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CURCULIO AND APPLE.
Iatrnal*» C'nHore In Ori'Ninla la üli'unitl.i I rgfd. By CHARLES .S. i.'KAN'DALL. Ullnoia experiment station. In nil sortions of the state of Illinois Where orchard fruits are (crown may be fourni fruits that are more or lesa de faced by deformities, by curiously made surface ruts and by small cylin drical excavations. These marks are found upon plums, peaches, apples and less commonly upon (»ears and quinces. The same marks are common on fruits of the wild plum, wild crab apple and of the red fruited hawthorn. The Inserts responsible for the in juries above referred to are the plum rurcullo and the apple cureullo. I loth species feed upon and breed In the ap ple-ln (relierai, it Is the plum cnrcnllo that does the greater duniuge. The primary cause of serious injury to apples by cucullos ran In the ma jority of eases be traced to conditions prevailing In the orchards. Neglect of the four cardinal principles of good orchard management—namely, prun- i I fifths m mmi m Knurr ittnitured kv euncuLio. lug. cultivation, spraying and fertiliz ing engenders conditions favorable to the multiplication of curctilios and also of other pests. Weeds aud grass grow unrestrained, tree tops become «lense, aud the consequent heavy foliage at fords deep shade. The Insects are un- j disturbed, they Hud protection against natural enemies, and their processes of development go on unchecked. The factor of location lias an iuflu- : ence. If cultivated orchards are !u i j ) j 1 ' ! close proximity to badly neglected or- ! «•hards or to Isslles of timber in which I tile native food plants hawthorn, wild | crab and wild plum—are abundant ■Ucb orchards may be Invaded by cur eullos aud the fruit greatly Injured. It seems possible to attack the cr.f cullo ln ihre«* different ways: First.—By spraying with urseuical poisons. This mellusl aims at the de struction of the adult or ls*etle stage of the Insect only. Second—By destrui'tlon of fallen fruit. This method of attack aims at the egg and larva stages of the insect. All fulleu fruit must ts> taken into •«'count, not only the larger fruits that fall in late summer, but more partic ularly the small apples that fall In June and early July. The «*arly fallen fruit 1* usually Ignored, but is really 1 more Important from the standpoint of attack on cureullo than the lute fallen fruit, luvause ovlposltlou and larval I ' in the season Third.—Cultivation. This metho«l of attack Is dlrt-vl«*«! against ihe lust-et In the ground and may uffeet the three sdevelopuieut nre at tlmir highest early i ' i ; i TMX imi Oim iLlO MLAIMID. •tages larva, pupa and licet le— but la snore particularly intended to deetroy pupae. The majority of the new crop of In puts ere In the ground «luring July and August. Short .exposure* to di rect sunlight are fatal to both larvae and pupae. Aut« and other predaceous Insects, as well a« bird«, prey upon both larvae aud pupae. In the light of these fact*, nuperfli-lal tillage for a peri«xl of thirty or more flays from July Hi Is «-omniende«! as au efficient mean« «if utta«'klng plum cnrcnllo. I.lma Beaas la gen Jersey. Lim« beaus are getting to lie another uncertainty. Kveu after we have growu tbe « lue« we do not feel at all certain whether we will harvest a crop, as so many hlo«soius amt tiny pods drop prematurely. Some of us have tried to overcome thia by leaving only one plant to a pole and trimming that I «me. hut with only partial success. It ! would lie Interesting to kuow whether | plantings 011 a hillside, where there was good air drainage, have In this I respei-t fared any better than ours on the flat river lainls. I have been un able to try It myself, as our farm is not high rosugti shore the river.— H. C. Taylor. CORN SILAGE. ;l | (>11 , In Milk Nsklns and Sleer Feeding. Midsummer Benelta. Making corn Into silage is u means of preserving the grain, as well as the stalk, in the liest possible condition for feeding and without the expense of shelling and grinding, says Wilber J. Fraser, chief in dairy husbandry at the Illinois experiment station. In feeding whole corn, either in the ear or shelled, many of the kernels are not digested. With silage, the grain be ing eaten with the roughage, nearly all the kernels are broken during masti cation and, since they are somewhat soft, are practically all digested. By the use of the silo the corn Is re moved from the Held at a time when no injury is done the land by cutting it up while soft. As the corn is eut before the blades are dry enough to shatter, there is no waste from weath ering, and both stalk huU grain being In good condition the whole crop is consume«! by the stock, while with dry shock corn a large percentage of the leaves and butts of the stalk Is wasted Being a succulent feed, corn silage tends to heavy milk production aud should be given an important (dace in the ration of dairy cow*. It has proved au important factor In steer feeding as well us In milk production, but a steer cannot be Hutshed on silage any more than a cow can pro ducc her Ix-st yield of milk on such a ration. la Midsummer. A pasture will carry much more ■ H>ck during spring, early summer and fall than it will through the hot. dry weather of midsummer. By helping the pasture out at this season with partial soiling the cattle not only have better feed during Ibis critical period, but more stock can be carried on a given area than by pasturing alone. Mr. Fraser also remarks in bulletin loi, from which these points on the silo are taken, tlint as laud Increases In value and farming becomes more In tensive there Is greater need for soil ing. and the most satisfactory method of providing a substitute Is by means «if the silo. It requires too much labor to cut green crops every day and haul them to the cows, and, lies Ides, there is necessarily a great loss in being obliged to feed the erojss before they nre fully mature and after they are overripe. Mr, Fraser concludes that no crop furnishes more feed to the acre than corn, and with the silo it can lie uti lized for soiling, tints permitting the whole crop to be liurvesttnl when at the right stage of maturity and feil when nee«led, saving both feed and labor. OIL IN FLAX. Light DIVerenre In the Coutrnta of mid Dark Flaxseed*. Au investigation was undertaken at the Minnesota experiment statiou at tll( . „.quest t ,f a member of the state hoard of grain appeals to determine the difference In the oil contents of ■lark atul light colored tlaxseeds. In many samples of souud and fully matured flax light brown aud «lark brown se*-ds are distinguishable, in size, weight and other physical char acteristics the seeds are alike, and It was desired to learn whether there was any difference in the oil content or In the chemical composition of the oil from the two types of seed. The «lark brown seeds examimsl were fouuil to contain about 1 per cent more oil than tin- 'light brown s«hs!s. This Is not a large difference when It is rt-calliHl that the oil content In flax seed may range from 34 to Hi* per cent. Both the light aud dark brown flax seed* contained tbe average amount of oil. with a slight difference In favor of the dark brown setsls. No uppre «•laide difference was found in the protein content of the Haxse«>ds ex «mined. Fuder test uo difference was ohserv «ni In the germinating powers of the dnrk and light browu flaxseeds, ludl eating that us far as power to gorinl Rate Is concerned both type* are equal ly sound. The «dl* extra.-ted from Ihree t.vin»s of seed were subjerttsl to the io«line absorption test, and uo large differ cnee was found bei w een yellow, dark brown aud light brown flaxseeds. As far as oil content, general chem ical com posit ion. genuin« ting powers And properties are cou«'eriie«l no ap pmdable difference was observed be tween light browu and «lark brown flaxseeds. Hag Msssrt, Hog manure 1* very variable In com position owing to tbe variable nature of the food supplied to this animal, but is geuermlly rich, although contaluliig a high percentage of water. It generate« little heat In decomposing.— W. H. Hen le. CROP REPORTS l'relituliiary returns to the «-bief of the bureau of «tatistlc* of the depart meut of agriculture ou the acrtNige of spring wheat sowu Indicate au area of about 17.U13.UOU acre*, au Increase of 472.0U0 acres over the estimate of the acreage sown last year. The total reported urea In oats It about tJ7.dB8.UUU acres, an Increase of 42.0U0 acres In the area sowu last year The acreage reported as under bar ley Is U-se than that s«iwn last year by about 17'£UU> acres, or 3.4 per cent. The acreage under spring ry e shows * reduction of 3.8 per cent from that «own last year. Returns to the bureau of statistics *bow the total area planted In eottog In the United States ap to May to hs about 28.lkU.0UU acres, a decrease of about 8.410,UOU scree, or 11.4 per veot. from the total acreoge planted last year. , i I I CANADIAN FIELD PEAS. rnpnlar Trop la Canada—How l.rd Harvest Inn. By THOMAS SHAW. The term Canadian Held peas, or, as It is more commonly expressed, ''Can ada Held peas," Is used with much latitude in this country. Ask a pea j grower in the United States as to the j variety of seed which he sowed and the almost invariable answer given Is, •1 sowed Cauadn peas." That may mean that he grew any one of nearly ! a lnmdnsl varieties. A common type I of the Canadian Held pen is shown In the first cut. Tlie I**® crop is one of the most Ini sortant in Canada. In striking con 'll W CANADIAN FIELD PEA. trust with the magnitude of tin* pea is Its insignificance In our own country. Great advances, however, have been made during recent years in growing pens In Michigan, Wisconsin and Mon- i tana and other mountain states. Canadian feeders use peas largely for cattle, also as food for dairy cows, 1 for swine aud as a ration for ewes and : lambs. The straw when well cured is i relished by horses, cattle and sheep, j though they may not take kindly to It at first. Pea straw harvested rather under- j ripe than overripe und properly cured j will be eaten readily, but when al- ! lowed to get «lend ripe live stock will ! eat little of it. F T ntll recent years the pea crop was harvested with the scythe or with the olit fashioned revolving hayrnke. The first method Is slow; the second shells out many of the peas and *0 «'overs the vines with soil as to render the straw practically unfit for usp. By tbe aid of a pen harvester the crop may be harvested speedily and in excellent, condition on level soils. It Is simply an attachment to an ordinary field mower, as shown in Fig. 1 of the sec ond cut. The guards in front lift up the pea* so that the knife can cut them cleanly. Th«' cut peas fall behhul the mower in a strltiglike row or swath and two men with forks hunch them and lay them uslil«>, out of the way of the horses. Three men and a span of horses may thus harvest ten acres in r.,i r*2 ( I'K.A HAIiVKSTKUH. a «lay. This attachment for harvest ing peas is made in Canada aud those now in u*e in the west haie all Ikhui I mported. On rear cut mowers a plat form Is sometimes used, as shown In Fig. a. With this attachment one man walks behind and with a fork throws the peas off In buuehe*. But the platform is of doubtful advantage unless tbe crop Is evenly ripened, not too heavy aud free from standiug weeds of strong growth. Where the land has been plowed In ridge*, with furrows more or less deep betweeu them, the working of the machine will tie seri ously interfered with. Jskiiu Ofsu Hair. It Is the writer'« belief that, wltl , the adoption of thoroughly uioden i methods of tillage throughout the John I son grass region, it may liecome prac I th-able to utilise Ulla gras« for the pro duction of hay without serious luter fevence with the cultivation of other crops. Fall plowing, treatment with a root digger or perhaps with a heavy spike tooth harrow, combi inst with mors or less hand pulling the next sea son, will reduce the ataml of grass so that It will he several y«-ar* tiefore It will again aertously interfere with tbs production of cultivated crops. The land can then tie allowed to go back to Johnsou grass for two or three years lor the purpose of hay prodm-tkin. thus adapting It to a rotation of five or six years. Tbe writer, however, would not advise any farmer to now Johnsou grass on land that 1* five from it un til more is knowu aliotit methods of cultivating It. It Is very uufortunate that a gras* that will prodin-e three go«)«! crops of hay lu au ordinary see eon should be so hard to control as to render It a very «erlous peet.—W Spillman O. I To Cure a Cold in One Day Take Laxative Bromo Quinine Tablets. js pw f. Seven MSBon boxes sold in post tfttonths. ' This signature, w H. T. MADGWICK Contractor «<* Builder LEWISTO" IDAHO Idaho Tea Company ; 366 MAIN ST. The best coffees and tea? and finest line of Crockery inthecity. The Mint BAKER ,& 8MJTH, Proprietors 1 Choice liquors, wines, brandies and cigars. A club room in connection. ] Clark Building, Main street HOTEL DE FRANCE Dennis Holland, Prop. Satisfaction is Guaranteed to all. The Best of Service MODERATE RATES LEWISTON, - - IDAHO ABSTRACTS OF TITLE Lewiston Abstract Company JAY vVOODWORTH, Mauager Bonded Abstractors for Nez Perce County ROOM 3, VOLLMER BLOCK Dray and Express W. E. MATHEWS, Propriatar. Orders Promptly Attended to Call and lave ord«rs THATCHER & KLING. Tal. 111. MALLORY & LYDON LIVERY, FEED ANO MACK STABLE First class Rigs and careful drivers at all hours of the day or night. Corner C and Fourth streets. B«rn Phone I 7 I Hack office Phon« 2671 JOHN F. HURLBUT, M.D. Physician Surgeon Rooms 8, 4. and 5 Thlesnen Bulldlnt Office 'Phone. 1881. Residence 'Phone: 1988 MURRAY & LYON ATTORNEYS-AT LAW, Suite 307 Wi isgerber Bldg. LEWISTON, IDAHO. JAS. F. WALL LAWYER 201 Waiagarbar Building. LEWISTON. IDAHO. JOHN H. LONG NOTARY PUBLIC Insuranca, Raal Estate, Loana, Cella« tiena Promptly Attended to. Yeare of Experience. Room 14 Thlessen Blk. Phone 2811 CLAY McNAMEE LAWYER Rooms* 15 and 16, Thlessen Building. LEWISTON. IDAHO. GEO. W. TANNAHILL Lawyer Practices in all State and Federal Courts of Idaho and Washington Rooms 1. 2 and 3. Telephone building Leweiston, Idaho. CHAS. W. SHAFF. M. D. Physician and Surgeon Eye, Ear and Throat Diseases, 10 to 12 a. in. Medical and Surgical Diseases. 2 ta I p. m.. and 7 to 8 p. m. Ask an- t.rmuc wha-nees « Syi-lebaker farm wagon and^he will tell you that it has cost him less for repairs and has given hint longer service than any- other wagon he ever owned. 1 he Stu«lebak«:rs are the largest vehicle manufacturers in the world; they get i first pick of materials; have unusual facilities; their more than fifty y ears exp«* . ence has shown them how to build the best vehicle on earth. These reasons hav v Studebaker Vehicles and Harness in the front rank. Exceptional materials, exceptional facilities, exceptional expen enae, exceptional skill, produce exceptional goods. You don't buy a wagon °f riage or a set of harness very often. Why not be sure y «>u are getting the Des r The more you investigate the Studebaker line, the more you v ill l** satishea a» to its superiority. It's the kind of bargain which the longer you have it the better you like it. Come in and see, HARK MEANS CO., - 1 "!' * Ltd., Lowleton, Idaho. ; ^ j; 1 No Fraud in This 0OA I ] m-d*w Cl Investigate our We handle ROSLYN and CLE ELUM. While this weather lasts you ma}' ce pend on being supplied promptly. Lewiston Fuel & Ice Co. 'Phono 1761. California Wine House WHOLESALE AND RETAIL The place to get your wines and liquors for family or medicinal um. Call and examine our goods and prices before buying elsewhere. Good« deliv srred to any pert of the eity. 'Phon« 11 Savings soften the Pillow There is better sleep by night and better cheer by day in the family whose head has a savings account. We receive sav ings deposits. We assure saving people a pleasant reception and pay them inter est on every' cent. Idaho Trust 6oj ARRANGE NOW TO ENTER Lewiston State Normal School Session 1905-1906 It offers Thorough ACADEMIC EDUCATION. Excellent PROFESSIONAL TRAINING for Teachers. FIVE YEAR and ONE YEAR CERTIFICATES. LIFE DIPLOMA upon Graduation. Excellent educational opportunities at minimum cost to its students. Full particulars upon application. GEORGE H. BLACK, President. m i nim *** * hMH ►♦♦♦♦»I lit I *♦*■< COLD STORAGE MARKET G. C. GOLDMAN, Prop. Try the Nee Perce Special Hams, Bacon and Lard Only Brand on the Market Opposite PoetofQce Phone 4fll j'*o y de'*j - assar • • Telephone J Residence •••••••••••sa# •♦••see Don't forget we agents for ••in are sole CROWN Princess tanned Goods MJB High Grade Coffee MJB Tree Teas i AI»o a fin« lint of staple and fancy groceries Lewiston Grocery & Bakery Telephone 281 250 Mtin s f