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% mi ANNUAL COST OF HIGHWAYS Construction and Maintenance Involvo Expenditure of $300,000,000 Burden on Roads. (Prepared by the United States Depart tnent of Agriculture.) Itond construction und maintenu In the United States Involve outlay of over $300,000,000, a which, If capitalized at 5 per cent, would represent on investment of $0 000 , 000 , 000 . As recently as 1000 there were only 100,000 motor vehicles In the United States compared with nearly 5,000,000 of 1917, wlille in 1004 the total outlay nee an annual sum Ik ■< y : Ï. w X* «-V" (F & : -fi; m ;U wu-.J Vitrified Brick for Paving Country Road In money and labor on the publie roads aggregated only $80,000,000, compared With some $300,000,000 for 1917. Thus the public roads have been changed With bewildering rapidity from the Btatus of tlie purely local utility tothat Of a utility of national importance and scope. It is well known that the railroad» the United Stutes are unable to »§tr the enormous trnfllc now offeredfor transportation, and it Is to he expected that the public roads will from now on have added to their present traffic bur dens such freight as may fie shifted to them to relieve railway congestion. It is beyond question that for pas senger haul tlie public roads are used to a greater extent thnn the railroads. These impressive conditions have been created within the span of a single gen eration. On July 11, 1916, President Wilson Approved a measure generally known as the federal-aid road act, which car ried an appropriation of $75,000,000 to aid the states in the construction of rural post roads and $10,000,000 to bo expended for the construction and maintenance of forest roads. Filling the Joints, First Coat. of ry BUILDING ROADS IN ALASKA Road Commissioners Find Trouble In Maintenance on Account of Nar row Tired Trucka. Alaska has been building ronds since 1905. It has built 920 miles of wngon roads, 629 miles of winter sled roads and 2,210 miles of trails. One of these roads was built for motorcar trnfllc, but more than 250 trucks and pussen ger cars were In use over them at the close of the last fiscal year. Much damage has been done to the roads by heavy narrow-tired trucks, and the bourd of road commissioners finds troubles of maintenance with them always. In addition, they found It necessnry to build a five-mile road nlong a hillside last summer by cover ing the road bed with willow cordu roy and surfacing the corduroy with gravel because the material underlying the location consisted of six feet of gravel on the bed rock, forty feet of clear Ice on the gravel and two feet of moss nnd tundra on top. PERMANENT ROAD IS FAVORED Saving in Cost of Rebuilding Would Pay for Them in Comparatively Few Years. A writer on the advantage of per manent highways makes the point thnt the saving In the cost of rebuilding would pay for them In a comparative ly few years—and then there would he a prospect of valuable returns. The thing would he like making a few pay ments to secure an annuity. Wherever the money can he raised there should he permanent highways. That Is the good roads gospel par excellence. Poor Roads a Loss. The farmers of the United States have been allowing $300.000,000 In real money to escape from their pock ets each year because of poor roads, according to exports. Cart Before Horae. Putting the cart before the horse— Installing truck lines beforj building adequate roads. Cause of Mottled Butter. Mot led butter is caused by the un even distribution of salt. t INCREASE OF MUTTON SHEEP Take Lead Held by Fine Wool Animals Ten Years Ago—Ohio Is Now Leading State. (Prepared by the United States Depart ment of Agriculture.) Sheep raising primarily for mutton production and secondarily for wool la steadily advancing In this country. At the present time 45 per cent of the sheep belong to those of the mutton blood, 35 per cent to those of fine wool, and 20 per cent to the crossbreeds. Ten years ago the mutton sheep were 35 per cent of all sheep, flne-wool sheep 41 per cent, and crossbreeds 24 per cent, and consequently, during this period one-teuth of the national flock has changed from wool to mutton the chief purpose. While mutton sheep have thus Increased their percentage of all sheep by 10 during as many years, flne-wool sheep have lost G Va from this percentage and the breeds 8%. This revolution of recent years in the sheep Industry, which Is ■ I cross now pre sumably continuing, is largely charac terized In the national average by the Western and Pacific states, in which :$& & i t N S'. r ; .« Sheep Entering Sweating Pena of Bit ter Creek Shearing 8hed, Bitter Creek, Mont. more than one-half of the sheep are found mostly on ranges, wool sheep are 45 per cent of all sheep In that group of states, a loss of 7 in the percentage In ten years; the crossbred sheep are 22 per cent, a loss of 2V4; and these losses have gone to the mutton sheep, which are 32 per cent of all sheep, a gain of nearly ten In the same number of years. The greatest advance In this move ment has been made In the North At lantic states, In which farmers' mar kets are near and the people have an nctive taste for mutton and lamb. In these states 02 per cent of the sheep are of the mutton bloods, a gain of 20 in the percentage in ten years; only 17 per cent are flne-wool sheep, a Joss of 17 ; and 21 per cent are crossbreeds, a loss of 3. The least change In percentages has occurred In the South Atlantic states, where the mutton sheep were former ly a high fraction and are now 68 per cent of all sheep In that region, a gain of 2% In ten years; the crossbreeds are 24 per cent, or about the same as ten years ago, while In all other groups of states they have relatively dimin ished ; nnd the flne-wool sheep nre only 7 per cent, a loss of nearly 3 during the period. At the present time the South Atlan tic states have the lowest fraction of flne-wool sheep, 7 per cent, and the North Atlantic states are next with 17 per cent ; the highest fraction, 46 per cent. Is in the Western and Pacific group, and next below nre the South Central states with 30 per cent. Mutton sheep are as high ns 68 per cent of the sheep in the South Atlantic and West North Central states, and as low as 32 per cent In the Western and Pacific states, and 44 per cent in the South Central. Ohio is by far the lending sheep state outside of the Western and Pa cific group, nnd has 3,000,000 sheep, nhout one-half of which are now imit ton bloods, while ten years ago the fraction was nenrly two-fifths. The flne PIIRF ÇPRÂTPHFÇ IIU UfiRÇFC UUKL oUnA Unto IN HUHbtS Trouble Is Caused by Mud, Wet or • Filth—Clean Affected Part and Apply Poultice. Scratches In horses nre on used by mud. wet or filth. Clean the affected part, clip the hair close to the skin and put on a bread and milk poultice for 12 hours. A second poultice ap plied for nnother 12 hours will do no harm. Then wash the skin, wipe it dry nnd remove ail scabs. Paint the cracks with tincture of iodine f«JP three (lays, then discontinue nnd use the vaseline, if avoidable, and dry and apply vaseline to the scratches twice a day when the ani mal is worked. Do not wet the parts Keep .the stable clean Top Price for Lambs. Packers will not pay the top price for lambs, no difference how fat, if they weigh over 80 pounds. The rea son is because the best cuts of meat can be obtained from the smaller cass. car Pee ce Brings Us New Mouths to Feed americaI \\ m y A wauMv IT AM •„ r'V I i ffP ■ h :/ ta/ a /W'i I y. sa l g r Iggi i.te±= / V. Y m \ S: p 7a HomeTown home IUWN IIELPS^ Helps !* WOODEN SHINGLES ALL RIGHT Leading Cities Throughout the Coun try Have Refused to For bid Their Use. There nre only n dozen or so of the larger cities where the use of wooden I shingles Is specially barred. At least 45 of the largest cities, Including New Tork, Chicago, Philadelphia, Cleve land, San Francisco, Dallas, Tex. ; Detroit, Mich., and so on down the list even to the national capital, permit the use of wooden shingles within their corporate limits outside of the congested zone. "Tills," an architect snys, "Is suffi cient proof that the advantages of the wood-shingle roof In residential dis tricts are still recognized. It Is rath er unfortunate for the logic of some of those most strongly opposed to the use of wooden shingles that they house their own families under such a roof." An investigation revealed further that some cities after enduring the re suits of an antt-shlngle ordinance un- j til their patience became exhausted | by the harmful results in the retard ing of building operations, either hnve repealed or are planning to repeal such ordinances. Houston, Tex., for example, after having passed through nine months of building stagnation, repealed Its anti-shingle ordinance. In that city Is was found that the effect of the ordinance was to retard Just 40 per cent of the building of smnll homes as compared with the corre sponding period of the previous year. In refutation of the claim by the makers of substitutes that wooden shlngles frequently cause great con- ! flngrntlons, Investigation shows that j of the 47 fires Involving losses of I more than $500,000 in 1917 throughout the country, only one occurred In a 1 residence section where wooden shin gles predominate.—Exchange. I HAVE PLANNED MODEL TOWNS - j Beauty a* Well as Utility Considered by Architects Building Homes for War Workers. Nearly nil the towns being built in the vicinity of war plants will be per manent. So permanent houses of a j type satisfactory to the best skilled , labor wll , b( , hnllt, 100 here, 1,000 there, and as high as 10.000 in one or , two towns nnd covering whole square , mlles of vacant countryside with prêt ty little houses, bonrding* places, stores and theaters, paved streets and all utilities, expertly laid out by the foremost town plnnners and nrchl Haste is the main thing In these new towns, but beauty and good taste have not been forgotten. Planned and built ns they nre by able men In single inrge operations, they will show to Amerl- • cans many of the best examples of harmonious renl estate developments we hnve yet seen—by far the best housing and neighborhood conditions that American lubor has yet enjoyed. The operation at Camden, for In stance, will have 2,000 little houses In ■ tects in America. groups, all in pure and varied colonial architecture, designed by Electus D. Litchfield, free from clashing con trasts of style. Have recently installed a chopper nnd can now furnish chopped feed Denver Roller Mills. Will deliver. GOOD IDEA THAT IS SPREADING Few Places Now In the Country That Do Not Recognize Need of Beautification. I Tinle wns not so ver y lon S n S° whpn the thought of civic beauty and the recognition of the importance of city beautification belonged to a few peo ple only. When the first of the larger cities of Texns set about the process of making beauty where only ugliness had been before, many taxpayers ob jected on the ground that It was not wise to expend public money for such purposes. But that larger city persisted. A landscape architect was employed. A comprehensive plan for future devel opment was drawn up. Appropria tions looking far Into the future were plnnned. An educational campaign to teach tlie people the need for beauty was gotten under way. Today that city Is far to the front as an example j of what ma y be accomplished in a few | years of labor Intelligently applied, Other cities followed. One by one the centers of population fell Into line. Directly the smaller cities began to lay plans for that day when they, too, shall be large cities. Only recently the city of Denison, urged on by pub lic-spirited citizens, employed a well paid expert to make a survey and lay down a comprehensive plan of artistic development. And within the next few months practically every Texas city will have proved that even In the «tress of war Texns people recognize the value of beauty and the impor ! tance of the artistic In the everyday j Hf® of the people.—Houston Post. I - WHFRF PFNUflR K NFFDFn 1 " ntHt UtNbUtl NttUtU Successful Outcome of Allotment De velopment Depends Largely on In telligent Forethought I j The successful outcome of nn al lotment development as an asset to a city depends largely upon the type of neighborhood established by the real tor in selling his property. It is true, however, that some prop erties nre assured of ultimate indl viduality before development count of their natural location. The average allotment, however, Is dependent on the method of sale of separate lots and the restrictions im posed upon them, which have nn 1m portant benrlng on the ultimate up building, hood Is far from assured because of Imposed restrictions as to price of house to he erected, as is shown In numerous cases about Clevetnnd. ^ or « development not proving what " a ® originally Intended are. first, that ,b * building operations (to set the P ace - ®° to speak) were not carried on b - v developer to show what was expected, and, second, the censoring budding plans.—Cleveland Leader. on ac But the character of a nelghbor Perhaps the most apparent reason Force of Habit. These crowded street cars are spoil ing iny oratorical style." •'How can that be?" "Every time I put my arm Into the air to make a gesture I paw around as if 1 were reaching for a strap." o Columbia grafanolas and records for sale at the Smoke House. LIVE I K SI FEWER HOGS DIE OF DISEASE Annual Death Rate for Year Ending March, 1918, Reaches Lowest Mark in 35 Years. (Prepared by the United States Depart ment of Agriculture.) The death rate of swine from all diseases for the year ending March, 1918, was 42.1 per 1,000, and is the lowest in 35 years, according to rec ' ords kept during that period. I unprecedentedly low rate of mortality presents a great contrast with those I of earlier periods, particularly with the losses of 133.8 per 1,000 in 1887, 144 per 1,000 in 1897, and 118.9 per 1,000 in 1914, years marked by severe outbreaks of hog cholera. This is even remarkable reduction from the nor mal low rate of losses which has re mained slightly above 50 pet» 1,000 when the disease was least prevalent. The approximate number of hogs on hand January 1, 1918, was 71,374,000. The loss of 42.1 per 1,000 for the year ending March, 1918, therefore repre sented approximately 3,000,000 of these animals, equivalent to the consumption of pork and pork products by the en tire population of the United States ; for 1917 for 25 days. These recent losses should be com pared with that of 7,000,000 hogs in 1914, which curtailed production to the extent of the national consumption for that year for 37 days. The marked reduction in the losses of swlr.e in 1918 over preceding periods, in view of the fact that 90 per cent of these losses are due to hog cholera, indicates clearly the benefit from the combined efforts of state and federal agencies in protecting the farmers against the ravages of this exceedingly fatal disease. This ii GIVE YOUNG PIGS ATTENTION Care Given at Farrowing Time Has Important Bearing on Food Sup ply of Nation. (Prepared by the United States Depart ment of Agriculture.) The farrowing house or pen should be comfortably warm, well ventilated, and well lighted. Above all else, it should be well bedded. Do not allow any circulation of air under the floor. Too many hog growers make the mis take of bedding too lightly. Heavy bedding naturally makes the sow com fortable and warm—conditions neces sary if she is to he quiet. Use wheat or rye straw. Wild hay is good, as is millet. Do not use oat straw unless there is absolutely nothing' else at hand. Do not confine the sow In her far rowing pen more than 48 hours before farrowing time if it is possible to avoid doing so. Reduce the heavy feed to some extent, probably about half, for that length of time. Under no circumstances should the sow hnve any feed whatever for 24 hours after farrowing. She must, how ever, hâve plenty of water at frequent Intervals. This water must not be Icy cold—that drawn directly from the well is about the right temperature. Commence after 24 hours feeding light ly, Increasing the feed gradually for probably a week or ten days, when she may be gotten onto full feed, condi tioned on the size of the litter and the milking qualities of the sow. A good herdsman, for the first week at least after farrowing, will look the pigs over carefully before each feed ing. If any Indications of scours pear, the sow's feed should be reduced Immediately or possibly cut out entire ap / Farrowing Pen With Fenders Will Save Many Little Porkers From Be ing Crushed. ly. A heavy feed of rich slop given when scours begin to show up possi bly may kill the entire litter. A little extra care for these few days is abso lutely necessnry. When the pigs are from four or five to ten days old, be on the lookout for thumps. pig is the one to go first every time. An almost certain Indication is a little roll of fat around the neck. While there is no known cure for thumps, the trouble is quite easily prevented. Plenty of exercise for the pigs is the answer. In cold, stormy weather out of-door exercise is Impossible, hut if a central farrowing house with nn alley way, is used, get the little fat fellows into the alley and put in about ten fifteen minutes three or four times a day chasing them with a buggy whip, until they are pretty well tired out. If this is impossible, try one or two of the little pigs at a time in a large bar rel or hogshead, placed by the farrow ing pen. .sow making a fuss and in running around the barrel hunting for to climb out, generally will take the ercise necessary to ward off thumps. A considerable part of the battle is won if the litter gets past the first ten days or 8o with a good start The best-looking fat little or The pigs will hear the old a corner ex Beat of Dairy Feed. White clover Is highly esteemed and makes the best of dairy feed. jxIdBC wm ; GOOD HIGHWAYS SAVED PARIS Example of French Capital Cited to Press Home Plan of Improved Roads in This Country. The congestion of traffic which has so seriously handicapped war prc| :i ra . tlons and industrial and commercial activity during the last few months has emphasized to all the vital Impor tance of good roads. The shortage of freight cars has caused the govern ment to recommend the use of m, tor trucks for handling freight hauls, in order to save freight-oar equipment for long hauls. Freight < aa not be successfully bundled by motor trucks without good roads. m short There is also a growing tendency ou the part of manufacturers and whole salers to have their salesmen travel b.v automobile instead of by railroad trains, writes C. S. ltleman, president of a large motorcar concern, In Chi cago Post. This also further help solve the traffic problem. Itut the tensive use of trucks for cross-country hauling and of passenger automobiles l>y salesmen and others, instead of traveling by train, will depend to a large extent upon roud conditions. It also occurs to me that since our transportation facilities have been so seriously overtaxed by extra traffic re sulting from our war preparations to date, the enormous increase In war activities for which preparations are now being made will result In further serious delays, unless a large portion of the traffic can be handled by motor trucks. In order to appreciate the Im portance of good roads from a military standpoint, we have only to recall the fact that in gll probability Paris would have been captured by the German army lii their first great drive had It not been that the excellent French roads permitted the quick concen trating of French troops by means of motortrucks, passenger automobiles and taxicabs, which played so Impor tant a part In helping out the French railroad system. The prosperity of any country and the advance of civilization are always measured by the transportatlon^facill to ♦*x üwjwÿ- *1 [>1 m M V 1 I ' 'ii w. m m mâ Convoys of Rapid-Fire Cannon on Way to Front In France. ties. As a manufacturer of motorcars, the good roads problem has Ihiu brought very forcibly to my attention, and I have given the subject much thought und study. It Is my firm con viction that the continued prosperity of this country and the quick ami ef ficient handling of war préparai i'-as cannot be better promoted than i>y keeping our streets and highways In first-class condition. I believe what ever expenditures are necessnry to this end should be made. NOW CALL ROADS MILITARY Bill Before Senate Says Government Should Assist in Keeping High ways in Repair. A bill before the senate snys all s'ate roods used by the government sh"tiM be treated as military highway- and the government should assist In k< • * Ing them in repair. The 1)111 was in troduced by Senator J. T. Smith, " !>" hus Investigated the deterioration of the Maryland highway system, bill states the government Is net te contribute more than two-thirds of 'In' money for repairs nor more than *'r »0 per mile. It has gone to the -' li ste committee on appropriations. •1 he Daily Water Supply. Experiments prove that the amount of water consumed dally by a cow In direct proportion to the amount of milk she produces. is 8ite for Strawberry Be<J. A rich garden soil which 1ms been manured makes an Ideal site for a strawberry bed. Wonder or Blunder? Is that new road this year going to he a wonder-way or a blunder way?