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The Idaho recorder. [volume] (Salmon City, Idaho) 1886-1927, December 13, 1918, Image 7

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86091188/1918-12-13/ed-1/seq-7/

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to Joint Session of Congress Formal Announcement
de of Intention to Go to Peace Conference—Railroad
tojlem Is Puzzling—Compliment Is Paid to Women of
in— Country Is Rapidly Returning to Peace Time
Is—Development of Public Works Should Be Promptly
med So Returning Soldiers May Have Work.
I>ec. 3.—The text of
'llson's address to the joint
yesterday follows:
of the congress :
that has elapsed since I
fore you to fulfill my con
to give the congress
time information on the
union, has been so crowded
events, great processes and
that I cannot hope to give
uute picture of its trans
the far-reaching changes
been wrought In the life
and of the world. You
es witnessed these things.
is too soon to assess
who stand In the midst
are part of them are less
men of another genera
gay what they mean or
have been. But some
ding facts are unmlstak
stitute in a sense part of
uslness with which it Is
deal. To state them Is to
tor the legislative and
:ion which must grow out
which we have yet to
any Men 8ent.
ago we had sent 145,- A
overseas. Since then *
sent 1,950,513, an aver- *
2,542 each month, the A
fact rising in May *
15,951, in June to 278,- A
to 307,182 and con- A
reach similar figures k
and September—in A
1,580 and in Septem- it
movement of troops ever
:fore, across 3,000 miles of
by adequate equipment
, and carried safely
aordinary dangers of at
which were alike
'nfiniteiy difficult to guard
all this movement only
lost by enemy attack)
were upon a single Eng
which was sunk near the
st Organization.
tell you what lay back of
svement of men and ma
not indivldious to say that
y a supporting organisa
industries of the country
roductive activities more
thorough in method
in results, more spirited
us in purpose and effort
er great belligerent had
e to effect. We profited
ence of the nations which
been engaged for nearly
the exigent and exacting
ir every resource and
ive proficiency taxed to
We were the pupils. But
uickly and acted with a
nd a readiness of co-op
justify our great pride
able to serve the world
eled energy and quick ac
vells on Men.
t the physical scale and
iclency of preparation,
ment and dispatch that
upon, but the mettle and
officers and men we
of the sailors who swept
the spirit of the nation
filud them.
'iers or sailors ever
:mselves more quickly
the test of battle or
themselves with more
courage and achieve
put to the test.
who played some part
the great processes by
was pushed irresistibly
final triumph may now
and delight our thoughts
of what our men did.
understood the grim and
they had undertaken
with audacity, effl
hesitating courage that
-y of convoy and battle
-hie distinction at every
the enterprise was great
their chiefs. Pershing
a to the youngest lieu
- ir men were worthy of
~ n as hardly need to be
»nd go to their terrible
|tc!y and with the quick
those who know Just
J would accomplish. I
*• -he fellow-countryman
stuff and valor. Those
at home and did our
could not have been
l,8 nt men who fought It
ortunity to win It oth
m any a long day we
arselves "accurs'd we
and hold our man
whiie any speaks that
these at St. Mlhiel or
memory of those days of
ttle win go with these
each will have his favorite memory.
"Old men forget ; yet ail shall be for
got. but he'll remember with advan
tages what feats he did that day."
Expresses Gratitude.
★ What we all thank God for it
★ with deepest gratitude is that A
★ our men went in force into the it
■k battle line Just at the critical it
★ moment when the whole fate *
★ of the world seemed to hang A
★ in the balance and threw their *
★ fresh strength into the ranks of A
k freedom In time to turn the A
★ whole tide and sweep of the *
★ fateful struggle—turn it once k
k for all so that henceforth It k
was back, back for their ene- k
mies, always back, never again* ★
forward. £
After that it was only a scant four
months before the commanders of the
central empires knew themselves beat
en and now their very empires are
In liquidation.
Finest Spirit.
And throughout it all how fine the
spirit of the nation was. What unity
of purpose, what untiring seal. What
elevation of purpose ran through all
its splendid display of strength. Its un
tiring accomplishment. I have said
that those of us who stayed at home
to do the work of organisation and
supply will always wish that we had
been with the men whom we sustained
by our labor; but we can never be
ashamed. It has been an inspiring
thing to be here in the midst of fine
men who had turned aside from every
private interest of their own and de
voted the whole of their trained ca
pacity to the tasks that supplied the
sinews of the whole great undertaking.
The patriotism, the unselfishness, the
thorough-^plng devotion and distin
guished capacity that marked their
toilsome labors, day after day, month
after month, have made them fit mates
and comrades of the men In the
trenches and on the sea. And not
the men here in Washington only, they
have but directed the vast achieve
ment. Throughout innumerable fac
tories, upon innumerable farms, in the
depth of coal mines and iron mines
and copper mines, wherever the stuffs
of Industry were to be obtained and
prepared, In the ship yards, on the
railways, at the docks, on the sea, in
every labor that was needed to sus
tain the battle lines, men have vied
with each other to do their part and
do it well. They can look any man-at
arms in the face and say, we also
strove to win and gave the best that
was in us to make our fleets and
armies sure of their triumph.
Praise to Women.
And what shall we say of the women
—of their instant intelligence, quick
ening every task that they touched;
their capacity for organization and
co-operation, which gave their action
discipline and enhanced the effective
ness of everything they attempted ;
their aptitude at tasks to which they
had never before set their hands; that
utter self-sacrifice alike In what they
did and in what they gave? Their
contributions to the great result is be
yond appraisal. They have added
new lustre to the annals of American
k The least tribute we can pay
★ them is to make them the
k equals of men in political
A- rights as they have proved
★ themselves their equals In
it every field of practical work
k they have entered, whether for
★ themselves or for their country.
A These great* days of completed
A achievement would be sadly
A marred were we to omit that
A act of Justice.
Besides the Immense practical ser
vice they have rendered, the women of
the country have been the moving
spirits In the systematic economies
by which our people have voluntarily
assisted to supply the suffering peo
ples of the world and the armies upon
every front with food and everything
else that we had that might serve
the common cause. The details of
such a story can never be fully writ
ten, but we carry them at our hearts
and thank God that we can say that
we are the kinsmen of such.
Are Sure of Triumph.
And now we are sure of the greet
triumph for which every sacrifice was
made. It has come, come In Its com
pleteness, and with the pride and in
spiration of these days of achievement
quick within us we turn to the tasks
of peace again—a peace sure against
the violence of irresponsible monarch*
and ambitious military coterie*— and
make ready for a new order, for new
foundations of Justice and fair dealing.
Seek World Justice.
We are about to give order and or
ganisation to this peace, mat only for
ourselves but far the other 9«ptau
of tho world as well, so fsr as they
will «offer us to serve them. It Is
international justice that we seek, not
domestic safety merely. Our thoughts
have dwelt of late upon Europe, upon
Asia, upon the near and far east, very
little upon the acts e>f peace and ac
commodation that wait to be per
formed at our own doors. While we
are adjusting our relations with the
rest of the world, is It not of capital
Importance that we should clear away
all grounds of misunderstanding with
our immediate neighbors and give
proof of the friendship we really feel?
I hope that the members of the senate
will penult me to speak once more
of the unratitled treaty of friendship
and adjustment with the - Kepublie of
Colombia. I very earnestly urge upon
them an early and favorable action
uj)on that vital matter. I believe that
they will feel with me. that the stage
of affairs is now set for such action
as will not only be Just, but generous
and in the spirit of the new age upon
which we have so happily entered.
Outlinaa Problems.
A As far as our domestic af- A
A fairs are concerned the prob- A
A lern of our return to j>eace is a A
A problem of economic and Indus- A
A trial readjustment. That prob- A
A lem is less serious for us titan A
It may turn out to be for the A
nations which have suffered the A
derangements and the losses of A
war louger than we. A
Our people, moreover,'do not wilt to
be coached and led. They know their
own business, and quick and resource
ful at every readjustment, definite In
purpose and self-reliant in action. Any
leading strings we might seek to put
them in would speedily become hope
lessly tangled because they would pay
no attention to them upd go their own
way. All that we can do as their
executive and legislative servants Is
to mediate the process of change here,
there and elsewhere as we may.
A I have heard much counsel as A
A to the plans that should be A
A formed and personally conduct-"A
A ed to happy consummation, but A
A from no quarter have I seen
A any general scheme of "recon
A struction" engineering which I
A thought it likely we eonld force A
A our spirited business men and A
A self-reliant laborers to accept A
A with doe pliancy and obedience, a
Many Directing Agencies.
While the war lasted we set up many
agencies by which to direct the Indus
tries of the country in the service It
was necessary for them to render, by
which to make sure of an abundant
supply of the materials needed, by
which to check undertakings that could
for the tithe be dispensed with and
stimulate those that were most ser
viceable In war by which to gain for
the purchasing departments of the
country a certain control over the
prices of essential articles and ma
terials, by which to restrain trade
with alien enemies, make the most of
the available shipping and systematic
financial transactions, both public and
private, so that there would be no
unnecessary conflict or confusion—by
which, in short, to put every material
energy of the country In harneas to
draw the common load and make of
us one team in the accomplishment of
a great task. But the moment we
knew the armistice to have been sign
ed we took the harness off.
Conditions Changs.
Raw materials upon which the gov
ernment had kept Its hand for fear
there should not be enough for the
Industries that supplied the armies
have been released and put Into the
general market again. Great Indus
trial plants, whose whole output and
machinery had been taken over for
the uses of the government have been
set free to return to the uses to which
they were put before the war. It has
not been possible to remove so readily
or so quickly the control of foodstuffs
and of shipping, because the world
has still to be fed from our granaries
and the ships are still needed to send
supplies to our men overseas and to
bring them back as fast as the dis
turbed conditions on the other side
of the water permit; but even there
restraints are being relaxed as much
as possible and more and more as the
wetlri go by.
Aida Business Men.
Never before have there been
agencies In existence In this country
which knew so much of the field of
supply, or labor and of Industry as the
war Industries board, the war trade
board, the labor department, the food
administration and the fuel administra
tion have known since their labors
became thoroughly systematized ; and
they beve not been Isolated agend
they have been directed by men who
represented the permanent depart
ments of the government and so have
been the centers of unified and co-op
erative action. It has been the policy
of the executive, therefore, since the
armistice was assured (which It In
effect a complete submission of the
enemy) to put the knowledge of these
bodies at the disposal of the badness
men of the country and to offer their
Intelligent meditation at every point
and In every matter where It was de
A It Is surprising how fast the A
A process of return to s peace A
A footing has moved In the three A
A weeks since the fighting stop- A
A ped. It promises to outrun soy A
A Inquiry that may be Instituted A
A and any aid that may be of- A
A fered. It will not be easy to A
A direct It any better than It will A
A direct Itself. The Aaerieaa has- A
A loses mas is at aa left lama- A
Employment Problem.
The ordinary and normal processes
of private Initiative will not, however,
provide Immediate employment for all
of the men of our returning armies.
Those who are of trained capacity,
those who are skilled workmen, those
who have acquired familiarity with
established businesses, those who are
ready and willing to go to the farms,
all those whose aptitudes are known
or will be sought out by employers,
will find no difficulty. It is sufe to «ay.
in finding place and employment. But
there will be others who will be at a
loss where to gain a livelihood unless
plans are taken to guide them. There
will be a large floating resldituu of
labor which should not be left wholly
to shift for itself.
A It aeons to lx* Important, A
A therefore, that the develop- A
A ment of public works of every A
A sort should be promptly resuiu- A
A ed, in order that opportunities A
A should be created for unskilled A
A labor In ;iartkular and that A
A plans should be made for such A
A developments of our unused A
A lands and our natural resources A
A as we have hitherto lacked A
A stimulatkfti to undertake.
Speaks of Lands.
I particularly direct your attention
to the very practical plans which the
secretary of the Interior has devel
ojied In his antiuul rejsirt and before
your committees for the reclamation
of arid, swamp and cut-over lands
which might, if the states were will
ing and able to co-operate, redeem
some 2UO.OOO.OOO acres of land for cul
tivation. There are said to be 15,000,
000 or 20,000,000 acres of land In the
west, at present arid, for whose recla
mation water Is - available. If properly
conserved. There are about 230,000,
000 acre» from which forests have been
cut, which have never yet been clear
ed for the plow and which lie waste
and desolate. These lie scattered all
over the union and there are nearly
80,000,000 acres of land that lie under
swamps or subject to periodical over
flow or too wet for anything but
graslng which Is perefctly feasible to
drain and protact and redeem. The
congre«* can at once direct thousands
of the returning soldiers to the recla
aatlon of the arid lands which It has
already undertaken If it will but en
large the plana and the appropriation»
which It has entrusted to the depart
ment of the interior.
A It is possible la dealing with
A our unusual land to effect a
A great rural and agricultural de
A velopment which will afford the
A best aort of opportunity to men
A who want to help themselves;
A and the secretary of the interi
A or has thought the possible
A method out In a way which Is
A worthy of your most friendly
A attention.
Must Aid Peoplss.
I have spoken of the control which
must yet for a while, perhaps for ■
long while, be exercised over shipping
because of the priority of service to
which our forces overseas are entitled
and which could also be accorded the
shipments which are to save recently
liberated peoples from starvation and
many devastated regions from perms
nent ruin. May I not Bay a special
word about the needs of Belgium and
northern France? No sums of money
paid by way of Indemnity will serve
of themselves to save them from hope
less disadvantage for years to come.
Something more must be done than
merely find the money. If they had
money and raw materials In ubun
donee tomorrow they could not resume
their pluce in the Industry of the world
tomorrow—the very Important place
they held before the flag of war swept
across them. Many of their factories
are razed to the ground. Much of
their machinery has been destroyed or
taken away. Thrir people ore scat
tered and many of their best workmen
are dead. Their markets will be taken
by other*; If they are not in some
special way assisted to rebuild their
factories and replace their lost Instru
menta of manufacture. They should
not bs left to the vicissitudes of thw
sharp competition for materials and
for Industrial facilities which Is now
to set la.
A I hope, therefore, that the
A congress will not be unwilling.
A if It should become necessary,
A to grant to some such agency
A as the war trade board the right
A to establish priorities of export
A and supply for the benefit of
A these people whom we have
A been ao happy to assist In sav
A log from the German terror and
A whom we must not thoughtless
A ly leav* to shift for themselves
A In a pitiless competitive mar
A kec.
Must Fi%Tax«a.
For the steadying and facilitation
of our own domestic business readjust
ments nothing Is more important than
the immediate determination of the
taxes that are to he levied for 1918,
1919 and 1920. As much of the bur
den of taxation must be lifted from
business as sound methods and financ
ing the government will permit, and
those who conduct the great eaesntlai
industries of the country must be told
ss exactly as possible whst obllga
tlons to the government they will he
expected to meet In the years 1 mmwli
a tel y ahead of them.
It will ba of serious occurrence to
the country to delay removing all un
cartalnQeo In this matter a single day
longer than the right proce s s e s of de
hats Justify. It la idle to talk at suc
cessful and oosfldsot
stractloa hater* • tho«
May Reduos Amount.
A If the war had continued It A
A would have been necessary to A
A raise at least $8,000.000,000 by A
A taxation payable in the year A
A 1910; but the war has ended A
A and I agree with the secretory A
A of the treasury that It will lie A
A safe to reduce the amount to A
A $6,000.1)00,000. *
An Immediate rapid decline in the
expense« of the government Is not to
be looked for. Contracts made fur
war supplies will. Indeed, he rapidly
cancelled and liquidated, but their Im
mediate liquidation will make heavy
drains on the treasury for the months
Just abend of us. The maintenance
of our forces on the other aide of the
sea is still necessary. A considerable
proportion of those forces must re
main In Europe during the period of
occupation, and those which art
brought home will he transported and
demobilized nt heavy expense for
months to come. The Interest on our
war debt must, of course, fall much
below what a continuation of military
operations would have entailed and $6,
(IDO.OtMt.tmo should suffice to supply n
*o»nd foundation for the financial op
erations of the year.
Supports McAdoo.
I entirely concur with the secretary
of the treusury in recommending that
$2,000, Ü00.UM) needed in addition to
the $4.000,000,000 provided by exist
ing luw be obtained from the profits
which have a rented and «hull accrue
from war contracts and distinctively
war business, but that these tuxes lie
confined to war profits accruing In
11)18, or In 1919, from business orig
inating in war contracts. I urge your
accept nnee. of his recommendation
tliut provision he made now, not subse
quently, that the taxes to be paid in
1920, should be reduced from six to
four billions. Any arrangements less
definite than these would add ele
ments of douht and confusion to the
central period of Industrial readjust
ment through which the country must
now immediately pass and which no
true friend of the nation's essential
business interests can afford to tie re
sponsible for creating or prolonging.
Naval Program.
I take It for granted that congress
will carry out the naval program which
was undertaken before we entered the
war. The secretary of the navy haa
submitted to your committees for au
thorisation that part of the program
which contains the building plans of
the next three years. These plsna have
been prepared along the line« and In
accordance with the policy which the
congress established, not under the
exceptional conditions of the war, hut
with the iiUenMon of adhering to
definite method of dev« lopment of the
navy. I earnestly recommend the un
Interrupted pursuit of that policy. It
would clearly be unwisg for us to at
tempt to adjust our programs to t
future world policy as yet undeter
Railroad Policy.
The question which cause*
me the gre*te*t concern Is the
question of the policy to be
adopted towards the railroads.
I frankly turn to you for coun
iwl upon It. I have no confi
dent Judgment of my own. I
do not see how any thought
ful man can have who knows
anything of the complexity of
the problem. It Is a problem
which must be studied immedi
ately and studied without bias.
It was necessary that the adminis
tration of the railroads should be
taken over by the government ao long
the war lasted. It would have
been impossible otherwise to establish
and carry through under a single di
rectlon the necessary priorities of
shipments. It would have been Im
possible otherwise to combine maxi
mum production at the factories and
mines and farm» with the maximum
possible car supply to take the prod
ucts to the ports and markets; Impos
slide to route troop shipments and
freight shipments without regard to
the advantage or disadvantage of the
roads employed ; Impossible to sub
ordinate where necessary all questions
of convenience to the public neces
sity; lm|K>«sihie to give the necessary
financial support to the road* from the
public treasury.
A But ail these necessities i
A have now been served, and the i
A question la. what is best for the *
A railroads and for the public in i
A the future? *
Exceptional circumstances and ex
ceptlona! methods of administration
were not needed to convince us that
the railroads were not equal to the
Immense task of transportât Ion Impos
ed upon them by the rapid and con
tinuoua development of the Industries
of the country. We knew that already
And we knew that they were unequal
to it partly because their full co-oper
atlon was rendered Impossible by law
and their competition mode obligatory
so that It has t>een impossible to as
sign to them severally the traffic which
best could be carried by their re
spective lines In the Interest of expe
dltlou and national economy.
Peace by Spring.
A We may hope. I believe, for
A the formal conclusion of the
A war by treaty by the time
A spring has come. The 21 month*
A to which the present control of
A the railways Is limited after
A formal proclamation of peace A
A shall have been made will run A
A at the farthest. I take it for A
A granted, only to the January of *
A 1921. A
The full equipment of the railways
which the federal administration had!
planned could not be completed within
any such period.
▲II approaches to thi* difficult sub
Ja«t saattar of decision bringt us face
therefore. with this
awered question. What Is right that
we should do with the railroads, ia
the Interest of the public and in fslr
neaa to their owner«?
Must Settle Problem.
Let me say at once that I have no
answer ready. The only thing that
U perfectly clear to me ts that it i*
not fair either to the public or to the
owners of the railroads to leave the
question Unanswered and that it will
presently beeoine my dutf to relin
quish control of the roads even be
fore the expirution of the statutory
period, unie«« there should appear
some clear prospect in the meantime
of a legislative solution. Their re
lease would at Ipftfl produce one ele
ment of a solution, namely, certainly
nnd n quick stimulation of private
Various Court««.
I believe that it will I»* serviceable
for me to set forth a« explicitly ns
•oaalble tla* alternative courses that
lie open to our choice. We ran simply
release the roads and go back to tho
old conditions of private manage
ments, unrestricted competition an«l
multiform régulation by both stale
and federal authorities Or we can
go to I lie iip|K>site extreme an«] estab
lish complete government control, ac
companied If necessary by actuel gov
ernment ownership; or we can adopt
intermediate course of modified
private i-ontrot un.ler a more unified
and affirmative public regulation and
under such alterations of the law aa
will permit wasteful competition to
be avoided and a considerable degree
of unification of administration to be
effected, n*. for example, by regional
corporations under which the rail
ways of definable nren would he la
effect combined in single systems.
The one conclusion that I am A
ready to state with care Is that A
ft would he a disservice alike to A
the country and to the owner* A
of the railroads to return to the A
old conditions unmodified. A
Nothing Helpful.
Those are condition* of restraint
without development. There la nothing
affirmative or helpful about then».
What the country chiefly needs la that
all It* means of transportation should
he developed, tta railway*, its water
ways, Its highways and Ita country
able roads. Thl* new element of pot
icy. therefore, ia absolutely necaaaary
necessary for tha servie# of tha pub
lie. necessary for tha release of credit
to those who are administering tha
railways, necessary for the protection
of their security holders. The old
policy may be changed much or little
hut surely it cannot wisely be left as
It was. I hope that the eongrcaa will
have a complete and impartial study
of the whole problem Instituted at
once and prosecuted sa rapidly as poa
slide. I stand ready and «anxious to
release the roads from the pressât
control and I must do so at a very
early date If by waiting until the stet
utory limit of time Is reached I shall
he merely prolonging the period of
doubt and uncertainty which is hurt
ful to every interest concerned.
Anneunoea Trip.
I welcome this occasion to annonnaa
to the congress my purpose to Join la
l'art» the representatives of tha gov
ernment* with which we hava bean
associated (n the war against U>* con
trsl empire* for the purpose of discus
sing with them the main features of
tho treaty of peace.
A I realise the great Inconvo- A
A nlencea that will attend my A
A leaving the country, particular- A
A ly at this time, but the conclu- A
A aion that It waa my paramount A
A duty to go haa been forced up- A
A on me by considerations which A
A 1 hope will seem a* conclusive A
A to you aa they have »rented to A
A me. n
The allied government!) have accept
ed the bases of ;>e*r« which I outlined
to the congress on the eighth of Janu
ary last, us the central empires also
have, and very reasonably desire my
{MTsonal counsel In their Interprets
tion and application and It la highly
desirable that I should give it In order
that the sincere desire of our govern
ment to contribute without selfish pur
pose to any kind of settlements that
will lie of common benefit to all the
nations concerned may be manifest.
A The j»eace settlements which A
A are now to tie agreed ujam are A
A of transcendent Importance to A
A both us and to the rest of the A
A world, and I know of no bust- A
A ness or Interest which should A
A take precedence of them, A
The gHilant men of our armed forces
on laud and sea have consciously
fought for the ideals which they knew
to be the Ideal* of their country; I
hove thought to express ihimy ideals;
they have accepted my statements of
them pa the substance of their own
thought and purpose as the associated
governments have accepted them; I
owe It to them to sec to It that no
false or mistaken Interpretation Is put
upon them. It Is now my duty to plsy
my full psrt In making good what they
offered their life's blood to obtain. I
can think of no call to aervlcs which
could transcend this.
A I shall 1m- In close touch with A
A you and with affaira on this A
A side of the water aud you will A
A know all that I do. A
▲ska Support.
May I riot hope, gentlemen, that ia
the delicate tasks I shat! have to per
form on the other side of the sea, In
my efforts truly and faithfully to in
terpret the principle«« and purpose»
of the country we love. I may have
the encouragement aud the added
strength of your united Aipportf
A The cable* and the win-ie»* A
A will render me available for any *
A council «>r service you may «le- *
* sire of me. and I shall be happy *
* In the thought that I am con- A
A Bluntly lu touch with the *
A weighty matters of domestic #
* policy with which we «halt A
A have to deal. *
1 shall make my abseuce a« brief a«
possible, aud shall hope to return with
the happy assurance that It has been
possible to translate into action tha
i great Ideals for which America
i striven.

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