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wanted: me dunes \
NATIONAL PARK, *£J I i # JOHN DICKINSON SHER Phôtcgr ô ^3 & FRANCES LA FOLLETTE ♦ ' ■ ■ r. - - " Ml M •' • ' . ,y\ '"I ' ' à :■ ft ' it m ty Ä r Natural f Wonderland in Indiana on Lake Michigan Should Be Saved for the \ People / - -i -ix » Vf ;</ ■ . V *: 'J V, ' V & I ; I ! ; it* ' U- à V2 w ». r e JVZ4KP i J f •o £ /* ,v % MiLWAUMCf V. V W\ 5. ;. A 4 I ANTED: The Dunes National park— I in the sund dunes of Indiana on I the shore of Lake Michigan be ■' tween Gary and Mlcltlgan City 1 The middle West has visited the ** playgrounds of the people In the \ scenic West—the national parks of I the Hockles, Sterrus and Cascades. I It has found them good. It lias füllen L In love witli the national park idea. "Why not a ua Now It Is asking: tlonal park right here, Instead of hulf way across the continent?" For there Is not a scenic national park worthy of the between Kocky Mountain in Colorado and Lafalyette on the coast of Maine. So Indiana, Illinois and Michigan want u na tional park, and they have picked out the dunes us the right place for It. How they are going to bring about Its establish The proposed purk area Is all under private ownership and Is held at spec ulative prices on the chance of a second Gary being built ut the head of Lake Michigan. Even at actuul values It would cost about $3,500,000 to buy the 13,000 acres most desirable for park pur poses. The scenic purks of the West were taken from the national forests nnd the public domain by congress. To date there Is no precedent for the appropriation by congress of funds to purchase a national park area. Lafayette was presented to the government for national park purposes by the owners of the property. Congress hus no national park policy. It dilly dallies with national parks as It does with most other things. It Is now generous with appropria tions and again niggardly ; for instance. It gave Yellowstone $334,000 and Yosemite $255,000 In 1919 and kept Rocky Mountain, with twice as many visitors as both parks, down to $10,000. Politics enters largely luto all national park legis lation. In the Sixty-fourth congress the Interior department supported the bill to enlarge Yellow stone and the bill to odd to Sequoia mid change name ment Is a big question. It* name to Roosevelt. The agricultural depart ment, because the proposed additions would be taken from nutlonal forests, and therefore from Its control, opposed both bills, beating the former In the senate nnd the latter In the house. So there Is no telling what congress will or will not do In the matter of national park legislation. Can congress be Induced to appropriate money for the purchase of private holdings for national park purposes? This question has been put squarely up to con gress by two bills Introduced at this session. One calls for the appropriation of a million dollars or so for the purchase of Mammoth cave, Kentucky, and Its environs for a national park. The other provides for the establishment of the Mississippi Valley National purk on both sides of ihe Missis sippi in southwestern Wisconsin and northeastern Iowa. Here the two states own the land under the river, the federal government controls Its navigation, part of the proposed area Is a Wiscon sin state park, some of tike land will be donated and the land to be purchased by the government has been npprnlsed at a very moderate price. Can congress condemn prlvute holdings for na tional park purposes? Nobody seems to know. Most lawyers would say off-hand that the state of Indiana can con demn the dunes for state park purposes. And presumably the state of Indiana could transfer the iRnd to the federal government. The national park service has been looking Into the question of con demnation. It Is advised that the government condemn private holdings Inside of national park boundaries—in fact, a bill Is pending to condemn 100 acres in General Grant National park which the owner will not sell for u reasonable price, to the condemnation of patented land outside of a national park Ihe national park service Is yet undecided. Condemnation of tlie dunes has been advocated by private Individuals and by the press. The creation of Lafayette National park has established this precedent: The federal ment will accept suitable land presentt-d to It for national park purposes. So, while other questions are being thrashed out, the Indiana, Illinois nnd Michigan federations of the General Federation of Women's Clubs are engaged In a campaign to raise sufficient money by subscription to purchase the dunes nnd present them to the government for ■ national park. can As govern YU i LAKE / I J J MICHIGAN f * « i *s ...I I % ; Wtt* II ti» ,e There is no question thut the Indiana dunes are worthy of national park honors. October 30, 1916, « public bearing was held in Chicago by the In terior department In pursuance of a senate resolu tion. In September, 1917, a printed report by Director Stephen T. Mather of the national park service was Issued, consideration all of the dune country except a strip ulong the shore of Lake Michigan about mile deep between Miller's In Lake county and Michigan City. After describing the dunes with considerable enthuslnsm, Director Mather says: Assuming, without further description of actual conditions in this dune country, thnt the sand dunes of Indiana are equal to those In any other section of the country; iliut they are the most ac cessible dunes; thut they possess extremely inter esting flora and fauna; that they offer unparalleled opportunities to observe the action of the wind nnd Its Influence on the sand and plant life; that the Lake Michigan beach Is beuutlfu! and offers bathing facilities for a multitude; that the tlonal uses of the region are myriad, should they, or a large section of them, be preserved for present and future generations? This report eliminated from a récréa If they should he pre served, ure they worthy of Inclusion In a national park? And If they are a possible national park, would It he practicable to establish them ns such a park for the benefit and enjoyment of the people?" He answers the first two questions emphatically in the affirmative. He says this region should be preserved to the people for all time and thnt It is worthy of national park honors, question, he thinks It or thy of consideration us As to the third me of legislative policy to be determined by congress, inasmuch ns the dunes are not public lands, and private lands have been purchased for national park purposes, thinks the park should contain from 9,000 to 13,000 acres, extending 15 or 20 miles along the lake. He finds thut options secured by speculators never He vary between $350 and $800 un acre, with one tract of 2,300 acres held at $1,000 an acre. "Manifestly,' says Mr. Mather, "none of these lands are actually worth $350 an acre ut this time. A figure less than $200 an acre probably represents the actual value of the average tract of land under the Influence of urlmn values, due to imtty to cities. Ings must be purchased In their entirety. I believe that 9.000 to 13,000 acres of dune lands not prox 1'ractleully ull of the larger hold cun prob ably be secured for pnrk purposes for approximate ly $200 nn acre. The purchase price of a park of the size suggested would therefore be betw $ 1 . 800,000 und $ 2 , 600 , 000 ," The proitosed Dune Nutlonal purk Is wonderful place. In the first place, the du au uninhabited wilderness. The fact thut there is uninhabited wilderness within a few ecu really a nes are miles of the center of population—-In 1910 nt Bloomington, ind.—and at the very doors of Chicago, ihe second' city of the nation and the fourth city of the world. Is In Itself u marvel. Incidentally, the dunes within a few hours by rail and automobile of 20, 000,000 people. Tills mnkes them unique as a pub lic playground. Again : Tbe dunes n,re a different world from the monotonous flatness of the Chicago plain. They ure a country of hills and bluffs, gullies and valleys. There are all sorts of Interesting varia tions: Little lakes, streams, bogs, meadows. The bluffs above the beach are Imposing. The beach Itself Is a wonder—broad, smooth. cUmui. tree from nn ure ;. A r>. » A1 X \ - L V -.v# \ A \ \t T'QPJîPr locks and stones and quicksands, sloping very gradually Into deep water. There Is probably no finer freshwater bathing beach In the world. Don't think of the dunes as heaps of bare sand In a desert. They are oxrfctly the reverse. They have water, trees, shrubs, vines, flowers, grass, birds and smnll wild animal life. The truth Is that the dunes are a great nutum) propagating garden with a most astonishing array of trees and plnnts and flowers. This garden Is packed full of flora from the Lake Superior region, the Atlantic const, the middle South and the western prairie, seems to hnve almost everything In the plnnt line from cactus to cranberries nnd from pines to tulip trees. A list of only the most characteristic and Important plant species numbers 208. ' To the ordinary visitor probably the spectacle of the "walking dunes" Is tlie most interesting. Here he sees land In tlie making. Here today is a towering dune crowned with flowers nnd plants nnd trees ; tomorrow It Is gone and where It was Is a great blow-out of glistening sand, with Its steep sides strewn with dead trunks exhumed from an ancient graveyard of a previous forest. Today there Is a deep gash in the bluff; tomorrow Its place Is taken by a very lofty heap of white sand that hus come up, grain by grain, out of the luke, on which grasses and plants and shrubs and treelets are nlrendy struggling for a foothold. To day stands a forest on the edge of a shallow pond; tomorrow It Is a cemetery, with even the tree tops covered by sand inarching In from tlie beach. The accompanying map and diagram shows where the material that builds the dunes Is com ing from and how It gets there. Lake Michigan has been taking material from the west shore and depositing It at the dunes for n period reckoned ut nbout 5,OCX) years. Previous to this period the ! level of the luke was 50 or CO feet higher than now and the discharge was toward the Mississippi at a point near where now are the dunes. When the Ice-gorge or glacer which prevented the discharge of water Into the St. Lawrence was removed und the lake drained Into the Atlantic Instead of the gulf, the level dropped, the present lake currents set In nnd the building of the dunes was begun. Public laud surveys made In 1835 and soundings of Luke Michigan furnish the dutn for these \ estimates: During the last 5,000 years the waters of the luke have washed away about 500 square miles of land from the shore extending from the Indiana slnte line northward Into Wisconsin. Where this land was Is now water from 30 to 60 It feet deep. The old shore line extends out from three to nine miles; then there is an abrupt drop of several hundred feet. This is nn unparalleled erosion; It Is accounted for by the softness of the shore, which is largely composed of material that was ground very fine by the glaciers (hat deposited It. It Is estimated that 7,000.000 tons of soil Is taken yearly by the lake from the shore north of Chief go. So there if material for building operations at Let us hope that long before thut time the Dunes National purk will he n people's playground. 1 ledlcated to public racruatlon forevaat Is plenty the dunes. These facts suggest tills Interesting question. Wluit will happen to the dunes when the supply of building material stops? Anil stoii It will, and that comparatively soon. For the shore north of Chicago will In a few years be pretty solidly settled liy people who have money to spend to prevent furiher erosion of the shore. In fact, erosion has already been stopped over long stretches, and In many places the shore has been built out. The time is coming when the west shore will be protected from erosion by piers and breakwaters. The supply of building material for the dunes will presumably slop. Perhaps then the dunes will stop "walking." PREPARING GOOD SEED BED FOR WHEAT REQUIRES MUCH TIME AND HARD WORK I >\ wl :..x Thi« Man la Doing Right—While the Tractor Plow« the Mule* Do the Har rowing and Plow Out the Corner* That the Tractor Cannot Reach. (Prepared by the United States Depart ment of Agriculture.) A good seed bed for wheat can not be made unless the work is begun early, nnd a good seed bed Is the most important thing In growing wheat. Many things are necessary In prepur * n 8 s good seed bed, but the first es sentlal is time. It cau not be done in a day nor yet In a week. There must be many days of settling. There must be some good, packing rains. And there ought to be frequent cultivation Of the soil. ' Those things are necessary because a good seed bed for wheat must he firm i and it must he moist. The upper 3 . Inches of soil mast be mellow and finely ! Essentials to successful wlirat grow ing vary widely in different sections of the country, but the United States department of agriculture regards divided, and the portion beneath must be well compacted. Plowing May Vary. these things as basic essentials any- , where that wheat Is grown In the j United States. The wheat experts of . the department may recommend one type of plowing for one section nud ! other kinds of plowing for other ! sections, and even no plowing at all under some conditions, but a finely pulverized top soli well packed j down and forming a perfect union with the subsoil Is urged for every section. Early plowing and thorough tillage of ! the plowed soil results In retaining the water that Is In the soil and catching j and storing the water that falls after cultivation Is begun. A firm seed bed j under this mulch enables the young j wheat plants to make use of the subsoil waters. Sufficient moisture is thus as- j sured for the germination of the seed ; and for the early fall growth of the seedlings—a much more Important thing, the experts say, than many wheat growers consider it. It does not apply, as some might think, Just to the seml arld regions. "If the Importance of this thing were generally recognized throughout the so called humid areas," says one of the wheat experts of the department of agriculture, "there would be less fre quent losses from drought and better wheat crops would result. In this area, the mistake Is often made of thinking that there will always be enough mois- , ture present for a maximum crop of wheat. The result Is that poor crops are often harvested where a little more attention to moisture preservation would have assured good crops." Harrow Close After Plow. If wheat Is to be grown on stubble land, the ground should be plowed ut least 7 Inches deep Immediately after •. harvesting the crop of grain. The har row should closely follow the plow, both operations being done the day and as close together us possible. After that, cultivation should be given as often as necessary—which usually means us often as possible—until the wheat Is sown. The cultivation may be j with harrow or disk or drag or roller, j It accomplishes several desirable things. It kills the weeds. It settles I the subsoil and makes It firm. It main- j tains a soil mulch above. And none of ! these things can be done if the ground is not plowed early. Now, "early plowing" is an Indefinite terra. It may mean one thing to one farmer and an entirely different thing to another farmer. But It is a thing for which exact dates can hardly be set. July plowing Is certainly early plowing for winter wheat. The first half of August Is early plowing. Later than that is likely to be late plowing "As early as possible" Is the safe rule. I As soon as the wheat or oats or clover ■ same Is off, is the time to begin plowing. Disking a Help. Some makeshifts mny help n good j deill. If it Is absolutely Impossible to j begin plowing as soon ns the ground Is Clear of this year's crop, double disking should be restored to at once. Thut chops up and at least partly pulverizes the top soil—makes a passable mulch and retains much of the moisture until the plowing can be done. Also, it kills the weeds or, at least, cripples them enough to minimize the damuge they rat? do by sucking the moisture out of tin soil. If wheat is to follow a cultivated crop, such as corn or soy beans, fre quent cultivation given to that crop "•") Maintain a soil mulch nnd preserve , " ol, " ture - ^ level cultivation Is prac tlced, a good seed bed usually can be prepared by disking and harrowing after the crop la removed. If weeds are present, however, it may l>** mi vI subie to go over the grounil with ft disk harrow, plow shallow and disk again, .plowing should be deep enough to bury the stalks completely—that by way. of destroying the boil weevil, Disking or harrowing is not advisable, ns it lin earths the buried stalks. The land should lie firmed with a roller and ill* If wheat is to follow cotton, the stalks should be plowed under as soon as picking can be finished and the. wheat sown with a disk drill. Late Plowing Should Be Shallow. There are said to be exceptions to all « f ncrHl ru,es ' Rnd theri? 111 R >' <>e «ne or two exceptions to this iule of early ipiowlng for wheat. If it rains a great deni during July and early August, eur ly plowing can not lie done. But, for (,„mtel.v, the exception ar.pears to. come in just tliere. Early plowing Is not so essential in wet seasons, Iiiit It may be weil to observe this caution : If you have to plow late, plow shallow where there is danger of winter killing. Shallow plowing makes the firming of the seed bed an easier matter am) is a measure of insurance against killing. !_ TDAOTflD liorrill rnn | Il AU I Uli UotlUL rUfl i ..... . r- __... _ "TgCT Number 0Î Farmers UsjllQ Machines This Year. vinter PLOWING WHEATLAND for one or mori - years hnve not yet found the best way of avoiding nil difficulties of tractor plowing, * wo main tilings to be consld Main Object* Sought Are High Cual Ity of Work and Economy of Tim* —Greater Thought In Laying Out Plana Needed. (Prepared by the United Statos Depart ment of Agriculture.) The tractor will be usee! for plowing wheat land this year by a larger num ber of farmers than ever before per haps. The farmer who Is using n trnctor for the first time will huve to solve a great ninny problems. And muny farmers who have used tractor« ered In tractor plowing, ns In any other kind of plowing, are high quality of work nnd economy of time. They are somewhat harder to attain with the tractor than with horse plows, or, to put it more aecflrately, greater care In planning Is necessary to attain them. I. . , P'owlng ls sorneth ng of an en * ,nwr,nK f '' nt ' but th<! Un ,ed StateR . , . , «ke" to rimpll^ It as much as posa ,,le Out Fields for Tro ; t " r pl "' vi "«. « ramS Î 3 W " VS ° f ,ayin * ° ut * lne , of these are methods in which t,,e p,ows are ,lfted ttt the en, > 8 ' The 0,her four flre mp th<*'* in which the P ,ows are '«tt In the ground In going aoroRS ,he Pn(K They nre designed ^ or rectangular nnd irregular flp,ds ' nfld one or anot h«r of them will he fom,d " d "P ,pd 'o practically any P*«* p ground that Is to be plowed The bulletin Is free. The Initial problem Is to lay out the field in such a way ns to attain a two fold result—a high-clnss Job of plow ing over the entire field with as little use as possible of horse-drawn plows In starting nnd finishing, and to con sume as little time ns possihle in turn ing nnd in running with the plows out of ihe ground. To lay ont n field exactly right for department of agriculture has untler IÂM Grow alfalfa and provida un abun dance of silage. Sand vetch Is a valuable ctop to Im prove thin sandy soil • • • • Weeds and water nre twe very Im portant factors In the cornfield. * The best land on the farm should be used for the first trial of alfalfa. There are two waya to can corn. One Is In can* and the other Is In llie slid.