to
consider the formation of this canal an oh
jecl of great importance, as its effects will
be to give them a share in the trade of the
Suscpiehannah river and Chesapeake hay,
which is now enjoyed exclusively by Balii
more.
James Rh-er and the Ohio.—The Virgin
ians have, lor several years, had it in con
templation to open a communication between
James river and Ohio; the effect of which
would be to divert a considerable portion of
the trade of the western country to Rich
mond and Norfolk. At the last meeting of
the legislature, the James river company
were authorised to borrow a considerable
sum, to enable them to^proceed with the
work It is intended immediately to improve
the navigation of James river for a consider
able distance above tidewater; to make a
road fiom the mouth of Dunlap's creek (a
branch of James river) to the Great Falls of
Kanawha, and to render the Kanawha navi
gable from the falls of Ohio. A loan of $100-}
000 has recently been effected by the com- j
pany, to enable them to proceed with these
-eertonsofthe work, and it is expected that
it will soon commence and will be executed
uUltlk finarnir 1
Hudson and Deleware canal.—A bill has
recently been presented to the legislature of
New-York to incorporate a company, for the 1
purpose of opening a water communication
between the rivers Delaware and Hudson, 1
through the counties of Ulster and Sulivan. 1
The object is to open a channel, through 1
which the city of New-York, and other '
parts of the state, may be supplied with coal
from Pennsylvania; large quantities of that J
mineral being found near the head waters of
the riverLackawasen, which empties itself ^
into the Deleware opposite the county of 1
Suliran. I
^ 1 J
M
The Wabash River.—The Wabash is a I
beautiful river, about 600 miles in leng h bv t
its meanders. It enters the Ohio about 140 1
miles from 'he confluence of the latter with i
the Mississippi, and may be considered as
t' largest tributary stream, coming in on t
the west side. The breadth, at (he mouth, is
400 yards. Its head w aters rise in th.-Nor'h-j
w est part of the state of Ohio, and its gener-j
■- Mi ,T
I course to the Ohio river is south of west.
t> principal tributaries are. White river,
.idle Wabash. Embarrass. Big and Little
jel Rivers, Sugar Tree creek, Ponce Passu,
lT ” ildcat, 1 ippeconoe, and Mutsissiniway.
1 he river flows through a rich level coun
ry well adapted to the cultivation of wheat
Hid rye, and cotton has of late been raised
vdb success. There are, both on the east
md west sides of this river, a great many
irairies or natural meadows, which are very
rich and ferine. The country is now settling
l,ery h»st and will, in a few years, if the pre
>ent prospect continues, be in a high stale
at cultivation. The principal (owns situate
in tins river, are Harmony Vincennes, and
I erre Haute, with several more, which are
>et new, and contain but few inhabitants.
This river forms the western boundary of
the stale having Illinois on the west, and In
, on theeast, for a considerable distance.
It affords excellent spring navigation for flat
boats, for the distance of 460 or 500 miles
bom its mouth, and is navigable for craft
ora wing two or three feet water as far as
V iucelines, At almost any season
AMERICAN HISTORY.
There are a number of inteiesling facts
relative to early American History scattered
thro Holmes' Anftals. The editor of the De
mocratic Press has read the work for the pur
pose of selecting such matter as may inter
est—the Ameiican people:—He submits the
Roberson and Anderson concur in stating
that in the year 1506 some slips of the sugar
cane were brought from the Canary Islands
and planted in Hispaniola, (St. Domingo)
where they were lound to thrive so well as
to become an object of commerce.
Roberson says that a tew negro slavet
were sent to America in the year 1503. In
1508 negroes were imported into St. Don in
go by the Spaniards from the Portuguese
settlements on he Guinea coast. The reason
assigned was that 'he natives were too lee*
hie to work in the fields and in the mines It
is clear that in modern times slavery is the
offspring of cupidity. Charles V. of Spain,
granted to a Flemish favorite an exclusive
privilege of importing into An.eiica |.,ur
thousand negroes. Tie Fleming -old the pri
vileges for 25,000 ducats to some Genoese
merchants, who first trough! into a regular
form the commerces for slaves between Afri
ca and America A commerce which is now
happily at an end. It is an honorable fact in
the history of the United Stales, that it was,
the first government which prohibited the
importation, of slaves
The first charter for a colony giarted by
crow n of England was granted by queen E
lizaheth to Sir Humphrey Gilbert. By this
character he was authorized “to take poises
sion of all remote and baibarous lands unoc
cupied by any Christian prince or people.’’
I he first English colony every planted in
America was at Roanoke Island, Virginia, in
1585.—One hundred and seven persons
were left there by Sir Richard Greenv ilie un
der the grovernment of Mr. Lane,
On the 18th of August 1587, Mrs. Dare
was delivered of a daughter in Roanoke,
which was baptised the next Lord’s day by
the name of Virginia. She was the first En
i_a._ .
5. vuuuiijr.
In 1593 the English sent some English
“hips to Cape Breton for Morse, for whale *
ishing. This is the first mention we find of
die whale fishery by the English. They
ound no w-haies, but they discovered on an
Island about 8 hundred whale fins' where a
Biscay ship had been lost about 3 years he
ore, and this is the first account that we have
>f whale fins or whole bone by the English.
In 1607 the English settlers built a town
n Virginia, and in honor ofkmg James, call
id it James tow n. This was the first perma
ient habitation of the English in Ameri
a.
In 1508 John Laydon was married to Ann
durras, and this was the first marriage in
Virginia. The first Marriage in New-Eng
and was in 1621 between Eeward Winslow
nd Susanna White,
In 1610 a member of parliament came to
America. The commons declared his seat
acant, because by accepting a colonial office
e was rendered incapable of executing his
rust. This appears to be the first time^ihat
"irginia was noticed by the English parlia
lenl.
In 1616 tobacco was first cultivated by
le English in Virginia.
BLJAK DECLAIM TIOJVS
For Sale at tlus Uffice.

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