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THE PIOCHE RECORD.
PASE THRWL SATURDAY, JULY 1, 1911 HAMUS ON DRY FARM Native of Syria, and Delights in Hot, Dry Weather. " It It No Affected by Hot Wind, as Corn and Other Grain, and Ma ture In Six to Eight Week From Planting. PEST OF VOLUNTEER GRAIN Evil May Be Greatly Minimized by Using Rotation Given Herewith Corn la Best Crop. M U5 in the summer of 1900 1 filed on a :lalm on which I am living today, and ilnce then I have been studying the Miniate and the soil of this country, writes E. Rizk of Stanley county, South Dakota, in the Orange Judd Farmer. The more I studied the bet ter I fe'.t, because It put me in mind yf tbe place where I was born and raised, on the farm of Jim Janeen El Bakka, about 35 miles from Damascus, Syria. In that section many good :rops are raised without a drop of summer rain. So not long after set tling here I sent to the old country tnd got about three pounds of hamus. This is a pea that we always depend ed upon for summer crops, and a table vegetable. By the way, I must tell what ha mus Is like, and for what and how it is used. This plant is a member of '.he pea family and used practically .he same way for cooking, and it may lso be roast and salted or sugared as peanuts. In addition it is 'fine feed for horses and hogs, and, in fact, for all kinds of live stock. Last spring about planting time V showed the pea to my neighbor and gave him a small package of the seed and asked him to try It on his place. The bal ance of the seed I planted myself. The first lot I seeded May 17. 1910. I planted two rows on a well-worked seed bed, placing the seed 18 Inches apart in row with the same distance between. The mother portion of the seed 1 planted on new breaking; how ever, this was also well prepared. This seed was planted the first week of June. Both seedlngs came up about :he same time, as it was cold the lat ter part of May, and the seed did not terminate until tbe weather became warm. After spring really opened it lid not take long for the plants to come up, probably from five to eight lays. After hamus was planted we had no rain worth mentioning; in fact, we had only a light shower about June to, which was not even enough to set tle the dust, and that was the first and last I received after planting the crop until after harvest The plants did plendldly and grew as fast as Rus sian thistles. The stalks grow much like the thistle, about 12 to 15 Inches high and about the same In diameter, it blossoms and produces pods which contain one of the peas, ordinarily nly one. The seeds are. a. trifle larg er than the common garden pea, and m have a cream-colored hull. It seems strange that natural salt accumulates on the plant while green, and yet it Is a fact, and when this is washed out by rain It delays growth. The drier the season and the hoter the weather the better the plant teems to thrive. It is not affected by hot winds, as corn and other grains, and matures from six to eight weeks from planting, depending largely upon the season. I harvested mine while green last Summer for table use on July 5. On August 7 we had a good rain here, and after that the plants came up and made more growth the same as before, but produced little seed. ' Regarding the yield per acre of this crop, I might add that I found from 50 to 160 pods on a plant, and every pod contained one and sometimes two seeds. In my estimation hamus will yield as much as 40 bushels per acre. My neighbor whom I supplied a small quantity of seed was well pleased, and he Intends to grow about 40 acres this season. Many other farmers here after seeing the plant determined to give it a trial, and I secured seed for them. In all I have made three importations, and shall row about 290 acres. I believe that at least 200 to 500 acres will be planted in our vicinity. Now as to the place that hamus will fill in this country. The extent to which volunteer grain grows In dry areas Is perplexing to the farmer who has In mind the rota tion of crops upon his farm. In west ern areas where winter wheat only is grown the problem is easy. By the system followed the farmer Summer fallowed one year and the next year grows wheat While he Is summer fallowing his land he has the chance to destroy much grain that would oth erwise give hSm trouble. But In many areas even in the dry country, some rotation is wanted. How, then, can the farmer keep down the pest of vol unteer grain that If present will de stroy the purity of his grain and cause it to mix, in some Instances to a vexatious extent This evil will be greatly minimized by the following rotation: Summer fallow one year, grain; some cultivate ed crop, grain. This rotation would only call for the real summer-fallow one year In four. Two years would be devoted to cleaning the land, that Is the year that It was fallow and the year that the cultivated crop was erown. Thus there would be three crops taken from the ground in four years. By this system the land ought to be kept free from volunteer grain and also from weeds. The summer fallow should take away everything that is offensive the year that it was being done, and the cultivated crop would do the same, while it was being grown, that Is to say, if the farmer did his duty toward it. The cultivated crop will include corn, potatoes, beans and field roots and possibly peas. Peas, however, may not pay for such cultivation. That has yet to be proved. Of these crops corn will be away beyond all compar ison the most important, as it will be grown over wide areas. It is the easi-' est of these crops to grow and is also the surest except in the case of pota toes. It Is also the most needed, as its fodder is wanted on every farm In the dry area. If alfalfa can be Introduced Into the rotation in a somewhat regular way it will still further aid in safeguard ing the cleaning of the land. If alfalfa occupied the ground for a term of years, say three or four, the volunteer grain would perish. How long such grain would live in the ground would depend chiefly on the amount of mois ture in the soil, but it Is about certain that ordinary grain would not retain vitality longer In slrea where the moisture Is enough to grow annual crops of grain. Some gain will probably result from disking the ground right away after harvest Of course should the weath er continue dry up to harvest but lit tle of the grain would sprout But should any considerable amount -of rain fall before growth would cease much of the volunteer grain would sprout and It would then be burled with the plow. EXCELLENT DRY FARM CROPS Alfalfa and Other Deep Rooting Plants Avail Themselves of Moisture at Great Depth. In a bulletin recently Issued by the experiment station of the Montana Ag ricultural college on crops for dry land farms, the following general ob servations are given: Success Is more likely to follow the careful selection of crops adapted to dry land conditions than to promiscu ous planting of seeds regardless of ca pacity to withstand conditions Im posed. Among the qualities desirable are hardiness and ability to survive severe winter weather unprotected. drought resistance, structurally ca pable of living in dry atmosphere with out undue transpiration of water. The cactus is an example of great drought resistance. Plants with small leaf surface are less likely to suffer In dry climate. Early maturity enables the plant to mature its seed before the pinch of drought overtakes It Gen erally, early maturing varieties are best suited to a dry climate. Deep rooting habits are more favorable than a ounorflnial mnt fivfitpm. Alfalfa and I believe It will be a good other deep rooting plants avail them thing for the arid and semi-arid west Dairying on High Priced Land. Lairying is one of the most pt st able occupations on high priced land for the reason that the land will Im prove In productiveness from year to year and there is a uniform revenue which will meet current expenses and leave a surplus which is sure to come If the business is conducted with or dinary intelligence. selves of moisture at great depths and rnnr even find perennial success In subterranean water. Such plants are least affected by the drying out of the surface soil. Plants that remain dor mant during drought and do not die, but start Into growth with new sup plies of moisture, are of great advan tage. DAIRY NOTES. Watch for Lice. When a spell of bad weather comes, look out for lice. They multiply fast when hens and chicks have to be con fined to their coops much of the time. These pests will soon reduce the vital ity of the liveliest chick ever hatched, so that it will be In good condition to take gapes or some other ailment. Small Horse Costs More. Many farmers believe the upkeep of a small horse doing the work of a draft horse is Ipsb than that of the heavier one. Experiments have shown that a smaller horse will, In a year, consume as much feed as the heavier one. At the same time the work will tell more heavily upon him. Time to Thin Peache. The best time to thin peaches Is Just when the pit is hardening. In tbe country between 35 and 40 degrees latitude, this is done June 10 to 15 Further south, of course, the work should begin earlier. A good milk cow never becomes rolling fat. Salt regularly twice a week Is bet ter than once. Cool the cream as soon a possible after separating. Prepared dips kill lice. A lousy cow is a hard keeper. The best thing for any dairying lo cality Is the organization of cow tst associations. One of the best indications ot a good milk cow Is the large and tortu ous milk veins. The animal that pays the best is bound to be in evidence as dairymen become better informed. It is a mistake to suppose that a good cow of inferior breeding is quali fied to drop a good calf. There is no line of general agricul ture in which well directed effort will pay so large a profit as in dairy farm ing. Feed the cattle all you can afford to during the time they are at pasture, as that helps to keep Uj pastures Is good condition h loryN - -- -- - . X J X a, i ef X Cr i x !A "V Unfdrled Wheri story J theMal ybur fathers) the. tideor Thv stars andxhvvStriDes "J - v Nrf nhallow rtrjejourtl fe us. vxcv -J heXbattle ra hinFAff o er us emblei )rfree Ldevc tion ByWashington great to, XgiVe . s . - fc ?xfri. i When men'deemeditnonor to die. his children un riven Fou rth of July lOU st come to .The Flag the Bonfcfbnce byijthevpld -yContinenta nN Wh'en rtheugles of' Brandywinev TU.. .U. tntln L rv r-i I e-. Thy stars o'er their torn regimenta "Lost none of theirYglorious At Trenton land YorktWn hue; W No m mortal Where Victory rodexinthesky ' e--, -.XX X They planted at Liberty's! pbrtal .-w The Flag of the KoutthJKJuly Thel fame of a Nation is 'round x - - y- -r CS'- S "V bleW thetruespirits that foundthee'' -And gave usa standard divine; words sever more snails the battle sv The sectionsjthat see thee Love crowns thcfe forever and ever n The. Flag"bf-the Fourth of July, r' O emblem -'enlaureled with splendor And Ujathedn God's holiest lig! neveAshall lack a defender 1 1 I WriilstfreeN meiNcan rise in their might; DOve inee oik i ime is noionger The eagles of Freedbnv-shallflv. 'neath thee all merishall growxstroneer, 1- 11 XV ' O Flag ofheFourth of Ju V41L JL IIUU ht.N l r ft- s f xJiUM INTERIOR OF POULTRY HOUSE Most Farm Building Intended for Fowl Are Large and Difficult to Keep Warm In Winter. Mr. T. W. Reynolds sends the Home stead the accompanying diagram which shows the end view of the In terior of a poultry house fixed for win ter use. Most farm poultry houses are built rather large and are hard to keep warm in winter. This arrange- Interlor View. R, Roots: D, Sloping floor; P, rle cellliut; C. Curtain; N, NetU; O, Outter for droppings. 111 en t may be applied to most any house except that the roosts must be built on a level and not graduated stair-step fashion. The slanting floor (D) Is an advantage In that It form a dead air space below and facilitates cleaning the chicken house. The roost are 2x2-lnch strip with corner rounded, extending from back to front about 18 inches apart About IS inches above the roosts a false ceiling may be built of loose strips and covered with straw or hay. A curtain of bur lap or an old strip of carpet U hung from the front of this celling and by tacking a narrow strip on the lower edge of this curtain, it can be raised and fastened to the rafter above at (O) during the day. The curtain. straw and celling may all be taken out in warm weather so that spraying may be easily done. Nest can be arranged In the same room, a shown. CURING FEATHERS AT HOME If Handled Right Will Return 8urplua of Pillow or Will Bring Good t .; Price If olA - 3 iyii- Feather may be cured at home and if handled right secure to the housewife a surplus of pillows and cushions or will bring a good price If sold. Before the chicken 1 scalded, take the scissors and cut off the soft, downy end of the feather about the tall. Separate the feather In pick ing and dry thoroughly. Immerse the feathers in lime water made by de carting one pound quick lime In one gallon water. Allow the feather to remain In this two or three days, stirring frequently, then skim the sur face of the water and lift the feath ers out to drain on a wire sieve. When drained rinse them first In hot water, then In two cold waters, then place again on the sieve to drain. If an old hammock Is at hand stretch It tightly in a warm room near the floor, spread the. feathers thinly upon it. Once a day tap the netting lightly with a stick and the feathers that are sufficiently dry will fall through to the floor. White feathers bring a better price on the market than colored and duck and geese feathers better than chicken feather. I T has been a matter of some speculation, and frequently a subject of inquiry, a to the origin of the American flag whence came the Idea of the stars and stripes. By examining the Illus trious pedigree of the Wash ington family, It will be per ceived at once that George Washington' coat-of-arms furnishes the Idea and ground work for the present flag of our country, which his generalship en titled her to wear, and rendered in dependent of the flag of St George. The pedigree of General Washing ton carries back descent to William Hertburn, lord of the manor of Wash ington, In the county of Durham, England. From him descended John Wanh ugton of Whitfield, in the time of llcbard IK., and ninth In descent rom said John was George, the first resident of the United States. The mother of John Washington, who em igrated to Virginia in 1657, and who was great grandmotlter to the general, was Eleanor Hastings, granddaughter to Francis, second earl of Huntington. She was the descendant through Lady Huntington, of George, duke of Clarence, brother of Klag Edward IV. and King Richard III. by Isabel Neville, daughter and heiress of Rich ard, earl of Warwick. Washington, therefore, as well as the descendants of that marriage, are entitled to quarter the arms of Hast ings; Tone, earl of Salisbury; Plantag enet; Mortimer, earl of March; Neville, Montague, Beauchamp and Deverrux. The pedigree, which 1 full and ac curate In regard to dates, gives as It were an epitome of the family. In the old original It is surrounded by a bor der, ornamented by the shield of arm impaled and Implanted by the differ ent ancestors In right of their wive. as well a some of the quartering borne by their descendants. The coat of-arm of the first John Washington was composed of three stars and stripes. As to colors, they are the mien or Impaling of the Plantagenet with the house of Lancaster, George Washington wa entitled, by virtue of traditionary custom not la in this country to use his cognizance nnnn a fluff in the army which he mmTnnnrip.fi: and thus the first na tional flag ever made and used In Ameiica was composed of three stars nnH three strroes. which those who were versed in heraldry would at once recognise as the proper colors of the general-ln-chlef of the revolution nxv army the flag of Washington Since then an Increase of the orig inal number has somewhat obscured its parentage, and many are not aware CHICKEN RUN QUITE CURIOUS Los Angeles Dealer In Feed and Grain Utilize Waste From 8torag In Unusual Manner. An Ingenious Los Angeles dealer tn bay, teed and grain Is utilizing the waste from his storage shed in the nnusual manner shown by the illus tration, say the Popular Mechanic. The space under the floor ha been converted Into a chicken run, and the loose grain, feed and chaff fall or Is wept through the crack. This waste all of whlcb would otherwise be of no use, I sufficient to feed a large num ber of chicken. A small lnclosure A Curious Chicken Run. la also provided outside of the sheds bo that the chickens can range In the open. The dealer derives an Income of $10 a month from the sale of eggs. Medium-Sized Turkey Best Forty-pound turkeys are all right for the showroom, but for market that this Originated, from the leglti- there i. little demand The medium- mute armorial bearing of the father aizea tuKeys. , weigning wwra.nu of his country, the flag which baa cost so many lives to maintain. eighteen pounds, family trade. sell better to the