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FIQCHE WEEKLY RECORD.
riCIM, IMCBIB CO. IIYASA THE NAVY'S WORK. Surgeon-General Van Reypen Makes Official Report. HIGH PRAISE FOR HIS MEN, When tne War Cloud Finally Broke the Medical Broach Was Be :.dr for Art- Washington. Probably 110 better illustration can be (omul of (lie fore- sight exhibited by the Navy in prepar ing for the war than in afforded by tin' history of the medical corpn during the stnnnile. This is set out in the annual report of Surgeon-General W. K. Van Revpen, which in the first of the Navy Bureau reports submitted for publication. I Surgeon-General Van Keypen begins with a modest tribute to the good judg ment ami .foresight of hi jiretleccssor, Uenerol Trvon, who, in putting in order anil equipping the several naval hospitals, was ot lncalciilahlc service to the bureau, enabling it to properly care for the sick or wounded of the Navy during the war. When the Maine watt blown up, Sur geon-General Van Keypen was in charge of the bureau, ami began prcpti rations immediately for any contin gencv. The hospitals were full v equipped; plans were prepared for pavilion wards, the naval laboratory prepared to furnish medical ami surgi- ral supplies in any quantity, no nit ditional expense wan incurred until war seemed imminent; then ever vessel likely to be engaged wan given a full outfit of inedieal supplies for war. In anticipation of a largo increase of the Navv, proper outfit! were made readv and boxed for a large number of chip readv for call. "There ha iiot'becn an instance dur ing the war," sav the Surgeon-Gen eral, "of any vesselJiaving to wait for her medical stores. It waH known that the medical corps was inadequate in number for war, yet there was no law authoriting the em ployment of volunteer medical officers, But medical boards were sent out ii anticipation to the principal cities t' examine applicants for appointment, and as a consequence when war brok out the medical department had at hand from which to make selections of vol unteer surgeons a long list of well educated men, and thirty-seven of these were appointed out of 2000 applicants. Surgeon-General Van Keypen says; 1 hev have reiulereii clhcicut service and have been a credit to the Navv. 84iuie have had unusual ami trying experiences, but they have accoiimio dated themselves to their environments and have justified thcirappointmcnts." Only one meilical department had long desired to establish a hospital service at sea on a specially selectei vessel, ana the approach ot war cave it an opportunity to demonstrate the wisdom of its propositions and tin emcieucv of its methods. The steamer Creole 'was purchased, ami with tin1 valuable assistance of Naval Construe ior woouwani was convened into un ambulence ship within sixteen days lining every appliance ot modern mir- gery, disinfecting apparatus, cold stor age, laundrv and elevator. She was a pioneer in her work, indicating a step in advance that it well became the United States to take. The report gives a succinct history of the valuable cervices rendered by the Creole in car. ing for the sick and wounded. Stores and supplies and also delica cies and comforts hod been supplied in abundance for the - sick and wounded by generous and patriotic individuals and societies from every part of the United States. Says the 8urgeon-Gen eral: "In this war woman has done her perfect work, and the medical de partment of the Navy is profoundly grateful for the money contributed anil supplies furnished for the aid of the sick and wounded of the Navy. Patri otic women have ably supplemented the efforts of the Government, and theirvansistance has been thoroughly appreciated." In this connection the report calls attention to the fact that as soon as war wan declared the daughter of Secre tary ijong ami three ot tier associates at the Johns-Hopkins Medical School volunteered their services as nurses and were assigned to duty in the hospital. In conclusion the Surgeon-General says: I cannot close this portion of the bureau's report without bearing testimony to the elliciencv. skill and devotion to duty of the personnel of Iho medical department. . Not a Word but of praise has the bureau heard of any of them regulars or volunteers. When war was imminent they vied wiin one another tn their efforts to Ret on fighting ships. Some have had greater opportunities than others, but all have done well the work assigned them. Surgeon Edgar saw his associ ate, Assistant 8urgeon Gibbs shot by his side in the Spanish attack, and he continued his work alone, doing it thoroughly and well, as it was known hp would. m.-. ! ..I . a . ik uit-in-ni oiuccr oi ine vessels in the fight at Manila and in the battle of the 3d of July shared the dangers oi tneir comrades anil should partiei pate in the praise accorded them. WORK OF WAR SURGEONS. General gtcraberg Sends a Uhn of K- plaaatlon. Washington Surgeon-General Stern berg has sent to the commission Inves tigating the conduct of the war the fol lowing memorandum relating to the m-xlieal department of the Army; The number of medical officer al lowed by law is inadequate in times of peace. The total number allowed is 12, There are at present 13 vacancies. The administration of the Surgeon General's office and the Army Medical Museum require six. Eleven are on duty at medical supply depots and as chief surgeons of military departments. One is at the Soldiers' Home, 68 are at general hospitals, on hospital ships and at garrisoned posts; 4 have been d it til. led since the commencement of the war by sickness; 5 are on duty as hief surgeons of Army conn. This leaves 97 medical officers available for duty with troop in the field.' Of these 35 have been appointed brigade sur geons of volunteers and are distributed among the various Army corps. Since the declaration of war the loss by death has been 2, and 23 are now absent from duty on sick leave. This deficiency in regular medical officers bas made it necessary to em ploy more than 650 contract surgeons. Most of these doctors from civil lite are doing good service, and many oi them are thoroughly well equipped physicians ami surgeons, with ample hospital experience. In addition to this there nave been appointed by the President 8 corps sur geons with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, 24 division surgeons with the rank of Major and 86 brigade surgeons; also 9 medical officers for each of the regiments of United States Infantry, Cavalry and Engineers. All volunteer regiments nave medical officers ap pointed by Governor of states. Referring to the alleged deficiency ot medical officers with the Fifth Army Corps at Santiago I would say that this corpH upon leaving Tampa had w ith it thirty-six regular medical ofheerf, fif teen commissioned volunteer medical officers and twenty contract doctors, a total of seventy-one, or over four per thousand ot the strength of the com mand, which I was informed was about 10,000. Additional medical assistance was sent by the hospital-ship Relief, which arrived atSiboney July 7th with twenty doctors ou board. There was also some volunteer assistance by Dr. Lesser of the Kit! Cross Society, Dr. Rudberg of the Swedish navy and sev eral surgeons of the Navy from ships in the vicinity. It has not been the expectation of the Medical Department that every wounded man would immediately re ceive the attention of a surgeon. No modern army makes provision for such a large number of medical onicers as this wonld require. But attached to our Army there is a corps of non-combatants known as the Hospital Corps, which is the organized and authorized Red Cross of the Army. At the out break of the war we had 800 Hospital Corps men in the service. At present t here are more than 0000. We have done onr best to instruct them in giv lug first aid to the wounded, and in a majority of oases a first-aid dressing properly applied by one of these men is all that is required. All of the surgeons who have oonie from the front have testified to the remarkable results attained from the prompt aiipli cation of dressings by our Hospital Corps men and by the soldiers them selves or their comrades. Honorable Discharge of General a. Washington. The War Department has issueil the long expected order for the honorable discharge from the vol unteer service of the United States of three major-generals and twenty-six brigadier generals of volunteers. This heavy reduction was made necessary by the fact that the volunteer army itself has already been reduced by fully 50 per cent, and there is consequently no duty remaining for these officers to discharge. The officers, who Were pro moted from the regular army will re turn to their former duties. The list is as follows: Major-uenerals John Uoppinger, October 13, 181)8; Hamilton S. Haw kins, November 80, 18!)H; Jacob" F, Kent, Novemer 30, 1898. Brigadier-Generals, to take effect October 31 Francis L. Gnenther, Alfred E. Bates, George L. Gillespie, Lucius F. Hubbard, James R. Wattles, Charles f. Mattocks, Mark W. Sheafe. James H. Barkley, Joseph VST. Plume, lhomas Li. Kosser, Joseph Hudson. Brigailier-Geiierals, to take effect Novemer 80 John I. Rodgers, Andrew 8. Burt; Peter C. Haines, George, A. Garretson, Henry A. Outfield, Jacob B Babcock, Roy Stone, Wallace F. Ran dolph, Henry Carrol, Edward P. Pear son, John II. Page, William M Wherry, Charles D. Viele, Aaron S. Daggett, John V. Patterson. Brigadier-Generals Alfred E. Bates, George U Gillespie, John B. Babci and Teter Haines will continue their present duties. LABOR HIGHER IN HAWAII. Aa Engineer Corps Is Making a Surra? or Pearl Harbor. TT l. I Mr .. . . nunoiuiu. wiui annexation pro hibiting tho entry of Chinese into Ha waii or the importation of Japanese contract labor, plantation wages have gone up. Many whose contracts have expired are re-engaging at flS a month, instead ot ir.'.oo ana ti3 tne current price for contract labor. This has made those under contract restive, and a movement is on foot to test in the courts whether under annexation im ported contract laborers can be held to their contracts.. This. .movement was started among the Chinese, and an effort which is meeting" with some suc cess is being made to get them to pav 92 apiece into a fund to carry a test case to the Supreme Court of the United States. A complete and thorough survey of Pear! Harbor and its surroundings has begun. Recently Company I of the United Mates Volunteer Engineers, under command of Captain Draper, started on a march from Camp McKin- ley to l ean Harbor. The march oceu ! 1 1 i i . . pieu a uay ami a nan. The survey wora nas oeen negun Dy this company ine men win continue at it for two weeks, when they will be relieved by another company, and so on until the work is completed or the Honolulu garrison is recalled. On the march to reari Harbor Company I was enter talned at breakfast on the lawn of the Arlington Hotel by Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Krouse. The Hilo Chamber of Commerce has forwarded a memorial to" the Annexa tion Commission asking that the first Governor be some one who has not been an official of the late Government of the Republic of Hawaii. The cham ber ask for local self-government and a modern educational and property qual ification for the elective franchise. Oregon and Iowa Orders. Washington. Captain Crownin. shield, Chief of the Navigation Bureau of the Navy Department, authorizes the statement that no change baa been made in the orders to the Oregon and Iowa to go to the Pacific. PACIFIC COAST IWS. Important Information Gathered Around the Coast. ITEMS OF GENERAL INTEREST. lunar of Late Kvaata That Ara Rolled Dowa to Bait Oar luf Bonders. Th. iMiiiHinuira will dispense vith coal Chinese labor in and around the mines at Nanaimo, B. C. The shops of the Spokane Falls & Northern R. R. have been removed from Spokane, Wash., to Hilliard. The Los Angeles, Cal., Street Rail way Co. has been formed to control the street railway system of that city. In '97 the Grays Harbor, Wash.. Commercial Co. manufactured 40,586, 2)0 shinlges and 35,628 M. feet of lum ber. There has been a generous fall of rain and snow in the mountains and valleys of California, giving great satis faction. At Ranger, Cal., forty men weekly furnish two carloads of nil wish I for the American Lead Pencil Co. of New York. Han Francisco s uncompleted city hall has cost to date $5,677,208.54. The cornerstone was laid Feb. 22, '71, and it has been a good thing. The State Government of Hidalgo, Mexico, bought the Pachuea water works for 1250,000, payable in install. ments within ten years. Control of the Hawaiian Sugar Co, has passed from the Bpreckels to a local syndictae of bankers and brokers. The transaction involved $3,000,000. Tho largest single consignment of Alaska salt salmon received in Ban Francisco reached here last week. It consisted of 4000 barrels and was sold for $82,000. Sis-retary of tho Navy Long will award a contract for tho building of the coast defense monitor Wyoming to the Union Iron Works of San Francisco lor $875,000. The Manufacturers' and Producers' Associatitv.i favors tho State Exposition of California products, to bo held in Oakland, Cal., from Nov. 12th to Dec. 8d. The Southern Pacific R. R. CoTwill soon begin building in various parts of California twelve steel bridges, aggre gating half a mile in length and cost ing $300,000. The U. S. Treasury Department has raised the Everett, Wash., Reduction Works to the grade of a bonded smelter. which will henceforth do its own re fining. The Canadian Pacific Railroad will establish a new transpacific line. The steamers Tartar and Athenian, of over 4500 tons, will run between Vancouver ami Vladivostok. The Santa Fe Railroad will light its limited train running between Cliicgao and Los Angeles. Cal.. 2245 miles. with electricity evolved from the fric tion of the car axles. The Bcllinghaiii Bay & British Columbia Railroad is to be extended into the Mount Baker mining region, probably with the ultimate intention of going on over the Cascades. Work has begun on the Utah & Pa cific R. R., which, beginning at Salt Lake City, Utah, under the auspices of the Oregon Short Line, will ulti mately connect with Los Angeles, Cal. The twentieth century battleship Ohio, to be built by the Union Iron Works at San Francisco, will be an im provement on the Wisconsin, now building at that company's works under Government plans. The Oregon Sugar Co.'s plant at La Grange, Oregon, started up last week. It is locally estimated that this year's crop will keep the factory busy day and night for three months, and that the product will be 80,000 tons of sugar. At Santa Crnx, Cal., the new powder works plant has begun operations. The daily output is now 6000 pounds. Enough orders for smokeless powder, at 80 centa per lb., have been received to keep the mills running day and night for two years. At Port Angeles, Wash., a bonus of $15,000 has been raised for the Pitts burg Glass Works to be located at that place. The Pittsburg men agree to commence work inside of ninety days and must complete the works before demanding any of the bonus. "A mountain of Fuller's earth" has been discovered near Foso creek, in Kern county, Cal. A contract lias been let by the Los Angeles men who are developing it to E. Salcido to deliver fifteen tons. Heretofore its production has been limited to England. The Circuit Court has decided that the city of Santa Cms, Cal., must pay $300,000 and interest at 5 percent from April 4th, '94, on bonds issued by tho city for improvements. The bonds were placed in the hands of agents, who disposed of them to Eastern capi talists. Interest and costs increase the debt to nearly half a million dollars. Work in Santa Ana canyon for the Southern California Power Co. is about done. The wires have been stmng through the city. It is intended to carry a current of 6000 volts and to deliver it in Los Angeles at a loss of 10 per cent. The one order for this wire was $110,000. The cost of the in sulators was over $14,000. It is proba ble the wires will be in place and the machinery ready to turn on the current about Nov. 1st. The Gridley, Cal., Herald savs that T. R. Fleiniuingof Biggs is working up a pian to complete the ditch and irri gating outfit of the Feather River Canal Co. in Butte county. This com pany was organised in 1891, capitalised for $1,000,000. Thirty thousand dol lars have been spent on the ditch, and it is estimated that $16,000 more will be necessary to put water tin the land. It is proposed to provide for irrigating but 4000 acres at present. The seals are being exterminated in northern waters. The Alaska Commer cial Company's report shows that only twenty-eight British sealing vessels were in northern waters. The Alaska Commercial Company's report shows that only twenty-eight British sealing vessels were in northern waters this year, and their aggregate ratch was only 10,000 skins, against 60.000 in 95.- The North American Commercial Company's catch this season is only 18,000 skins, against 100.000 for some previous years. The same falling off is noted in the Russian and Japanese rookeries. The Russian Sealskin Com pany, which has leased theComandorski Island rookeries, has taken this vear only 7000 skins, against 50,000 last vear. DRIVE A HARD BARGAIN. Btabbora Contest Being Made By the Feaeo f'aaiaalaelonera. Paris. Although the American Peace Commission profess entire satis faction with matters so far as they have progressed, inquietude is plainly discernible on the Spanish side as the resnlt of the firm demands of the Americans. It is thought the United States intends to solve the Philippine question by insisting upon the cession of the Island of Luzon and upon entire independence of all the other islands. Spain hopes to satisfy the United States by the cession of the city of Manila and one island for a coaling station. Manila being the key to the Philippines, the archipelago would practically be controlled by the power in pnaaession, but ripain hoj.es to get the best price possible. The Spanish Commissioners are said to have received definite instructions to refuse their agreement to the cession of the Island of Luzon unless the United States will assume the entire Philip pine debt. As to the independence of the other islands, the Commissioners are to refuse to even consider it. It is said that the American dele gates intend dispsoing of the Philip pine debt question by appointing an arbitration commission whose duty it will be to go into statistics, so as to make clear how much of this debt has been actually incurred for the benefit of the Philippines, and how much for the Spanish Government and military officials. General Merritt, in both his con ferences with the Commissioners, strongly urged upon Mr. Day and his colleagues the importance of holding all the islands. Weyler Bat a Mew Scheme. Madrid. General Weyler, whose re cent arrival here from the Balearic is lands causes consnlerahie uneasiness in circles friendly to tho dynasty, is be lieved to have at last made his choice between the Carlists and Republicans and to have cast his lot with the latter. It is learned from sources that have hitherto proved trustworthy that Wey ler is sealously working with the newly formed committee, whose sphere of activity is Portugal as well as Spain, and whose aim is to proclaim after the signature of euce an Iberian republic, uniting the whole peninsula, with Wey ler as president. To Bring China to Time. London. The Shanghai correspond ent of the Times savs- Rear-Admiral Lord Charles Beresford.whohus arrived here in the course of his tour as special commissioner for the British Associated Chambers of Commerce to inquire into the commercial conditions of China, has exchanged visits with Marquis Ito, the Japanese statesman. Marquis Ito thinks that the anti-foreign policy re cently adopted at Peking might be remedied by a joint representation by the powers. Exports Frees Germany. Berlin. The exports fur the third quarter of the present year from the southern half of Germany to the United States are officially totaled at (8,641,033 or $1,190,633 in excess of the amount for the corresponding quar ter last year. Soudan Veterans Dying. London. A dispatch to the Daily Chronicle from Alexandria says: The troops who have returned from Khar toum are dying like flies from enteric disorders, supposed to be due to canned beef and indulgence in cheap spirits. Boundary Treaty Signed. Buenos Ayres. A dispatch from the Herald's correspondent at Rio de Ja neiro states that the boundary treaty between Braxil and Argentina has been signed according to the judgment of Mr. Cleveland, who acted as arbitra tor. Horticultural Motes. The Miller red raspberry, which is being largely planted for its hardiness and productiveness, ia lacking in qual ity. It ia not the equal of many older sorts in this respect. Marshall strawberry is gaining in favor all the time. It needs good soil and cultivation, then it does splendid ly. This and constant cultivation is required all the time to have good strawberries. Tub hydrangeas should have about a third of their top pruned away before being taken to the oellar for the win ter, if they are old plants. Young plants do not bloom well if much wood be pruned away. Prepare some whitewash with a sprinkling of sulphur in it, to be ap plied to fruit and other trees when the leaves have fallen. This will kill San Jose and all other scale. It is as good as any artiole. There are seveial kinds of peaches which come fairly true from seed. The Smock, Heath Cling and Morris White are among them. Smocks are often raised from stones and sold as Smocks, so much can their genuineness be re lied on. The premature falling of fruit is often caused by imperfect fertilization of flowers in Spring. Pollen at times is weak or too scant, from cold rain or other causos. These mishaps can hardly be avoided. Quinine ia from the bark of a plant oaueu omcnona, which, in a wild state, grows along the Andes in Vene auela and Bolivia. But more in pro duced in India than is produoed from the wild trees mentioned. nuuyiiocas wouia be more grown were it not for a fungus rust which at tacks anil destroys the leaves. Spray Ing with Bordeaux mixture will check this disease. There Is a new strain of this plant called Allegheny hollyhock ine petals are much fringed. w FOR THE FARMERS. Some Interesting- Newt for the RuralUt SPOKEN OF IN THIS COLUMN. A Foar fteaelate Hints to Bait tho Bney AgriealtarieW Itoana That Mar Boaoat oar Read en. rublle Bchoole and raralag. It is at present an acknowledged fact that public schools are a necessity in a civilized country. The early set tlers of America established schools as soon as they had chosen permanent habitations, for they realized that their children need be taught not only to labor and develop the vast resources of the new country, but must also be in structed in science, art and literature. The present age is a witness of the progress made in a'.I industries and professions. The enlightened mind has discovered how to utilize the foods of nature, and has taught mankind to expend less muscular force than in the past. Improvemments, such as tools, manufactures, etc., have done much to lighten farm work. Objects of common schools shonld be properly understood Itefore stating any of the relations they may have to farming in dustries. They were not instituted lor the purpose oi teaching how to farm, or how to conduct any other busi ness, but to educate children that they may become good and worthy citizens of our noble commonwealth to train the mind to such an understanding that wnen they grow to manhood and womanhood they may be able to exer cise their judgment properly, whatever caning they may pursue. Althoueh these objects are often overlooked, the law never intended the common school to prepare anyone for any special call lng. A physical, montal and moral development is a necessity for everv child. The commonwealth encourages u to sucn a degree that no district need be without proper facilities for educat ing the mind and body. The common schools are the foundation of all that is bright and noble in life. If our com mon schools have a certain relation to every calling, they must of necessity nave a relation to our farming induB tries, for we study of the different prices of products, where raised, fertili ty of the soil, and the like. The more tact and skill children have, the more able they are to battle with the many arduous duties which lie in their way. A farmer's life, though an independ ent, is not an easy one. We must use diligence and economy if we would make ends meet. The mission of the public school is not to create adistaste for any trade or profession, but help to promote and implant in the hearts of our youth "that all work has its worth." Public schools or other insti tutions of learning do not create a dis taste for farming; it is more likely the parent who often says, "Farming does not pay;" or, "It is just drudgery from morn till night;" or, "My boys shall never become farmers if we can possi- LI.. -Jl . .. .. . . oiy euueate mem." laxe Ironi some rural district the noble and true, and you take the best of our presidents and statesmen. Truly, "the hand that rocks the cradle rules the world. V The farmer who has a good education has many advantages over the one whose knowledge ia limited to the three "R's." Systematic plans are of importance as well in farming as in any other business. Alma Calhoun, in Practical Farmer. Summary of Kxperliuents la Calf Feed ing. 1. Calves mav be raised verv profit ably on skim-milk when it is properly led. 2. From the standpoint of gain in live weight and quality of meat, whole milk is the best food lor calves, but it makes too expensive a ration to be profitably fed. Butter fat has been worth 16 centa per pound. The gain in live weight of these calves at 4 cents per pound returns but 10.7 cents per pound for the butter fat fed, at 3 cents per pound for the gain but 8 cents per pound. 3. The calves whose rations were composed largely ot skim-milk, while they gained one-half pound less per day, yet required practically the same amount of dry matter to each pound of gain as did those fed on whole milk, they made jurt as good use of the food. 4. The calves fed on whole milk alone gave a grater proportion of dressed meat to live weight than did those fed on skim-milk, and also gave more fat on the carcass. 6. Young calves, up to 3) months of age, required less milk and less dry matter to each pound of gain than did the hogs. When the calves were five and six months old, however, more dry matter was required, but at least half of it was hay. 0. When fed to calves, fully as large financial returns were obtained for the skim-milk as when fed to bogs. With .the gain in live weight at 4 centa per pound, the calves returned 82 cents per hundred pounds for the skim-milk and the hogs 22.8 cents. If the gain in live weight was worth 8 cents per pound, the calves would return 6 cents per 100 pounds more for the milk than would the hogs. By F. B. I.infleld, Utah Experiment Station, Logan, Utah. Fraah Eggs. It farmers could understand the value of fresh eggs as compared with eggs a week or a month old, they could realize much better prices for the eggs, says the Western Agriculturist. Frenoh farmers market their eggs almost every day. They take them to the village or town market, or ship them to Paris or London, those two great markets that always want wore fresh eggs, and pay a premium for getting them fresh. The farmer who does not market his eggs while fresh, loses the profit of production and disoouragea the eating of eggs. Town and city people who can get fresh butter and eggs not only eat more of them, but are eager to pay the highest price to get them fresh. We want to get nearer the market by developing better market facilities. The itinerant buyer of country produce pays little profit on production, and farmers who have a few chickens and oows think butter and eggs do not pay because they do not market tbera to the best advantage. Get your town or cuy(custoraer and supply them fresh las often as desired. Improve your poultry and dairy stock and facilities to produce first-class butter and eggs, that always command top of the mar ketdouble the price at borne or coun try store. A writer in Farm Poultry aays: We wish people would understand that in letting their eggs get stale before mar keting them, they are directly contrib uting to discouraging the consumption of eggs; they are injuring themselves and every other egg producer. People are willing to pay almost any price for eggs which they know to be fresh, and when they do get them tbey eat nearly twice as many as when they cannot get them fresh. Of this we have abund ant proof in personal experience with customer. It is just so with milk, as Mrs. Whitaker says. Her statement is: "If milk was what it ought to be. here would not be any surplus, for it is safe to estimate that most families would use two quarts where they now use one." That statement is absolute ly true, and is just as true of eggs as it is of milk. We need to get producers and consumers nearer together, and get the'eggs into the consumers' hands almost before they are cold, certainly before they have had time to become stale and w hen we can do that, we shall double the consumption of eggs as an article of food. Produce Only tho Best. The farmer should not only trv to reduce the cost of production, but he should try to produce the best of every thing. Quality counts in selling, and any reasonable expense entailed in the production of extra quality in any farm or garden crop will lie amply re paid. A little extra care in the selec tion of the best varieties, and in their cultivation and care, will usually ac complish the desired end. The market is seldom over-stocked with goods of extra quality, and the best always sell first at an advanced price. Selection, thorough cultivation and fertilization by means of stable manure or commercial fertilizers will result in a marked difference in the quality of berries, fruits and field crops. They must have favorable circumstances under which to grow and mature, or they cannot be first class. No fruit tree can do this best when standing in a wet, poor soil. Underdrain, cultivate, manure and prune properly, then you can expect good results. The farmer who produces the best grains can, with a little push and energy, dispose ot the most of his field products for seed, and in this way get more for them than they would bring in the regular mar ket. There are always sections where good seed of various kinds is scarce. Others wish to change seed every few years a very good praotice. This creates a demand for grain of extra quality. The market for fine fat stock and breeding animals ia never glutted. But second or third-rate stock iB apt to go begging for a purchaser. It may cost a little more for the sire and dam, DDI the leea costs tne same, or, in fact, costs less for a thoroughbred ani mal than a scrub, because in the form er it shows to a better advantage and sells for more per pound. The scrub is usually a long-legged raw-boned ani mal that requires a great amount of feed to maintain it, and still more to fatten it. A hard feeder in every sense of the term, there is little or no profit in handling that kind of stock A careful feeder who understands bis business should always make a fair profit, even in an off year, by handling improved stock. O. J. Vine. Milk Teeth In Pigs. Pigs have twenty-eight temporary teeth, of which they have eight two ; corner incisors and two tusks in each jaw at birth. These teeth are sup posed to assist the tongue of the little pig in suoking. The other temporary teeth come gradually at intervals, and the temporary dentition is usually com plete at about three months. Of course, the fact that these are all temporary teeth implies that the pig loses them, and yet a great many do not live long enough to lose them. The corner in oisors are not replaced by permanent teeth until normally about nine months. The same is true of the tusks. The temporary pinchers which come at three and four weeks, are not re placed by the permanent ones until about nine months. The temporary intermediate teeth, which appear in the lower and upper jaw in eight to twelve weeks respectively, are not re placed until about eighteen months. The first molar, which comes at seven weeks, is replaced at five months, the second at from nine to ten months, and the third from eighteen to nine teen months. The loss of the tern porary teeth comes only a little be fore the appearance of the correspond- j ing permanent ones, the latter crowd ing out the former. Most pigs go to market before they have lost many of their temporary teeth. The process being a natural one, and occurring without any disturbance at all, the owner himself not even conscious ol when it occurs, no matter how watch ful he may be of his herd, we do not think that the loss has any influence in giving the pigs a backset shortly after weaning. Chara cterlstles of a Oood Farmer. A man may be energetic and still not tuooeed in business. The success ful farmer must plan judiciously and then faithfully carry out those plans. The farmer of today must stop all the leaks if he wants to keep even with the world. He must attend to the small details of his business and waste nothing that he can turn into cash. A successful farmer with wornout lands, poor fenoes and farm buildings is seldom found, because he cannot afford to let them run down. He will use good tools because be cannot afford to use poor ones. His taxes are paid on time because be cannot afford to pay interest on them. As a rule be buys and sells for cash. When he hires help be gets good help because he gets more in return for his money. He faces the problems which confront him in his business and meets them in a practical way. He plans to grow his crops at the lowest cost, and to get the best returns for his money and labor. He informs himself as to the best methods of all branches of his calling. In a word, the suooessfnl farmer is an all-round man, looking carefully after his business interests, quick at discov ering and remedying mistakes and in (adopting the best methods of others. CIVILIZING THE INDIAN. What is Accomplished by Edu cation. SCHOOLS ARE LARGELY ATTENDED. Contanlastoner Jeaee Re porta the Fro graas Ma4o ta tho Bogonoratloa of the Hatloa's Warns. Washington. The annual report of Commissioner of Indian Affair Wil liam A. Jones shows a general advance ment in the condition of the "nation's wards." Education, the greatest fac tor in solving the status of the Indians, is being pushed forward in the Ben-ice, and now there are 147 well-equipped boarding-schools and an equal number of day schools engaged in the education of 23,975 pupils. The average attend ance and enrollment has steadily in- reased for the past twentv-one vears. Vigorous inquiries show that 89 per cent of these pupils who have gone through the schools and returned to their homes are reported to be in good physical condition, contrary to the fre quent suggestions that the change might break naturally stmng and vigor ous constitutions. Of the pupils attending school 3 per cent are reported as excellent or first- class; 73 percent as good and medium, while only 24 per cent are considered bad or worthless, showing in the com missioner's judgment the value of a system which can in a generation de velop from savages 70 per cent of good average men and women. Under the present regime the large net decrease in enrollment and attend ance of last year has been changed into a net increase of 1040 and 996, enroll ment and average attendance, respec tively, for the present year. The re servation schools show the largest gain. Agents are now being urged to greater exertions to fill the schools to the limit of their capacity and future develop ments, Mr. Jones predicts, will un doubtedly emphasize that a regulation enforcing compulsory attendance upon the schools must be enacted. The placing of Indian children in the public schools of the country for the purpose of co-education of the races does not ap pear to meet with much success, but a fuller test of its value and practicabil ity is to be made, this vear. . The school plauts in the service are valued at over $3,000,000, and larger funds for keeping them in repair are urged. Out of the general school sup port fund the Indian Office contem plates the expenditure of a sufficient sum to radically increase scholastic fa cilities for the great tribes of the South west, and to that end adequate addi tions will be made to the schools now established for the Pimsa, Papamos. Navajos, Moquis and Apaches; at Sac ton, Fort Defiance, Keams Can von, San Carlos and Fort Apache. Discussing tho work of the commis sion to make allotments on the Uncom- paghre Reservation, Utah, the commis sioner says it is believed manv allot ments were made to Indians not occu pying tho lands allotted and willing to remove to the Uintah Reservation, and that authority for such allotments is questioned as well as whether even the Indians in possession of the lands can be allotted. Congress is asked to legal ize the allotments on the Unconipaghre Reservation made after April 1, 1898, to remove all doubt. Referring to the torturing and burn ing of Seminoles in Oklahoma last Jan uary, the refsirt says it is thought in demnity will soon be paid by the Gov ernment to all members of the Semi nole nation injured by "the mob of law less whites in that occurrence, and the whites guilty of the outrages are now being prosecuted. A TOUCHY OLD COMMODORE. Insisted on Running His Owa Man-of-war Bvea oa llnnilaja A story is told of an old commodore at the Boston yard whose method of measuring religious affairs was with the same inexorable rule used for tem poral things. One Sunday morning ha was aroused from, his nap by something out of the usual routine being announc ed from the pulpit, and he sternly ad dressed the chaplain with: "What's thatf What's that?" The chaplain de murely repeated the notice that "by or der of the bishop of the diocese divine service will be performed in this chapel on Thursday evening next," eta "By whose order?" "By order of the bishop of the dio oee, sir. " "Well," thundered the commodore, "I'll let you know that 1 ara bishoo of this diocese, and when I want service in this chapel I'll let you know. Pina down. " and he cleared the chapel. Ou one occasion he heard a different voice, in the pulpit from usual, and, . looking up, be asked: "Who ia that up there? Is that yon, Billy McMasters?" "Yes, sir." (Billy was a religions foreman in the yard who sometimes helped the chap lain along. ) "Come down out of that," thundered the commodore. "When I want a relief for the chaplain, I'll appoint one. Don't you ever let me catch yon up there again," and he ol oared the chapel again. "On a Man-of War." A Beotsmaa Who Ruled Russia. Although not generally known, it ia a matter of history that an alien, a Scotsman, once held the reins of gov ernment in Russia, and to him that country owes hei civilization, frovern ment aud present position among the nations. Patrick Gordon waa born in Auchlouchries, Aberdeenshire, March 81. 1033. His father waa of the Haddo branch of the Gordons, aud his mother was an Ogilvie. He weul to seek his fortuue in Russia and became a soldier of great bravery iu the Russian army in the time of Alexis I and had now attained the rank of colonel By his bravery aud success he gaiued the love ot the army and the esteem of the whole nation and bad under his control 12,000 newly formed soldiery, who were un der foreign officers in the town of Mos cow. Gordon himself had the czar's command not to leave the capital, but his authority extended over all province except those in which the southern army were engaged under General Shein, yet the latter had express order from tbe czar not to undertake anything of mo ment with General Gordon's advloe.