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THE MOWTICELLO GAZETTE.
~'"IIU" MiLlJSt-M.1IISCH.hK. JEFFERSON^ STKEK KjioNTICTLI.O. MISSISSIPM ^-” -[VOIj l] • SATURDAY. JULY 19.~IM |(J , ■Mf .. . T7 * ' ll^l^' ~ " ———^—' - --- ■ — * JUalb o. ( Four dollars per annum, half in advance, the balance at the expiration ol the year. Advertisements, qpt-ttexcpediug ten lines, in serted once for one dollar, fifty cents for each con tinuance; longer ones iu the same proportion. 05-Advertising customer? will please mark the number of insertions required on the margin of their advertisements; otherwise, thev will he continued until forbid, and enlarged accg|jlipgly. FROM THE RICHMOND ENQUIRER. THE PRESIDENCY. When the people of this Uniotjjlrere call ed upon to chooje a chief magistrate, under * whom the new constitution wa- to go into op eration, ail eyes were instinctively turned to the man—‘-first in war. firs' in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen.” At the end of the second constitutional term, Wash ington. the great revolutionary, withdrew from power crowned with the blessings of America, and the admii-tiitp of the world. He was succeeded Mr. Adams. This conscript father had, rn his vo ith, drunk deeply in the crystal fountain of Greece and Rome, and familiarised his mind to the best models of antiquity. He had been the first or among the very first to sound the toscin a gainst British‘wrong and oppression, and directly contributed by his counsels and Ins pen to the disruption of the colonies from the parent country. His elevation, therefore to the executive chair, seemed hut a just re ward for the high talents and services he had given to the infant Republic. But before he end of one c-nstitutional term evil counsel*, were found to prevail in the cabnet; under mr .fumuimicuiuii or ine man 10 ivuom we hr'J been so greatly indebted for political in dependence, we were well nigh loosing,our civil liberties forever. A change of administration was now loud ly called for, and Mr. Jefferson a-somed the helm amidst the lengthened plaudits of a na tion of re publicans. The mind of this great man was very ear lv imbued with the spirit of the age —which if his turn, he had enlightened and advanc ed.— At thirty-four he gave us the immortal Declaration of Independence; and hi- inter mediate service- alone***! hotjtg and abroad, would lia.e been sufficient tor point him out to the gratitude of a v irtuous and in lightened people. To him theiefore it pre-eminently belonged to heal the wounds our free insti tutions sustained and to re-a<sure the suffer ing nations of 'he world of the great politic al truth first demonstrated in America— that the people ore cabahle of self govern ment — \t the end of the second term, he too. like the father of his country, gladly w ithdrew to the bosom of philosophical re tirement. Mr. .Madison followed. This accomplish ed statesman had also rendered himself a signa] benefactor to the country that reward ed him with the highest distinction known among men—the chief magistrate of a free people. Our pre-ent happy form of national policy was mainly the work ofhis hands. It was he who nicely adjusted the parts, and fr-t demonstrated the problem, that tlie sov ereignty of individual tales could be main tained under an efficient general or federal government—having the power of peace and war. and onlv terrible against internal 01 external aggression*. Again when the crisis •of'08 — '00. when the litrhl nf the revnlntinn seemed almost extinct with our i ulers, it was he who arnn-ed thp people by the masterly Report op the violation- of the constitution, and thus powerfully aided in hanging back the government to first pri^fiples, in 1801. Finally, like Mr Jeffer-oh (when in the Same department of state) he Ind often oc v easion to vindicate our country’s rights a gainst foreign insult and violence—an office, that both one and the other always perforin ed with a spirit and eloquence equally felt in Europe and America. The«e splendid di # plomatic papers (which, under similar cir cumstances have received a worthy addition from the pen of our pre-ent chief magistrates) constituted of themselve-, strong claim- to the gratitude id' a Republic ever miudlul of ber interest, and proud of the distinction of her sons. Mr. Monroe derives his first claim to a nation’s line from that great source of all the public vir'ue-—the war of the revolu tion. His d i v or ion to country and Ireedom was, in the mighty struggle, sealed with his blood; and we find his nano in our subse quent history honorably connected with ail flip great mea-ures which con-oiidited our liberties and prosperity. Out this last of the revolutionary school, is yet in the high trust to which he h i- been called hv n nnanimi-' ty almost peculiar to himself J shall (here-j ■ leave me a,me pailicUl* enumeration o! his*probationary services lo the period, when "descent from power, like death, s^v^l have canonized iiis virtues.” From this rapid sketch it will be clearly pejceivt d, that each of our Presidents ha' been selected by the people, as much from the reco|Jpction of past services. as with the view to the capacity of future usefulness; thus has the gratitude ot the natioq been tender ed admirably harmonious with i-s own essen tial gloryinterests. But the cycle fixed by enlightened pre cedent (more powerful than laws written on tables) has again brought round to us, the question—who shall succeed .that line of il lustrious wurthie-? We me not—peihaps for tunately tor the Country—without a con course of candidates. Ye; it would seem that all the active influence of \ nginia. appar ently without much enquiry or reflection has been engagei^ii®: the cau’-e of William H. Crawford. DiSering materially with that por tion oi my fellow c itizens. 1-hall examine with freedom, but without personal hostility his pretensions to the high honor sought for it itn. Alter the most diligent enquiry' into Mr. Crawford's public history, the conviction has been forced upon me that his acts have I een either negative, itoubtful, or censurable. It this conclusion be deemed harsh, and there is no doubt that it will be so considered by hi- parisans, I beg ;hat some of ifienr will take the trouble, to show ly facts v herein I have erred, and to bring uul the evidence ot his positive merits. Both Mr. C. and the public may be benefited by Ibe discu-siun; !(lr ( »ITt Imp Irntn Kblioi inn lUm I ..... m ... !> -> I •ent, in a minority on this subject. I be earliest record ive have of Mr. C. re presents him as offering homage to Mr. Ad ams in professions of the unlimited c* nfliience. in his measures—at the very moment when 'he thiee last presidents, and the whole re publican party justly alarmed foi the salty ol out institutions, stood torih in open array agains that administration—This fact was, at first discredited by the friends of Mr. C. certainly with his connivance it not at fits suggesting Further proof, however, ad duced, and then the charge was* elmitied and palliated. — Finally, it has been attempted lo obliterate the recorded evidence, by the recollection of certain persons, who testify that he was, about that 'ime*, a lepublicau! Dr Abbott tepresents him in the following year, (’99) as “not simply a republican, op posed to the administration of Mr. Adams; but denominated by the supporters of the administration—a jacobin.” 'I his is not im probable Extremes (as in an unfinished cir cle) are always found to approximate. He therefore commenced his political career, a flaming federalist, might very well, in a lapse of a year, become a violent jacobin. i-uch a character has no polarity; but the people want a president w ho is, in [Hilitics what is seems that Mr. C. was not in ’98 or ’99—“simply a republican.” J he next eight nr nine years of his life, appear to ha> e been employed in all the tur bulence ol party contention, aggravated by local and personal topics,. Two of these wrangles terminated in duels, with the loss ol a life. But having at length crushed his personal opponents, we find him in 1807, a member of he United States Senate* F mm this period his historv has been more under the observation of the Union Let us see what claims he has since established to a paramont place in the esteem and gratitude of his country. In the Senate, Mr. Crawford voted to re charter the old bank of the United States, (a measure which Virginia instructed her senators to oppose) and took that occasion to intimate that, the individual state ought to be prohibited tmm incorporating banks—in order. I presume, to create an uncontroled monied aristocracy in that mammoth in-ti tuiion. Mr. C. did not stop here He attack ed the instructions given to Messrs. Gile and Brent, and i hose to display his filial pie ty to his native state, by attributing herop po-i'ion to the federal hank, not to a princi pie, hot sordid interest — Virginia, as he at gued, holding a large portion of the stock in her own local institutions. As a comment on this statement, [written from memorv ] will the Enqniier favour the public with an ex (ract of the speech itself, together with Mr. Brent’s indignant reply t > the foul insinua tion? We will then, perhaps more fully see the point of the anecdote lately given by a writer in the Enquirer LBendfcton) of the conversation between Mr C. and (as is be lieved) a distinguished yirginia member of congtess. Iii llie session ot 181 W-U>, ;V|, cha'jtt ed Mr. Madison with being guilty ot dupn city in the message that reconimenderWbe [second war of our independence; hut nffien the declaration was sent up from the otfcei house, Mr. C. gave it no active support—al though there vva- 1 strong partyiQn the Sev nate (besides the federalists) who wished to Mibstitu’e letters of marque and repri.-al. 1 his (action (in, and out of the Senate) consisted, . principally, of Mes-rs. Gallatin, Giles, i Smith; &c. &c. the particular friends of Mr Crawford; and it is believed that he fully coricured with them in their preference of the paltry substitute; although he wa> finally compelled to vole for the war. It will, how ever. be rememheied by those who served with him, at the time, that during the two , war ses-ioiis that lie sat in the Senate (be fore, bis departure for Fiance) he made neither speech nor proposition in support ol j that great mea-ure: on the contrary when the | hill came up foitn the lb.Use of Kepresenta i lor building a certain number of ships ol war. Air. C. spoke against the measuie, and ridicu ed the idea ot engining England on tlm ocean as the extreme of madness and | fully. ri o the immortal glory of better coun l-els and the*valor of our seamen, these pre diction ot a misgiving mind were early and completely falsified. A.r. Crawford’s mission to France is riot marked by a single incident that can be trea son d in the memory. He crossed the ocean and returned, ard fits correspondence dur ing the interval was almost wholly limbed to hills drawn for his pay. As Secretary War, I recollect but one measure ocjiroposilion «This, beyond the or j umory rmrrine ot me Di^jeao—Hit recouimen jilatinn of marriage- between our while pop ulation and Indians. »n the frontiers, in lieu ol the importation ol foieigners! Mr. C iaw ford has now been some seven years in the department of the treasury. V\ hai scheme ot finance has her devised in all that period? 11is annual Iteports will scarcely be appealed to by his warmest par tisans in answer to this question Ttyese pa per- though sometimes explained by one or i more supplementary reports,' have not al nays been intelligible; and when understood I have uniformly been ridiculed and derided, ! by every man in America at all acquaimed i with fiscal transactions. The Hepoit ol the last year i- particularly remarkable for an other charncier. Alter Conjuring up an arti ficial deficit (of some irri 11 ions and a quarter ul dollar-) for the y eai lfi25 he veiy ingen iously recommends, under the pielenct ot revenue, a permanent increase of the Tariff 10 meet that lempory exigency — theieby ex peeling to conciliate the manufacturer- with out alarming the othe'r great inti re-t of the community. rl his stiaia;. em was well under stood by more than one member of Congress, fiom Virginia, during the last session. I nder the head ol Treasury operation-, I shall not dwell particularly on the charge, made by the Governor of Georgia and others, ol Mr. C’s participation with the Creek a getit. Mitchell, in the illicit introduction of -laves into the United Stale-, and his Mr. C's neglect to pro-ecute the -aid Mitchell on the report ol the attorney general, a> the Se ‘•' = v«*iy Ui me treasury was Hound to do; or on the unauthorized loans ol nearly a million of dollars to different hanks known to be in solvent or unsafe—whereby the treasury has lost the money; nor on the supptessed docu ments making a part ot the correspondence relative to those loans—nor on the employ ment of a l nited States senator in an execu tive and lucrative service, against the spirit of the laws, and the independence of Con giess:— In these transactions Mr. Crawford has, doubtless, gained many partizans at the expense of the United plates; but I shall conclude this negative review by some other incontrovertible lacts, highly illustrative of the character 1 have attempted to pourtray. Some years ago the House of Hepresenr tatives passed a resolution requiring the Se cretary of the Treasury and War depart ment to report, severally, on the question of internal improvements. Mr Calhoun prompt ly obeyed the call; hut Mr. Crawford know i >g that the subject was one on which the I' Clic mind was much divided, and that he could not write on it without disclosing bi« own particular learning, ha- not to this day heyed the order of the people’s representa tives! • j In the beginning of 1816, a plan was sud denly formed at Washington, on the part of the Buirites and C’linlonians in Congress (from New-York) aided by other interested® • nd faction- members, to put down Mr. Mon-: | roe in the impending caucus. T his scheme j "as g^ally favoured by a caucus vole in he legislature of New-York—requesting the delegates of that stale at Washington to sup. ■port any candidate for the Presidency not a Virginian. The first difficulty was to find a peison who would lend himself to the faction. Mr. Tompkins honestly relmed bis name! and Mr. Crawford had not been previously ■ bought ol for Ibe presidency by a single in dividual in the Union. He was nevertheless, in the emergency, selected as the opponent’, ot the Virgiiiian, and, as was foreseen, slate i>rt4e brought over to his support all, or (lie greater par|gpf the Georgians. A lew weeks before the caucus, the plot was opened by Dr. Bibb who told the public (in a letter) that “Mr.*iawford did not consider him self among those from whom the select ton °i!!rhIv,,0,be niade”-fllr C. well knowing that Mr. M. was the only republican candi date within the view ol the people.—This modest reply, therefore, rather intimated that there ought to be an opponent Accord ingly, oo the following day', the Washington Gazette, the L niform organ of Mr. C\ an nounced, that the editor was authorized to say, that on application to Dr. Bibb, the iat t|-r declared that therm was nothing in bis published letter to take Mr. C out of the field of selection, and that, if nominated, and elected, he would sene. No further public declaration was made by Mr. C. or any oKe in his name, tjiher before oral the caucus, but the most vigorous exeilions were contin ued in bis behalf, and under bis eye; toi he was pte-enl al Washington a? secretary of *v at. At llie nomination, no one appearing on the part of Mr. C. to withdraw his name he ieeeiieu the whole support ot the factious amou^nng to wiy lour votes, ihe pamphlet published by ibis minority is a most exttaor i dinary document. 1 heir support of Mr. j Crawford is expressly stated to be— opposi tion to the “Virginia dynaysly,” and “the Virginia school of policyand the pamphlet abounds w ith the gratest charges against Mr. Jeflersion and Mr. Madison, as Bell as against Mr. Monroe. On that occasion it seems that Mr. Crawford was willing to put himself at the head of that hostile feeling and to deny his native state. It remains to be seen whe ther the people of Virginia will not, at ihe polls in 1824, return the compliment by tort-retting him. 1 ha e thus endeavoured to trace Mr. C. thi- ugh ihe gradations of public life. It the oflire- which he has held be numerous, so j have been his opportunists to record his vir tue- and services in the hearts of freemen. But we have seen nothing in his history to .file eithei our love or admiration. Shall he [then be admitted to the Presidency special,a 'gratia-—a- drones take learned degree-_ merely because he has gone thri ugh ihe mi ni- of personal attendence? This would be indeed—to follow up 'he language botrowed from universities—let him eat his way to the highest honor at the nations expense! — WYTHE. MAJOR LONG. That enterprizing and intelligent officer, Major Long, lias again set out on an explor ing expedition a few days since from this place, and we wish him the same success Iticn niiuiucu 1113 IttM r.AJJttU IIIUIJ. Major L. made hisexpedition to the Rocky Mountains under very fortunate circum stances; he was accompanied by man\ ac ilive agd intelligent gentlemen of science, w ho by their papers in the various branches of science, have added much to the slock of knowledge.- We aie happy to state, that Major L again takes with bin. most of the same scientific gentlemen that accompanied him in hi- former journey. Mr. Kea ing, professorof chemistry applied to the arts, in the Pennsylvania University, is attached to this expedition, as Geologist and Mineralo gist. We expect much front this gen'leman in his branch—the country to he passed, is particularly interesting, being at the junc tion of the primitive w ith the secondary for mations near the head waters of the lakes. Major Long proposes to continue in near ly a direct line from Wiling, to Columbia, Ohio, to ^icago. thence to Prairie du Chveo, on the Mississippi. Up thi$ river and St. Pe ter’s river to the sourer ofthe latter, which has never been investigated The party then cross the high lands to Red River which Hows into like Winnipec, continue down Ibis river, until they feach the 49th parallel of latitude. It will then return to this paral lel, which marks the boundary of Canada jn'il thjgy strike the Rivef La Plue, which falls into Lake Superior. Having descended Ibis river, rive lake will afford them an ex fie^tioos and safe route to their anxious :jends- Aar. Gaz. Phil a.