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Montpelier examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho) 1895-1937, May 06, 1921, Image 4

Image and text provided by Idaho State Historical Society

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86091111/1921-05-06/ed-1/seq-4/

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Young Fowls When Old Enough
to Shift for Themselves
Must Be Given Care.
Bulletin Given Out by Department of
Agriculture Especially for Begin
ners Gives Essentials for
Proper Growth.
I Prepared by the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture)
The enthusiasm with which many
poultry raisers, particularly begin
ners, start la the spring with young
chicks sometimes lags as the season
advances and the chicks get old
enougli to shift for themselves. If care
is neglected at tills period, however,
success is improbable. The baby
chicks may be smart little fellows
from strong, vigorous parent stock,
and they may have been brooded care
fully for the first two or three weeks,
but unless they receive proper care
and management during their later
growing period they will not develop
properly, and many of them will be
lost by sickness and disease. This is
the'timely warning made by poultry
men of the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture in Farmers' Bul
letin 1111,
Young Chicks," published by the de
partment, in which is given the essen
tials to proper growth and develop
ment of chicks. The bulletin is writ
ten briefly and in simple terms for be
ginners, especially members of boys
and girls' poultry ciubs.
Suitable Food and Care.
The chief essentials to the proper
growth of chicks, according to the bul
letin, are good coops, or houses, clean
liness, proper feed and water, shade
and free range. Growing chicks
should be provided with large, roomy
coops or houses, which will give them
a comfortable place to stay at night
and during stormy weather. The bul
letin suggests no particular kind of
house, but states it should be so built
that It will provide the chicks with
Management of Growing
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1 $
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Member of Boya* Poultry Club and
' ' HI« Flock.
plenty of light, pure air and sunshine,
and protect them from dampness and
storms of all kinds.
Chicks should never be crowded In
brood coops, for crowding will cause
them to become overheated, resulting
in Improper growth and sometimes in
dead chicks.
Sickness or disease usually starts
in unclean quarters, and in such
places lice and mites are always more
plentiful, the bulletin says. The coops
Bhould be cleaned and sprayed once a
week, and clean shavings, chaff, or
sand put on the floor. Examine the
chicks and houses often for lice and
mites, and If found they should be
gotten rid of at once. Farmers' Bul
letin 1110 gives directions for fighting
lice and mites.
Food Right for Rapid Growth.
The three kinds of feeds most nec
essary for rapid growth are grain
feed, green feed and dry mush. A
grain mixture should be fed night and
morning, giving as large a quantity as
the chicks will eat clean, but no more.
A good mixture for growing chicks
consists of three parts cracked com,
two parts wheat and two parts hulled
oats. Kafir com or rolled or hulled
barley may be substituted for hulled
eats. A supply of fresh green feed Is
almost as neecssary as grain for grow
ing chicks. They obtain plenty of it
If they have free range, but If kept in
confinement, lawn grass, beet tops,
cabbage, lettuce or other such green
feed should be supplied regularly.
Grit and oyster shells should be pro
vided so the chicks may help them
selves whenever they wish. When sour
milk can be obtained It should also
be kept before the chicks, as no feed
is regarded better for them. When
this 1« given the amount of beef scrap
in the dry mash may be reduced one
half. Plenty of fresh, clean water Is
absolutely necessary, and In
weather It should be provided twice
dally in dishes that have been thor
oughly cleaned.
The bulletin
emphasizes _tlie impor
tance of free range and 'shade for
growing chicks. They are necessary
ft chicks are to grow rapidly and de
velop Into vigorous fowls.
. growing chicks have free range they
obtain quantities of green feed, bugs,
worms and other things, therefore
they require less grata and are less
to sickittwa rn afl disease.
t During the first season of in- {
* festation In clover or alfaifu. t
J dodder usually occurs in small *
* scattered areas. Such Infested *
J areas should he either mowed J
* and removed before the dodder *
\ matures seed or else burned Ip J
J the field. If seed lias formed, *
i burning Is the only remedy, #
J since It kills not only the plants *
* but also the seeds of doddejr t
J which may be lying on the soil J
* surface.
Primary Object of Invention le to
Prevent Beee From Leaving
in Large Number«.
The Scientific American in describ
ing an automatic beehive trap, the in
vention of D. S. Howe of Marseilles,
111., says:
"The invention relates more partic
ularly to an automatic bee trap. The
primary object is to provide means
whereby the entrance and exit oi>en
ings of a beehive may be automatical
ly closed by the weight of the occu
pants to prevent the bees from leav
A Perspective View of a Hive, With
Invention Attached.
ing the hive in large numbers, which
is commonly known as 'swarming.' It
is a further object to provide a means
by which the ordinary passage of the
bees in their performance of gathering
honey is unobstructed.
insects Enter Wood Wherever it Comes
In Contact With Damp Earth
and Eat Into Beams.
Winged white ants are often ob
served flying about houses In spring,
and are some times supposed to have
come in from outside. The bureau of
entomology of the United States De
partment of Agriculture explains that
these winged Insects really are hatchet'
Inside the buildings, end usually are
to be taken as indicating nests of
wingless white ants working destruc
tion in the timbers.
These Insects, which really are not
properly ants, enter the wood wher
ever It comes in contact with damp
earth, and often eat Into the center of
an upright beam without manifesting
their presence on thö outside until the
wood is entirely ruined, and possibly
a settling and cracking of the build
lng has resulted.
The department urges that build
ings be constructed with such founda
tions that no wood touches the ground,
or if It Is necessary to use wood, that
it be impregnated with tar creosote.
Concrete floors should be laid on a
gravel base to prevent dampness and
cracking, and where cracks occur they
should be promptly filled.
Find Batter Market, Bring Higher
Prlcea and Are Handled at Lees
Expense Than Others.
Without uniform standards for farm
produce there la no recognized basis
for the business of buying and selling,
says the bureau of markets, United
States Department of Agriculture.
Standardization of products gives
seller and purchaser a common lan
guage and a set quality upon which
prices may be compared and fixed. Ex
perience has shown that the products
which are sold by grade find a better
market, bring letter prices, and can be
handled at less expense than thoetvsold
without reference to standards. Stand
ards have already been fixed for many
farm commodities, such as American
Upland cotton, shelled corn, wheat,
oats, and for small fruit containers.
These Federal standards apply only
when the product Is Intended for In
terstate or foreign commerce. It is
highly Important to secure state co
operation so that the provisions that
apply to a few products will apply to
all that are offered for sale.
Wall Adapted to Coat-Accounting Rec
ords Whan Information Wanted
on Few Enterprises.
A diary is well adapted to cost-
accounting records when information
la wanted on only a few farm enter-
prises, say specialists of the United
States Department of Agriculture. If
the diary Is written np each day It
takes but a moment to enter the hours
and minutes spent In working the crop,
and the necessary notes regarding the
cost of seed, fertilizer, and equipment
The common form of diary is a book
containing a blank page for each day's
record and with space in the back for
financial accounts. Another form has
a page for each day divided to give
space to the records of two years. A
similar type furnishes apace for a flva-
year period.
îlauca <§poutin$ T ?aya
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ILAUEA is spouting lava, spout
ing as never before in its history
since the Caucasian has known
its "House of Everlasting Fire."
This continuously active volcano
in Hawaii National park is over
flowing from the pit of Hale
All of the trails in
. ■...
the old crater bottom have been
destroyed. Five flows are run
ning north, south and west and a
mountain of lava, the largest in
the volcano's history, is spout
ing high, surrounded by hun
dreds of other fountains. The
lava lake rose eighty feet In eight hours. The
main flow, 1,300 feet wide, is running at the rate
of forty miles an hour.
Police guards are holding hundreds of tourists
and automobillsts at a considerable distance from
the scene because of the danger of a greater out
burst. -,
And the spouting of Ktlauea is one of the won
der scenes of the world.
"The Hawaiian volcanoes," writes T. A. Jag
gar, Jr„ director of the Hawaiian Volcano observ
atory, "are truly a national asset, wholly unique
of their kind, the most famous In the world of
science and the most continuously, variously, and
harmlessly active volcanoes on earth. Kllauea
crater has been nearly continuously active, with
a lake or lakes of molten lava, for a century.
Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano in the
world, with eruptions about once a decade, and
has poured out more lava during the last century
tluiD any other volcano on the globe. Haleakala
is a mountain mass ten thousand feet high, with
a tremendous crater rift in its summit eight miles
in diameter and three thousand feet deep, contain
ing many high lava cones. Haleakala is probably
the largest of all known craters among volcanoes
that are technically known as active. It erupted
less than two hundred years ago. The crater at
sunrise is the grandest volcanic spectacle on
Kllauea's Lava Lake.
The lava lake at Kllauea Is the most spectacu
lar feature of Hawaii National park. It draws
visitors from all over the world. It is a lake of
molten, fiery lava a thousand feet long, splashing
on Its bonks with a noise like waves of the sea,
while great fountains boll through It fifty feet
high. This exhibition of one of the most amazing
revelations of nature—the terrlfflc and Irresistible
forces of the earth's internal lires —is accessible
by automobiles almost to the very brink, and may
be safely viewed.
The trip from Hilo to Kllauea volcano Is by au
tomobile, a distance of thirty miles. From Hilo
the road gradually ascends through,sugar cane
and pineapple plantations, to a high elevation and
then plunges Into a -great forest of tree ferns,
whose fronds are thirty feet overhead and pro
vide a delightful canopy for many miles. At
4,000 feet elevation the trip ends at Volcano House
on the rim of the crater. Here are unobstructed
views of towering snow-capped mountains and
Hie great crater, Kiiauea, an enormous pit nearly
eight miles in circumference and six hundred feet
deep, enclosing an area of 2,650 acres. Filling the
floor of this vast bowl Is a sea of solidified lava,
twisted and contorted into every imaginable shape,
with jets of steam, vapor and sulphurous fumes
rising from Innumerable crevices and cracks. Al
most at the center is thé active throat of the vol
cano itself, called by the natives, Haiemaumau,
"The House of Everlasting Fire." This was, in
Hawaiian mythology, the home of Pele, the god
dess of Are.
Greatest Natural Wonder.
This throat or Inner pH is a mile In circum
ference and contains at all times a raging sea of
molten lava. Its wtite-hot waves lashing and gnaw
ing at the imprisoning walls, and its vast foun
tains of incandescent rock eternally flinging their
flery sprayJn air; seething and roaring In awful
grandeur. The molten sea rises and falls peri
odically, at times even overflowing the rim of the
pit and spreading out over the floor of the main
crater, while red-lot crags and massive islands
rise from Its depths to either collapse In tumultu
ous avalanches or subside gently beneath the
surface of the lava. The pit is fascinating by
daylight, but at night the scene is enthralling.
And It may be witnessed in perfect safety.
The national park system of the United States
contains several absolute unique natural wonders,
such as the Grand Canyon, Crater Lake and the
sequoias of Yosemite, Sequoia and General Grant
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parks. Nevertheless, there are discriminating
nature-lovers who have seen the world and declare
that Kilauea's Haiemaumau is greatest of natural
E. M. Newman, the traveler and lecturer, says:
"The fires of a visible inferno burning in the
midst of an earthly paradise is a striking contrast,
afforded -only In the Hawaiian National park. It
is a combination of all that Is terrifying and all
that Is beautiful, a blending of the awful with the
magnificent. Lava-flows of centuries are piled
high about a living volcano, which Is set like
a ruby in an emerald bower of tropical grandeur.
Picture a perfect May day, when glorious sun
shine and smiling nature combine to make^the
heart glad; then multiply that day by three hun
dred and sixty-five and the result Is the climate
of Hawaii. Add to this the sweet odors, the
luscious fruits, the luxuriant verdure, the flowers
and colorful beauty of the tropics, and the Hawaii
National park becomes a dreamland that lingers
In one's memory as long as memory survives."
"Infernal and Thrilling.
Miss Edna L. Smith of Aurora, III., a globe
trotter with the gifts of appreciation and de
scription says of Haiemaumau:
"As a spectacle it is the most infernal and
brilliant thing I have ever seen and ns a natural
phenomenon it is the most thrilling sight I ever
hope to see. Worlds In the making best describes
what is going on there. Miniature molten moun
tains are turned out of the white-hot furnace to
cool and you see how all sorts of stratifications
are made.
Then in turn miniature hardened
mountains are swallowed by the burning lava lakes.
And all the time the most tremendous roaring
and hissing go on as the fiery lava is spouted
high up in the air. It sounds as if some angry
dragon were In the heart of the great crater spew
ing up flames and brimstone in a rage."
Stephen T. Mather, director of the national park
service, says of Kllauea, among other things:
"'l want to record my feeling that this is the
most wonderful feature of the national park sys
tem, surpassing the geysers of the Yellowstone, the
waterfalls of the Yosemite, and even the big trees
of Sequoia park.
It is the most awe-inspiring
thing that I have ever observed, and I have
hesitation In predicting that when once the people
of the United States realize what a remarkable
thing this volcano Is it will become the objective
of thousands of visitors."
Kiiauea does not by any means confine its
tlvities to Haiemaumau.
Knu desert, about six miles front the fiery pit In
Kiiauea crater, molten lava burst forth from
subterranean tube leading through a crack begin
ning at the wall of the main volcano. This flow
of lava was called the Kau flow of 1920, .and is
still at work building up a new mountain,
flow really began in December, 19UI It lias
built up a great mound almost 200 feet In height.
This mound has been designated Mauna Iki (little
mountain). The Kau flow was easy of access, and
hundreds of visitors saw Its live stream of lava
cascading over older flows,
approach to within a few feet of the lava and
|H>ke at It with a fcreen stick. *
Last year, out on the
It was possible to
Footprints 130 Year« Old.
It is in this Kau desert that Professor Jugger
lias Just made an amazing discovery—ihe foot-
prints In the hardened volcanic ash of an Hawaiian
army flying 130 years ago from the wrath of
Pele. the goddess who dwells in Haiemaumau.
King Keoua of Kan. as recorded history says,
led an army of three divisions against King Kame-
baroeha, who later united all the Hawaiian islands
under his sway, In the year 1790. This year also
recorded the last explosive eruption of Kllauea
-Hawaiian legend records the fact that
Keoua's warriors rolled stones into Kllauea
to mark their disrespect for the goddess
molten lake. Pele rose in her
some of
of the
_, . . wrath, and, with
a terrific explosive eruption, totally wiped out
the second division of Keoua's army. The foot
prints found In the Kau desert are believed to be
three of men of the first division, who, seeing th »
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destniction of their
comrades In the rear,
fled from the locality.
. The tracks will lie en
* closed and preserved.
Kllenuea is the renier
of a district unexcelled
In volcanic marvels. There are many great craters
within easy walking distance; interesting lava
tubes or tunnels, wonderful forests of ancient Koa
trees and tree ferns, banks of live sulphur, and
bottomless fissures and earthquake cracks.
Hawaii National Park.
••• P*
Hawaii National park was established by act
of congress approved August 1, 1916 (39 Stat.,
The park at the present time is composed
of three noncontiguous areas, two on the island
of Hawaii, the largest Island of the group com
posing the territory of Hawaii, and one of the
island of Maui. Briefly, the park lands may be
described as follows:
The Kilaueo section, which embraces the crater
of Kllauea and much of the surrounding region.
Its area is 35,865 acres.
The Mauna Loa section, which includes the
crater of Mokuaweoweo, the summit creaier of
the great mountain Mauna Loa, with some adja
cent lands. The tolal area is 17,020 acres.
The Haleakala section, which is on the island
of Mau 1 and includes the crater of the extinrt
volcano Haleakala. Its total area is 21,150 acres.
A tract that will contain 360 acres, and will con
nect the Mauna Loa and Kiiauea sections of the
Mauna Loa is intermittently active and the
world's largest volcano. Near the top of this
great mountain, towering to a height of 13,075
feet above the sea, is the crater of Mokuaweoweo.
with an area of 2,370 acres, a circumference of
9.47 miles, a length of 3.7 miles, and a width of
1.74 miles. In October, 1919, a great flow of lava
from the west side of Mauna Loa took place.
It began in a rift well up toward the summit,
and sweeping its way through virgin forests be
low finally reached the sea, where it pushed up
a sand cone of great dimensions. It was called
the Alika flow, because it passed over the Alika
section of South Kona. It destroyed 1,800 linear
feet of the maid highway around the island, l-eiui
lng from the crater Itself and in the regiou just be
low are several rifts of great scientific interest.
From these rifts, which in many cases are highly
colored, numerous lava flows have issued, among
them the great flow of 1881 which nearly de
stroyed the city of Hilo. In the line of these
rifts are many spatter cones and other peculiar
phenomena that attract the attention of the tour
Halekala, "The House of the Sun," Is the largest
The elevation
Its crater is nine
quiescent volcano in the world,
of its summit is 10,032 feet,
teen square miles, or 12,160 acres; tire circumfer
ence of the rim, twenty miles; extreme length,
7.4S miles ; extreme width, 2.37 miles. The almost,
vertical walls drop half a mile or more. It is im
possible to realize the great area of tire crater.
The whole of New York city, below Central park,
could lie buried within its depths, and the highest
of that city's church spires would be but toys by
the side of its cinder cones; cones which rise like
young mountains from the bottom of the crater,
and which are relatively but fair-sized ant hills
when viewed from the summit.
This vantage point Is above the usual clou'l
The level rays of the setting sun il
luminate every nook and corner of the stupendous
crater and bring to view- the outlines and delicate
tints of the majestic pictures which have been
hung in this mammoth gallery, to thrill and awe
all who look upon them.
Sunrise on Haleakala.
Sunrise, seen from Haleakala's summit, is »
moving picture of nature's painting. Says a visi
Ten thousand feet above the ocean, which we
could see far below, we waited, and soon were
rewarded by a faint glow; then, as the sun rose
higher above the horizon, the glow gradually
changed to a beautiful orange red, and the clouds
like great white downy rivers flowed and disap
peared Into the crater on the edge of which we
crater became more and more intense, the shad
ows deeper and bluer, and then the sunlight be
gan to brighten the sugar-cane fields far below
fully 10 or 15 minutes after we bad seen the first
glow. We watched for almost an hour. It seemed
like two worlds, one above the other,-one àlive and
the other coming into life as the sun warmed It."
Hawaii Is a territory of the United States, an
nexed In 1898. The inhabited islands comprise ''
chain of eight, stretching over a distance of ni ,ire
than four hundred miles, with a total area
O.oOO square miles and a population of 256,18"
Fron, northeast to southwest the islands are
hau, Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maul, Lanai, Kahoo
lawe and Hawaii, the latter giving its name
the group. Honolulu, Island of Oahu, Is the cap
ital and chief commercial city.
As the sun rose higher the colors in tin'

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