Newspaper Page Text
How Many Hides
Does it Take to Buy a Pair of Shoes? The outstanding critic of the shoe and leather industry has been Sena tor Capper, politician, publicist and publisher, and invariably he prefaces his charges with the old story of the farmer who came into town and gave up "twenty-two calf-skins for a pair of shoes, come to the attention of the Boot and Shoe Recorder, not only once but repeatedly, and in different guises. There it's a clipping from a city newspaper; there it's as an article in some farmers' own weekly or semi-weekly, agan, it appears as a "letter to the editor." The continued appearance, especi ally in this latter form, of the same reiterated details not backed by facts as to time, place and as to the kind of skin or shoe, more than lendB credence to the hypothesis that the whole matter is a piece of anti shoe and leather propaganda con trolled from some central point. We hare asked representative men in the leather industry if this story could not be refuted once and for all; if facts might not be martaled in compact, compelling form to show that the incident, if true, was a com bination of poor selling and worse buying. This charge has "It's too silly, too ^puerile, too idiotic, to be answered,' was the uni versal reply. The repeated appearance of this story, now apparently stereotyped and sold as boiler-plate, and its lack of details as to both skins and shoes, leads one to believe that it is a vari ation on an incident which if ever it did happen, is now hoary with age. First, as to kind. What kind of skins did the farmer sell? Shedders, grassers, kips, dea cons, veal-skins? And were the calves milk-fed, fodder-fed or grass fed? Second, as to curing. Were they green salted, dry salted, or green— that is, unsalted? What qualty of salt was used? Was it pure salt, or were there traces of iron? Was it salt bought specially for this purpose, or was it flshed-out-fff-the-codJflshbarrel salt? How Were Third, as to the take-off. were the skins taken off? they not badly scored and cut, and more than likely bloodstained and dirty? Were there not patches of flesh left on, causing putrefaction and therefore spoiling the hides? And last, but not least, how were the skins sold? By the pound or by the piece? That is, with care, and with more or less method, or just "as is" and "where is?" And who bought the skins? Was it a junk-dealer, an itinerant col lector, the village slaughterer, or a Jobbdr? What about the reputation of the buyer? It's a question if our friend the farmer realizes the long road over which his calf-skins have to pass. The normal and simplest route would be by ten stages. First there's the owner and slaughterer, which in ths case we'll assume to be one and the same per son. Then follow (2) the ylocal buyer, (3) the travelng buyer, (4) large dealer in hides, (5) a broker or the tanner's own buyer, (6) the tannery, (7) the leather dealer, (8) the shoe manufacturer, (9) the wholesaler, and (10) the retail mer chant. Quite an array. Each one not In business solely for his health. Yet each one seemingly a necessary link in the chain which connects the original producer with the original consumer. Now in Russia they don't have this chan. But look at the leather sandals the Russians wear. And look at Russia. We are afraid that the average buyer as well as the average farmer does not stop to think, does not even realize, that the raw material, of which leather is only an item, altho, of course, the largest item, is prac tically thousands of miles from tan nery or shoe manufacturer or re tailer or all three. Another fact which was brought out is a very pertinent and primary fact. It is that hides are a by-pro duct, and being a by-product, their production is not in response for a demand for shoes or harness or gloves or other forms of leather, but that their production is only in re sponse to a demand for food. Our friend the farmer, better than 'the public in general, should be able to visualize the truly enormous wastage in leather due to Ignorance and negligence in the taking off, the salting and the curing and salting of -skins. This is especially true when the work is done by farmers, ranch ers and small butchers. This fact is so generally acknowledged that cur rent market quotations on hides and leathers are listed under two general heads—"packer hides" and "country hides." Of course, the incident of being killed on a farm in Iowa or in a packing house in Chicago makes no dfference in the value of the quality of the animal killed. But there is a vast difference in the value of the hide. For the manner in which the hide is taken off, and the method and care with which it is cured and salted, makes to the tanner a vast difference in the value of the quality A "packer hide" is a hide or skin taken off in big packing houses or other establishments that specialize in the taking off, curing and salting of hides In a wholesale manner. Here the work is so divided that one man, or a particular group of men, have a particular part of the work to per form. They thus become naturally proficent, and their work becomes uniform in quality. Moreover, care is taken to assort and scale the hides as to weight and quality. A prac tically uniformly graded product is ; the result, making possible a maxi mum yield of leather of warranted, good quality I A "country hide" is a hide or skin taken off by farmers, ranchmen or local butchers. It is a generally ac a In cepted fact that these are inexper ienced In skinning according to packers' requrements. We have quoted references to the long route taken by the hides before they reach either the shoe manu facturer or the consumer. It must not be forgotten, In addition, that the broker in hides or the large hide dealer cannot, economically, handle small quantities of hides. They rarely buy under fifty hides at a time. The tannery, the next link in the chain, buys practically only In car-lots. Naturally the man whose money is tied up In purchases of hides demands a return on his In vestment. Each tannery, as a rule, specalizes In a certain kind of leather. It con sequently uses only a small variety, or different weights, of raw skins. It must, however, have compara tively large quantities of the par ticular weights and grades in which it specializes. Hides must, therefore, necessarly go thru a number of hands for sort ing and grading and often for re salting. The farmer, therefore, can not sell his hides direct to the tan ner unless he has a quantity of the special kind in which the tanner specializes. The farmer Is in direct competi tion with the packer. And the packer has several advantages over the farmer. He has, in the first place, quantity production. Secondly, he cuts out the waste and expense of the local buyer, the traveling buyer, and the dealer in quantities. And last and most important, his product is more uniform and gener ally of better quality. These are the factors, Senator Capper, that make the story of "the bundle of skins swapped for a pair of shoes'' a clear statement of sup ply and demand instead of manipu lation as you have inferred. In a highly competitive industry such as the leather and shoe business there are too many men who want to make a dollar independently to overlook the cheap price of country hides and skins if by such collection an econ omy could be effected. The law of soil, properly cared for. + Production of Clover Seed in Southern Idaho The cover seed industry is of com paratively recent development in southern Idaho. A remarkable in crease in the production of this crop has taken place wituin the past two years. Clover seed is now being i ro dv.ced in the Snake river valley from Washington county on the western border of the state, to Teton county, or parctically the headwaters of the Snake, on the eastern border, with a in elevation of from 2200 to range 5500 feet. The reputation of Idaho-grown clover seed is based on its high color, purity and vitality. Eastern seed houses, the buyers of most of the Idaho-grown seed, use a large por tion of this highly colored seed to blend with eastern and foreign grown seed to make it more readily marketable. Purity and color de termine market values. The growing habits of the clovers, their irrigation requirements, the ! characteristics of the soil of the! fields in which they are to be grown, the kinds of crops previously grown ! and troublesome weed pests are factors which should be taken into consideration in the selection of fields for seed production. Alsike and white clover are peren nials. Red clover is commonly called a biennial but frequentyl lives for three years. The lay of the land should aid i ereatly in determining what variety of clover should be planted. Low, wet land or land subject to frequent overflow should be planted to alsike or white clover as these varieties re quire more water than red clover and are better able to withstand the over-irrigation whloh i low-flying i ground often receives. Higher ground or at least ground with good! drainage should be selected for the: production of red clover seed. Wherever possible, land which has been already highly improved by the growth of an alfalfa or clover crop, n should be avoided in clover-seed pro duction. High fertility encourages a strong vegetative growth which is usually made at the expense of the seed crop. New land or land which has produced a crop of small grain, beets or potatoes, is good land for the seed field. If noxious weeds, the seeds of which cannot be removed from the j clover seed crop, are known to be present in fields otherwise suited to the crop, planting should be delayed until danger from such pests is passed. Often, early spring fallow with thoro cultivation will destroy such weeds and planting of the clover seed crop can be done after they have been destroyed. If weeds having seeds of the size of tumbling mustard seed are known to be pres ent in the soil the larger seeded red clover should be planted; if har vested with the clover seed, weed seed of that size can be removed from it by the proper adjustment of screens on the cleaning machine. It is almost impossible to free a field entirely from weeds. Seeds of many weeds can be taken out of the vari bus clover seed crops by running them over a good cleaning mill, but every effort should be made to free the seed fields of noxious weeds either before planting or while the crop is growing. It is not advisable to keep one piece of land in clover for seed pro duction for a long term of years. To maintain a well-balanced agriculture in southern Idaho, clovers for seed production should take their placeB in rotation with other crops. Clovers, because of their ability to add humus and nitrogen to the soil are ; invaluable in the production of small grains, potatoes and root crops, Moreover, clover fields gradually be I come foul with weed pests regardless of strenuous efforts to keep them out. The markets demand pure seed and that can best be insured by the adoption of a system of crop rotation which will put the clovers for seed production In rotation with small grains and cultivated crops. Varieties Growers of clover seed in south ern Idaho are limited by market de mands to comparatively few variet ies. Red clover Is more comonly grown in the United States than any other variety. The past few years however, have witnessed a great in crease. In buying red, alsike, or white clover seed to plant for seed pro duction only seed free from weed seeds and mixtures of other clovers should be selected. The best seed the market affords Bhould be secured when planting for the production of a seed crop. The few cents per pound additional which such seed will cost will be more than made up In the returns from the harvest of the crop. a Sowing the Seed Various methods of sowing clover seed are practiced in southern Idaho due in part to variations of soil and amounts of irrigation water avail able. In the dry climate of southern Idaho, broadcasting is to be dis couraged on new soils or on soils which bake readily. Drill planting insures a more even and uniform stand than broadcasting as the deuth of planting is closely regulated and an even distribution of seed is made. Broadcasting is practiced most fre quently where irrigation water is plentiful. Drill planting is partic ularly desirable where flooding is practiced as the seed is placed be neath the surface where moisture is available for a longer period. The roots then are not subject to the quick drying which takes place when the seed is on top of the soil. Clover seed should not be covered to a greater depth than one inch. Plenty of seed should be sown. The cost of an extra pound or two of seed is a small matter in comparison with the advantage to be gained by securing a thick, even stand. The whirling spray seeder, wheel barrow broadcast seeder and the grain drill adapted to plant small seed, are machines used in broad casting clover seed. The drill can be made to broadcast seed as well as to drill seed, if desired. The wheel barrow seeder and drill are pre ferred because of their greater prac ticability in windy weather. Broad cast seeding requires from one fourth to one-third more seed than drilling. Frequent irrigation is par ticularly necessary on soils on which seed has been broadcasted until the plants have reached a height of two or three inches. After the plants have made that growth the fre quency of irrigation may be lessened. Over the greater portion ef south ern Idaho, clover seed should not be planted in the fall because of danger from winter-killing. Some times in years of heavy snowfall and mild temperatures a fall-plantng of clover seed will survive at the lower eleva tions. If * nurse crop is to be used the clover should be sown immediately following the planting of the nurse crop. If the clover is to be grown without a nurse crop, planting may be done any time during the spring and summer. Early spring planting, however, is advisable because of the value of spring and early summer ra ins. In the earlier part of the sum mer the soil does not bake or dry out 80 quickly and the small clover Plants have a better chance to make &ood. Elevation largely determines time of early spring planting. In the Boise valley as a rule plantings can be ma de by the first of April or ® ven earlier. In the upper Snake river valley above St. Anthony plant i n B is seldom done before the first °f May; it is usually done later, Early spring planting is particularly advisable at the higher elevations because of the shortness of the grow ing season. The rate of seeding should vary w Rh the kind and character of soil, Old land in good tilth will not re Qui r ® as much seed as land newly broken from sagebrush, to insure satisfactory stands. Red clover should be sown at the rate of from ®igbt to twelve pounds per acre, alsike at the rate of from six to n * ne pounds and white clover at the ra t® °f ^ rom ® ve to eight pounds per acre - chance for the old settlers to draw flood waters at all. In defense of the evaporation of water from the lake the department claimed that by reason of the stor age there was soakage of water into the shores of the lake which came back into the lake as the water level was lowered, and that this ought to offset the evaporation. In reply to the charge that the storage interests are taking away the flood waters from the old settlers, it was con tended that waters can be appro printed and used from day to day by the appropriators, but that in order to acquire a permanent right to use them, it must be made a matter of record so that notice shall in that way be served to others that this particular water is already in use and may not be depended upon for .use by others, and that the old aet tiers never having filed on the water and made their claims a matter of record it was open to entry and ap propriation according to the process laid down by law, and that the stor age Interests have taken such op portuntty and can hereafter use the flood water by storing it in flood time and then releasing it later in summer. There is nothing on the records to show that if it were al lowed to run down the channel that it might not run clear to the sea and be lost. These were merely the arguments on the points in dispute and show the course of the development of the situation. There were many other matters under consideration, an'' further report of them is expected. Water Users Meeting Held at Idaho Falls Continued from page one High School Glee Club and Orchestra Entertain Groveland On Wednesday evening the Glee club and orchestra of the Blackfoot high school entertained Groveland at the gymansium of the Groveland school building. The meeting was called on short notice, but there was a large audience and a gay time. Professor Oscar Christensen of the Blackfoot high school presided, and when he was introduced by Pro fessor Buchanan of the Groveland school it was with the intimation that perhaps they had come to ad vertise the Blackfoot high school, and Professor Christensen admitted it. He then proceeded to demon strate it. First he called on Editor Trego, who spoke for ten minutes on character and how to keep it strong and sweet. Then followed some four minute speeches alter nated by selections by the orchestra, the glee club and the male quartette. William Wood, member of the Blackfoot high school addressed them on the subject of the agricul tural classes and what it taught in them. He appealed to the Grove land young people to go to Black foot and join them after finishing the course at Groveland. He was followed by Ferrell Anderson, who told them about the work of the glee club and orchestra and the advant ages of being members. Elmer France talked on athletics as it is taught, and of their track work; Frank Halverson tolfi of the work of the commercial department and the contests in typewriting that will be held at Pocatello Friday, at the state contest, of the trophy and medals to be won at that event, and of the desirability of being in such work. Leland Chapman told about the high school paper and its aims and what is published in it; Paul Pearson explained about the life and work of the Broncho, the school an nual in book form and said that altho they combat the school paper they are the best of friends. At the close of the entertainment it was announced that the orchestra would furnish music for dancing for a couple of hours and dance they did. i This is the second of a series of such entertainments contemplated by the high school bunch. One was given at Wapello some time ago and an engagement was made for it at Thomas on Thursday evening of this week, but so many members had other assignments they had to post pone it. * Miss Countryman Visits Blackfoot (Continued from Page 1) report showed many more defectives than they had pupils in the schools, and went on at some length con demning her work on the grounds of the impostor. Some of the leading men and women of the town went to the editor and informed him that he had misunderstood her report. That it was a report of defects in the pupils; that a child might have a bad tooth that was making the breath bad and affecting its health and that counted as one defect; the same child might have a bad ear that was affecting its hearing and its health and comfort, and that counted one defect. The same child might have adenoids that prevented its breathing as it should, and that counted as a defect, so that for one child there would be three defects in the report. It did not convict Miss Countryman of be ing an impostor, nor convict her em ploying association of being im postors, but it showed how much and exactly what needed to be done for their children, and the editorial roast in his paper showed that the editor also had a defect that re quired fixing. They brought with them an article already written the way they wanted it published and said that the terms on which they would bury the hatchet were that he should publish the article without change, which he did, with all its attendant humiliaion for himself. Miss Countryman went out to Arco Monday to take up the work in the schools of that progressive town, the town that always goes over the top promptly in good works. + ABOUT SMILING In an Idaho town recently a fellow objected to the signs that were in the windows of business houses, "Smile." should not smile so much, but should be more serious. To smile when things were not coming exactly as desired was the wrong thing, he averred, and one got the idea from him that any kind of a smile at any time was akin to a pent offence as well as an unwarranted intrusion upon the domain of Old Man Gloom. That anti-smile fellow would curdle a rainbow. There was a wise philosopher who said, "Give me people who whistle and smile." He meant by that that those who smiled were earnestly engaged in something as against he who sat around grouching and did nothing. The smller is the doer. He Is the fellow who makes life worth while and keeps the crepe hanger in the closet. Of course, no one would smile at a funeral, but Ate is not so bad as that, and more particularly our everyday life of business and work. We have just gone thru a "smile zone" nationally and it has made conditions a lot better. There is no question about that. The antl-flrtil* fellow, the joy killer, the gloom maker, might as well go back to their living graves in a country where people smile and whistle and work. He said that people + In the Old Days. Once upon a time there lived a chorus girl who didn't care for an au tomobile. She wanted two or nothing Mayor Addresses The City Council Continued from page one committees, and that plan had been followed for a short time and gradu ally changed until business was done on the street and on the telephone and no records kept and duplications liabl© to be made and when the bills were filed the finance committee was placed in an awkward position, it being necessary to allow against their wishes or to delay pay ment of bills, which from the stand point of the one filing the bill was unfair and a disappointment. He recommended that they decide whether they were going to attend to the city business on an approved system or go on with this lack of system, and the council accepted the criticism and decided to get back to the system and stick to it. A notice published this week in th e local papers will tell how city bills must be handled hereafter. The chief of police's salary was fixed at |125 a month, the night man at fllO and the street cleaners at $82.50 each. The street commis sioner will work twelve hours a day and receive $110 a month. The council are trying to make a sale of 400 feet of four inch pip e to Idaho Falls. At the city park tourist camp, a kitchen 32x36 is being built and they will install electric plates and water tank with electric heater, and shower baths and toilets. The work of perfecting the cent ral street parks on Shilling avenue is in progress, the city doing the planning ^nd managing the work and the cost being charged against the abutting property. bills + COAL TELLS ITS STORY Assuming that coal could speak for itself, would it not say: "I am a lump of coal. In your eyes I seem a black thing dug from the bowels of the earth. But I am something more. I am a child of the sun that shone hot thru humid air for a million years that formed the period of my gestation. Age after age, lush and beautiful vegeta tion covered the earth and was pre served in my form for the use of men who had not been born. "In me was stored up the heat, light and power of the orb of day. I give them forth as I am consumed in fiery furnaces. I drive steamships all oved lake and sea, and engines over steel rails across every contin ent. I fill the world with light. I send from space the wireless mes When You Need A New Battery * remember that its length of satisfactory service will de pend largely upon the care it receives. An EX IDE properly cared for by the AUTO ELECTRIC CO. has proved to be the longest lived battery, therefore the cheapest. We have the proper size for your car Regardless of the make of the one you now have, it will do better if you let us give it expert attention. 4 Auto Electrie Co. Blackfoot South Broadway Our Mothers Used May Butter for dressing hurts and bruises, because May butter contained the curative and life elements of the herbs and grasses on which the cows grazed. We Have May Beef fattened on stored feeds and grazed on May buds, herbs and grasses with all their life-giving elements and tonics. It was such foods that made the native Indians • Cv strong for the race and we have them for The hired man and everybody will you. like it, and we can send a big hunk out to the farm for 10 cents by parcel post. The Quality Shop Central Meat Market L. B. Dore & Son Phone 168 Blackfoot Bridge St. Under sages at which men marvel, my hot caress the rocks that were born before me yield up their metal lic content. "I changed the history of the world and lifted the burden of grinding toil from the backs of men when I endowed water with power by converting it into steam to turn the wheels of industry. Since man found wit to use me in this way, less than two centuries ago, he has made greater progress in industrial arts and in his standard of living than he had accomplished in all the ages that went before. "To me and to the sun that #. brought me into being you owe your liberities and civilization, years ago man worshipped the sun. He should give thanks to the lump of coal it created so that the power of its rays might be stored up for the use of man. "And so I am here to do the work you give me to do-—just in propor- ( | tion as you conserve and wisely use the power that is mine, so will you perform a service of patriotic pur pose or wilful waste."—Exchange. Long * Weight Changes Every Hour. We are lightest when we rise in 1114 morning. Breakfast puts on a pound or so, but we lose some of this by lunch time, when we again add to our weight. After lunch back we go oneb more, though, as between breakfast and lunch, we retain part of the in* crease. brings us up to our maximum, have then gained, on the average, seven pounds during the day. Gen- w erally, therefore, the greatest variation during the 24 hours is seven pounds, the weight lost between dinner and breakfast. Then comes dinner, which We + • "Alloy." The word "alloy" is derived from a literal Anglicization of the French phrase "a la loi"—"according to law." The phrase was transported across the channel in connection with gold or sil ver reduced in value by admixture with inferior metals In accordance with regulations established according to the law, but the English Insisted on pronouncing the French "loi" as if it were spelled "Ioy" and finally dropped the second syllable entirely, thus coin ing the word "alloy." \ A All Privacy Goes. If that X-ray contraption for taking pictures through walls works, the gold fish won't have much on us for pri vacy.—Minneapolis Tribune.