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BENEFITS OF EXTENSIVE, INTENSIVE
I ; AND PKIE NSIVE PU NS OF FAMBNB I Former Newspaper Reporter, Now Operating Farm Near Spring field, 0., Relates Graphic Story of His Early Start and of the Trials and Tribulations Which Ultimately Lead to Suc cess-Successful Improvement of Live Stock : i\£, y Based on Principles of Heredity. .£41 ! By G. H. ALFORD, State Farm Demon stration Agent, Maryland.) ! Riverdale farm, near Springfield, O., homprises 354 acres In two sections, j >ue of 25C acres and the other of 98. jrhis being a river bottom farm, and ione peculiarly adapted to the growing jaf corn and alfalfa, these are the chief ifleld crops. | } The schedule for 1916 calls for 168 i jacres of corn, 60 acres of alfalfa, 30 : jacres of oats seeded to alsike and 15 jacres of barley seeded to alfalfa. The ! jromainder of the land is utilized for j jpermanent pasture, buildings, lots, j i gardens, etc. Thirty acres of the corn ! Ils raised on shares by farmers living jnearby. The balance of the regular jwork is done by the hired men. j Mr. Robbins normally employs two ■to three men during December. Janu Filling Automatic Waterer From Road. ary and February, and five the rest of the year, not including threshers, corn cutters and huskers. Cost of Labor. To the regular farm help ho pays more than the usual wages, but is careful to employ only the best men obtainable. His cash cost as shown by the pay roll averages only 1 i'/j cents par hour of labor. The actual coat is always over 29 cents, the differ ence being taken up by house rent, milk, garden, meat, potatoes and other perquisites allowed to employees, in making advance estimates on work to bo done, or the saving that may bo ac complished by the installing of new devices and methods, he uses 25 cents per hour of labor as the basis figuring. He considers it to be one of the priv ileges of operating a farm, that the boss is able to keep in close touch with the individual men who work with him. It is his observation that if a man does his work right and is paid fairly, he and his family live rightly. Right living is the most that there is to life anyway, lie firmly believes that men who are employing as many workers as they can, teaching them to accom plish as much as possible, and treating them fairly, are each and everyone do ing more for humanity than all of the fool agitation and misguided législa tion in the world combined. , Interesting Statement, j The following is a very interesting jstatement by -Mr. William H. Robbins, ithe owner: j "It has been said that there are libre« kinds of farming: extensive, in ■tensive and pretensive. All three 'have their advantages and I am in jclined to the belief that the greatest j&ppertain to agriculture of the pre jtensive variety. There is nothing that ;I would like better than to be able to irun a model farm and not have to jmake it pay. "Probably the less said regarding jmy earlier career as a farmer the Uct ;ter. My father presented me with a ipart of what is now Riverdale farm àii :r ... J* ! Fall Pigs at Self-Feeders. ; jWhen I was nineteen years old. 1 did ! Amt want it. What I did want was to j j Continue working at reporting, which j hid been my job for o yjpp a year. How- j p|er, he rather adroitiy got me to 1 bfomise to give up tho newspaper., i work and handed me the farm at the : èâme time. I found after 1 started in that it was a good deal like being ! pushed oil the dock and told to learn j fa swim. His First Venture. "My first venture was ' a ' trip Iowa buying stock cattle. It sad experience, and one that I not think of to this day without a ^llng of deep pain. Whit they "did me was certainly a plenty. How 1 learned several things, among how to tell the difference be ttyeen steers and heifers. -, "There is considerable misunder standing on the part of the general public regarding purebred cattle. Ft is not unusual for a customer to say to us that he is raising hogs for pork and does not want fancy stock. This is an appellation that I dotest. I consider that there is no such term as "fancy stock," or at least that such a term cannot be rightly applied to our farm animals. Good Points of Hog. "It might seem to some that the eyes, ears, feet and coat of a hog were fancy points, since they have no place in the pork barrel which is his ulti mate end. However, a good and com paratively largo eye is almost invaria bly accompanied by a good disposi tion, and good eyesight is essential especially to the brood sow in caring for her litter. For this reason, we da not want the ear of the hog to cover the eye so as to interfere with the vision. Likewise the fact that a hog's ears are muscularly well under its con trol is, to my mind, an indication of a well-balanced nervous organization. Good hearing is in itBelf necessary to the efficient brood sow, for if she inad vertently lies down on a pig, she will get up at once when she hears him squeal. It is also convenient to have hogs come when they are called. Re garding the feet, the hog that has good strong pasterns and is right up on his toes will willingly take the ex ercise which is necessary to his health, while a hog with weak pa3terns will not. Also, the feet are an indica tion of the quality of the entire hog. It is difficult to clean properly the car cass of a curly-coated hog, curly coats showing under the microscope the corollary characteristic of viciously barbed roots. This last Is a fact not generally known to hog men, and is by way of being a trade secret of one of the Chicago packing houses which saves money by discriminating in fa vor of smooth-coated hogs. I merely mention these minor matters in a gen eral way. At first thought they might be termed fancy, but they are not. "I want to differentiate between ani mal breeding as It is generally under stood, even by many so-called breed ers, and what I term constructive or statistical breeding as It is practiced by us. Improvement of Stock. "Successful improvement of live stock is based on distinct principles of heredity, several of which I will men tion in passing, without taking up the known and speculative biological rea sons for them, or going into their dis covery^ which is exceedingly interest ing and romantic. "First, we have tho principle of vari ation, which is that in the mating of animals of dissimilar characteristics some of those will appear in a part of the offspring, and others will appear in ! j j 1 the rest, so that a breeder call, in suc- cessive generations, retain thiose char- acters which are desirable dnd discard the undesirable. 1 - i -, "Second, the principle that:like pro duce? like, whereby man is enabled to' mate animals of similar characteris tics witii a fair assurance of. perpetu ating them in future generations. "The two foregoing principles are 8tmplo in their conception and easily understood, but the practical applica tion is quite complicated, and you will find that they are utilized by men who buy and mate even high-class animals and sell the produce. They are not constructive breeders because they uever get beyond their starting point. "Third, we have mutation, which is the appearance of an entirely new 1 hereditary character, and is not to be : ■ For tjic Kifchcrv 5iov$ prints ctgmMii goal in FOR THE HEATING STOVE GOAL. FOR THE FURNACE C3 S3 NO SOOT LONG* FLAME LITTLE SMOKE SNTENSS HEAT FIRE PICKS UP QUICKLY NO CLINKERS FINE WHITE ASH SMALL r fig? mm a-«« .J) pm FINE FOR BAKING © SAT MO N S A i: Mm QUANTITY 7 ... * r J V X ?/A & *ii, mi» m ijir ■ The following dealers can supply you: FOR SALE BY ALL DEALERS confused with atavism, or the reap pearanco of a characteristic once dom inant in the ancestry, but for several generations recessive or dormant. "In 1904 we started with a herd of Duroc brood sows. By 1907 we had re placed our grade herd with the progeny of these. Our present herd consists of 65 registered sows, with a normal annual production of about seven hundred pigs, all eligible to record. "Each brood sow in tho herd has a number. For identification purposes an aluminum band, stamped with her number, is placed in each of her ears, These seldom have to be referred to, but they are there if we want them, and make our breeding operations in dependent of any one man, including myself. "A carefully tabulated record Is kept of the conformation of every ani mal in the breeding herd, covering in all over thirty physical characteris tics. "Before the breeding season each sow is listed on a separate form in a loose-leaf book. This form is designed for the keeping of a complete record of the sowand her litter from - the time she is bred until her pigs are weaned. ''Her name, age and herd number are entered, together with the date qI listing, and her weight and condition at that time. Then, after cardful con sideration of her pedigree, conforma tion and thé réduits of previous mat ings, We.decide to what hoar she shall be brod. This is indicated on. tha form,"and also g seqond choice, il declin'd' advisable,' Subsequently the date tbreeding^S fecôfilédl' ■ i ' Acts as Dally Tickler.' "After the sows ^re all bred and safe in' pig the pages of the loosfe-leai book, which have heretofore',been ip' numefieal order, are 1 rearranged chronologically with reference, to th'< dates Jon Which the sows are dpé te farrow. It then acts as a daiïy tickiêi as tp when wp may expect litters, whei wfe shall mark pigs, when turn : them out and .when to wean them, etc "Just before the sow farrows, her ■ weight is again entered. We are thus, able to tell just which sow gains the best on a given amount of feed. We! ' j j 1 : ' 1 j j i j ; j j 1 -j : j i j j ! ' i ' ' keep our sows gaining an average ot a pound a day each during the 113 to 118 days of gestation. We can accom plish this by proportioning the amount of feed to the weight of the sows, which are carried in bunches of about twenty. However, there is a consid erable variation in individual gains. Of course, the sows lose in weight at farrowing and during the time they suckle their pigs. "There is always an attendant with the sow when she farrows, which is frequently at night. All circumstances are noted, especially the number of pigs, and how many, if any, are far rowed weak or dead. The pigs are weighed when they are one week old, at which time they are also marked. We mark each pig by punching and nicking the ears in such a way that we can read the number of his dam almost as easily as if it were branded on his side. A nick at the root of the right ear means one, at the middle two, at the outside tip three, at the in side tip four, and a hole punched- in the'center five. A combination of the hole (5) and any one nick (1, 2, 3 Royal feMfuff. or 4) means six, seven, eight or nine. By using this earns system for tens in the left ear, as well as for digits in the right, we can get any number to one hundred without having more than two marks in each ear. — System pf Markina..^. ■"This is our own system of marking, and I'believe is the only-one that lim its the number of marks in an ear to two and does away , with the necessity of referring to a key. It is not neces sary to Identify pigs otherwise than wjth the number of the dam up to the time they come to breeding age. _ "À history of the litter as such is kept up to the time the pigs are eight weeks old, when they are weaned, par ticular attention being paid to trouble or losses of any sort. There are about a thousand and one things that can ad versely affect a pig, and the élimina? tion of these requires constant study, "At weaning each individual pig it weighed, as well as the sow. The con formation of each pig is tabulated on the attendants' record, and a score is given to the litter. "We replace about one-fourth of our herd each year with younger animals, and it matters not how much we may think of a sow, she goes to the butcher if her production record puts her in the chute list. "While this is useful in eliminating the least profitable breeding animals, its greatest value to us lies in its ap plication to the scientific study of pedlt grecs in the selection of those that re place them." ANGER Ever stop to consider how foolish is anger—how useless! Not only this, but anger weakens and unnerves and render^ us unfit for bat tle, be that battle of the brain or brawn. Ever Watch two professionals spar? See the clean-cut exhibition of skill and t ;■ For Winter Colds " I ? ay . beI ' orne Chronic. Chronic catarrh fro. PERUNA IS INVIGORATION nnd ton^up î^yîeV^For inflammation In catarrh by thousands of jrrateful sufferer«* !Xf b Sîi* , "î d Jel l the world-o f their relief. ^e^nà'sTonï hTstoTy of helpful ness is the beet * evidence * that it is »hat you should take. Liquid or tablet form for your cm ▼emertce-. * ' * Manalin is the ideal laxative *nd liver tnnio Tn e~- _ T P^RgTI OKS —y— ■ —____.. tonic. In tablet form it is deli* dm* — .. ..... J.,, I -mtn lorrn K, 1 Cloua to take, mild and effective. v»in u *»plea^axit effects, and will, not :®n n a habit. LiqiiUL 35c and ti.ho ; tablets, 10 « and 25c. THE PERUNA CO., Columbus, O. science as each receives and returi blow for blow. But wait till one b comes angry. Gone is all that fii science and in its place is the bru lust of battle. Now see how terrib unprepared is the nngrv man to stai before his smiling adversary. Passii driven and furious, he is an oasv mar and his defeat is foretold from the b ginning. Again and again the st entilic blows of his cool and quiet o pondit beat down his guard and a driven to vital parts of his person, ar blind with passion he is powerless fi defense, to say nothing of offense. And as in the sparring ring, so the larger circles of life. The niî who can with a smiling face and stoi heart meet the blows of life .is arme for the fray and victory is his. T1 shafts of opposition, of envy, of ma ice, of hatred, roll from him as tl water from the back of a duck. He impervious to attack. He is unco: quotable. Does your temper give way undi the annoyances and vexations of lift Then stop—hack up—get a fresh gri on yourself. Remember, auger uever couquers an ■but the heart that harbors .it. Smile. Subscribe for the Optimist.