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Be Transmuted Dream of Scientists fer a Thou sand Years Achieved by Dr. Rutherford. FAR - REACHING POSSiBlLITiES Remarkable Result of Bombarding Ni trogen Gas With the Alpha Rays of Radium — May Supply Unlimited Power. New York.—The transmutation of elements, the dream of both charla tans and scientists for nearly a thou sand years, Ims actually been accom plished by the recent work of Sir Ernest Rutherford, and his results are generally accepted by scientists and physicists, according to Dr. James Kendall, associate professor of chem istry at Columbia, who said, on the other hand, that there was not the slightest reason to believe that the (Jernmns had accomplished their re ported feat of making synthetic gold. Nitrogen, sodium, aluminum, chlor ine, oxygen and carbon linvo been transmuted, or broken up by Ruther ford Into hydrogen ntid helium, ac cording to Dr. Kendall. This was first accomplished, accord ing to the claims of Rutherford, by bombarding nitrogen gas with the nl phu rays of radium. These sb-called rays are helium ntoms which are flung out of the exploding radium atom w ith an energy incomparably grenter thnn any projectile produced artificially. The velocity of (Ills atom would take It around the world In slightly less than a second, and the power of the exploding atom. In proportion to size, Is something like n million times grenter thnn that of trinitrotoluol. Result of a Chemical Collision. The radium was placed so as to drive the alpha particles into ultrogen gas. When the alpha particle had a head-on collision with a nitrogen atom it tore It to pieces, so It is asserted. The atom supposedly has a structure somewhat resembling the solar sys tem. Its center Is a nucleus of posi tive electricity, resembling the sun of the solar system, and this is surround ed by electrons, or charges of nega tive electricity, presumably whirling about the nucleus, as the planets whirl about the sun. The alpha pnrtlcle is believed to produce such a disruption In the atom as plight occur, for Instnnee, If an other star of the dimensions of the sun tore through our system, hit the 'sun directly and drove It off Into space, causing the planets to shoot off In nil directions. This occurs on a scale In the neigh borhood of the billionth part of i. billionth of an inch, hut It con be partly measured. The alpha particles thrown off by radium produce scin tillations when they strike a screen of zinc sulphide within a certain distance. When they were used to bombard ni trogen scintillations took place at greater distances from the radium Ilian the alpha particle could alone produce. By his study of these scintillations Dr. Rutherford was able to prove to the satisfaction of men of science gen erally that new products were devel oped by the shattering of the nitro gen atoms and that these products were hydrogen and helium atoms. His experiments have all been in the of disorganizing the more atoms into simpler ones. The mutation of ntoms with simple struc tures Into those with more complex ones has not been achieved. Dr. Kendall on Rutherford. "Rutherford bus reduced nitrogen, aluminum, chlorine and sodium to hy drogen and helium," said Dr. dall. atoms by tearing oxygen and carbon to pieces, but hydrogen lias not re way complex truns Ken "He has also produced helium Wireless Phones for Commuters m ~ : J * ' 1 f.l m * ë if f vS«*> N I, g ; i s i I m i 7 . . s v ? y ' $.j m m « tv Ü B A -j - A My JL I — , m " i Mi tsr4i re jOD & UNDERWOOD UNDER m 555^ may soon find their trains equipped with the wireless telephone so that they can talk with their homes while going to or coming from the city, and can even enjoy grand opera lu the evening. The system «ns tried out recently, and the photograph she the radio phone on a cur. Chicagoans who reside in the suburbs vs a passenger using suited, I believe, from the disruption of these atoms. "This Is certainly the transmutation of elements, hut it Is done on an in finitely small scale, anil is important at present only to the scientific man. It does not promise that elements can he changed from one type to another, except on the smallest laboratory scale. It does not suggest that the transmutation of metals may be de veloped from It." The possible far-reaching results of Rutherford's discovery were discussed as follows by Professor <>. W. Itlch nrdson In his recent presidential ad dress to the Section of Mathematics and Physics of the British association: "Rutherford bus taken the direct method of bombarding the nuclei of the different atoms with the equally minute high-velocity helium nuclei (nlphu particles) given off by radio active substances, and examining the tracks of any other particles which may he generated as u result of the impact. The amounts of energy which hflve been thus far released by artificial disintegration of the nuclei are them selves small, but they are enormous In compnt Ison with the minute amount of matter affected. "If these effects can be sufficiently intensified there appears to be two possibilities. Either they will prove uncontrollable, which would presum ably spell the end of all things, or they will not. If they can be both In Learns Secret of Arrow Heads Illinois Man Gets Credit as Only Man Who Knows How to Make Them. INDIAN CHIEFS LOSE TRICK Many of Them Confess Their Igno rance of Just How to Make Arrow Heads— Are Identified by Tribal Marks. Springfield.—Making of Indian ar row heads lias been reduced to its flrst principles here by Herbert Wells Fay, custodiuu of the Lincoln monu ment, wlio has gained the distinction, which it is said until now bus been undisputed, of being the only white man to make real arrow heads. Indians are among the foremost In crediting Mr. Fay with this ability. Drawn to the last resting place of Abraham Lincoln, various present-day Indian chiefs have openly confessed their ignorance of "just how" to make arrow heads, aud then have voiced their surprise at the excellent work manship of the white man. Finding that his arrows have been taken for the work of real Indians, Mr. Fay no longer makes arrows of flint, hut to prevent fruud uses ouly Worked Near Dekalb. Ills study of arrow heads was ■ly near his former home gained lar at Dekalb, in which vicinity, be said, there bad been seven Indian camps. Mr. Fay takes issue with other au thorities who say arrow heads may be identified by their shape as the work of a particular tribe. Years of study and the actual making of arrows prove otherwise, Mr. Fay declares. Ills conclusions as to arrow-making are outlined as follows; "Indians first tried stones that break with a con chohlal fracture (like the Inside of a ITALY'S WARM FRIEND \ I 1 Wm >1 : | § | i ; j n [< X w*--. I v. ;i j fii 'Ä 1 I dît a 1 l si >noerV<$£h> ; % m Mrs. John A. Drake of New York, recently received a letter from Pope Benedict XV in which his holiness bestowed upon her his apostolic bless ing for the work which she has done as head of the American Free Milk and Relief for Italy, Inc. She is wear ing the many meduls bestowed upon her In Italy. tensifled and controlled, then we shall have at our disposal an almost Illim itable supply of power which will en tirely transcend anything hitherto known." spoon). They found that the deeper the break ut the top of the flat-sur faced stone the longer would he the break In the stone, hut It would he correspondingly wide. They wished, however, u long, narrow piece as more suitable for an arrow head. "They then found that by breaking the stone at a corner they could pro duce such a 'flake' (raw arrow head) one, two, or even five times Its width, according to the skill of the artisan. Such an arrow head always has a rhlge on one side and the other side smooth. The ridge is the corner of the stone from which the flake was broken. "Next, the Indian found that In fin ishing the arrow head, If the stone breaks easier from one direction on the top, it would break just as easily from the other on the bottom. This gave rise to the belief that arrow I heads were made to revolve. Such was not the intention of arrow makers, us tlie same natural peculiarity appears in spear heads, which arc too heavy to revolve, as spears were seldom ex pected to go more than a few times their length. "These principles being true of all stone used by the Indians, it Is an evi dent Impossibility for any collector to tell what tribe made certain arrow • The width, depth and spear heads. thickness, determined h.\ tlie ileptb of the fracture of the determine the shape and appearance of the tin tshed product." Chert Center in I'lin-i-,. stone. Jlost of the arrow heads of the north Mississippi valley, Mr. Fay said, were made of chert, a chalky flint, taken from tlie quarries in Union county, Illinois, near Cairo. The IdulTs at that place along the Mississippi river show outcroppings of this chert and prolific evidences of the activity of Indians, who went there from all Iowa and Indiana, parts of Illinois, Wisconsin, he added. "Less than 1 per cent of the arrow heads found in this wide territory," Mr. Fay continued, "seem to have been made from local stone. The Union county quarries have been determined as the principal source because arrows I found throughout that region corre sponded exactly to the quality of the Union county stone. It is not known whether expert 'flake' makers held the quarries in Union county and dis tributed material to tribes as they came down, or whether each tribe had its flake makers and visited the quar ries periodically. Implements used by Indians in mak ing arrow heads, according to Mr. Fay, were made with one tool, a piece of bone somewhat like the handle of a toothbrush. WILL BAN GRADE CROSSINGS United States Will Construct Bridge» or Underpasses on Federal H ighways. Washington. Grade will • Tossings possible and i»lniii!inf«Ml u hoi*»* vor I replaced with bridges m- underpasses on all roads of tlie federal aid high constructed under the bureau of public leads of tin- Department of Agriculture announces. h be the federn! highway sv sien ay Mi t. Important roads. many of which nt rallro.-tds at present cross and recrus grades, hereafter «III Is- built entirely on one side In the three years ending with 11)20, to the according to records available bureau. H.GflG lives lost nnd 10,(511 persons were Injured at grade crossings in were 'he United Stutes. I Something to Think About | I I Bq F A. WALKER = nlllllllllllllllllllMIIIIIMIIIHIIIIIIilllllllllllllilllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllHIIIIIIMIIIlin ONE THING A TIME AT whose worker. T 1IE successful achievements are greatest at the end of the day. is he or she who dues but one thing at a time, and re fuses to leave it until tt is finished. vacillates Such between one duty and another. There Is no undue confusion in the worker never u \ mind by wavering, I By putting off the seemingly dif I ficult task for the easier. Everything is taken up comes, completed in every I ready fur (lie scat the (op. The worker who flits from pillar to post, starts In one direction and suddenly sets his face In another, never really gets anywhere. He is lacking of stability, and at the end of the year he is about where he began, with no prospect of ad vancement and no hope of improve ment. Indeed, in spite of his fever ish, hurried efforts, he is slipping down grade. as It detail, of the master at Doing the Job In hand and sticking to It until it Is done to the very end Is the only way to achieve suc cess. In a lit tle while you will find that you are getting speed with less friction. There will be no more Irritability nnd lassi tude nt the end of the day. Instead of going home at night In an 111 humor, with every nerve tingling and on edge, you will find Train yourself to do this. X*ï Uncommon Sense i By JOHN BLAKE m I KIND OF INTEREST the man of affairs what he is j interested in and he will prob ably tell you : "Everything." He is Interested In everything, and lie ought to he. But he nlso is especially interested In some one thing, which Is why he Is u man of affairs. A very important editor Is so ab sorbed in the study of the world and what is going on in it, that in work time or playtime he Is engaged In its study. But he Is especially interested in men and women. And specializing in this specialty he is interested In what they like to.read. He Is so deeply interested In this, that he never meets a man or woman that lie does not find out, in some fashion or other, what it is that at tracts their attention in newspapers and magazines. * The nsnlls of the several hundred ! thousand quest inns he has asked are carefully put away in his brain, and when be gets out a number of the publication he directs, it is always bought and read by a very large num ber of people. To have a live personal Interest in j all created tlnn .-s is necessary to i every well-educated and active man. I l If you sat at a dinner next to John , 1 1 Rockefeller you could get fqw rises! out of him by discussing tlie theory i Mother's Cook Book ïg "Life Is not a cup to bo drained, but an offering to be poured out." HAVE A CRACKER RACKERS are the ever-readystand-! by of the "up-to-the-minute" house wife. They will keep indefinitely if kept dry nnd air-tight. If they do soften—five minutes In a hot oven will crisp them again as good a* fresh ones. Any kind of crackers, sweet, graham, oatmeal or ginger may he used for a dainty sandwich to he served with a cup of ten or a re freshing drink. An old-fashioned dish nnd one good for an invalid or a child Is cracker soup. Toast the crackers until brown, spread with butter, sprinkle with a little sugar and pour over hot milk. A sweet cracker put together with marmalade, jelly, cream cheese, nuts or any other good tilling makes a good substitute for cake. c Graham Cracker Pudding. Tnke four tnblespoonfula of butter, add one-bnlf cupful of siignr. one-half WATCH REPAIRERS ARE NOW BUSY * - President of Mexico Decrees That All Public Timepieces Shall Change Numerals. Guadalajara, Mexico. — These busy times for watchmakers In Mexico. are sign painters and In order to comply with a new decree issued by President Alvaro that the hours he counted from one to 24, the numerals or Roman ehuracte ( )bregon ordering I-N that your bruin Is clear and yuur thoughts at rest. This, you will discover later. Is liecuuse of the orderly method adopt ed of taking up hut one subject at a time and not letting It g< until you have no further use for it. * One of the foremost merchants of New York, confronted with thousands of serious questions every day, has formed the habit of returning to his home at night ns enre-free as a school hoy during vacation season. When he leaves his desk, he leaves his perplexities. The next morning he comes in bright-eyed, light-hearted, eager to get in the fray. If by chance the first encounter should happen to be troublesome, he dispenses with It before proceeding to another. There is no loss of time, no trying of nerve force In flitting from one problem to another. He drives straight ahead and makes decision after decision without the slightest sign of flurry. And you, however burdened you may be, can do the same if you hold unswervingly to the same course. (Copyright.) SCHOOL DAYS GoA Photbt, Ta like to *!>? w -■*** Cviiuifl'»" ° vo ' . »a I foy ia«t *3 , 1 u t ? It «*t < ' on a ! + tl«v ■**>& PV iouk . jVrigW - To» . jfcu t>Gy * h\ W yo'i 4ikf ^( liuIÄm A to ? 1» -tU so*, ftwi • ww mV -/«Tf tU ***». * «K ÿf) * y-Lf « t.ü *• 1W «•*' v •Vtoof a at *«''«' tens _ ** sA ' ij, Oufo't* of COUM« § fo tara»« 1 6 .»U to 3d fio* ' IS. j™ Tvs S3 A. \ X pv iji D a vif jl ■ m » 4* i \ dual « I copyright of relativity. But if you began i<> ! talk of how to give away money In- j telligently, which is his special In- J terest just now, you would probably 1 hear something of much value. Golf, music and many other things are line interests to have, but the one Interest you need most of all con ! corns your business or your profes sion. j i |f ()„,( | S paramount, and you give p enough intelligent thought, you will ! much I j j j I teaspoonful of vanilla, the yolk of an I l egg and a pinch i f salt, mix well then ] add three cupfuls of finely rolled gra- i ham crackers, three-fourths of a cup fill of milk, one end one-half tea spoonfuls of baking powder; lastly fold In the well-beaten egg white, add one-half cupful of dates cut In hits, with the stones removed. Steam for one and one-half hours. Serve with a I hard sauce or whipped cream. , prosper vou ^ m nnt i If you "scatter" ti Copyright.) Copyright. 1922, Western Newspaper Union O „ . . °Py m 0 imp im y. ! S ''"''V <i ' V ° f " 1 "' lnKS the I ( ' sf to l,, ' «>Pt«l.-ateele. , ! j | j o a /*» S** 5 m • Lj V'V] » A: y j ! *> 'O - upon all the timepieces In the country will have to he changed. While It In not required that the private owners of watches and clocks change the murks of the hours, this will have t he lone hy all persons i are In public nr rililrnud employ All clocks upon churehoa, city hulls anil other buildings must have their faces so changed as to rend from wll meal. one to 24. YOUR HAND How to Read Your Characteristic« and Tendencies—the Capabilities or Weaknesses That Make tor Success or Failure as Shown in Your Paint. THE HANDS IIEN the hands hung limply at the side, and are heavy, thick and fat, you may deduce there! from, generally, that the Intellect of the possessor will he likewise heavy and "fat." All Is density, and there is no use trying to raise the possessor of such a hand out of the depths materialism. When you read his her hand, says one authority, "if attempt a keen unolysls, he blankly stare at you. No use trying to lift him out of hts trough of mate rialism. It can't be done, wants to know his brother's w of or you He name, whether he Is married, how many chil dren, how long he will live, whether he will be rich, and you cannot lift him above this plane." Last, we have the cautious person who enters your room with an air 0 f investigation and with the hands car- ! rled behind the back, where they i clasped. This person Is timid and well meaning, but suspicious of the value and merits an»' standing 0 f palm'stry. You must deal gently with him ; he Is open to conviction, bat must be led and cannot be driven. (Copyright) are; WHY ! j J 1 ! I DO WE YAWN? XYGEN Is one of the elements of the air which Is essential to II» healthy, normal action of tbc lungs. Unless a sufficient quantity of oxygen Is taken into the body, tls lungs become irritated and flush i signal to the brain that a larger sup ply Is necessary. The easiest method j to overcome this shortage of oxygeaj j Is, of course, to take In nil Increased] j amount of air at one lime. Heme I the nerves which r-gulate our hreath ] lug apparatus react upon our jaw and i throat muscles, causing both of then to open wide. Expansion of the luopl at the same time results in the In halation of a much larger amount «( air I linn is obtainable through or dinary breathing, thus supplying ft needed amount of oxygen. o The reason that yawning 's u*W connected with a feeling of <tw«* ness Is because a desire for sleep" 1 sign that the body Is tired and la seek lug a stimulant of some kind—riff)'' 1 rest or an lidded amount of oxygen, the fuel which keeps the human fut ni ce burning brightly. The satisfac tion which follows a yawn Is du e t0 the fact that the blood has receive! an extra supply of the material wW cl1 It needs nnd we Immediately feel the benefit of this. (Copyright.) o 7 5T(0=ü f® —Tt-t . a' r DOMESTIC FINANCE "What la a revolving fund?" "What your husband give* yo" then borrows back." Wtt< Railroad men are having milkers change the marks upon faces of their watches, have Large ( placed hy Jewel«* watches anil clocks of the now H No explanation wns given by dent Ohregon as to why • l , l f4 was decided upon. It Ih said was told Hint In France countries of Europe the timing day from one to twenty-four hou found to be more satisfactory tl>*" followed In tlia v 01 been and of system which la Slates and Mexico.