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THE PIOCHE RECORD
tTI1RDY. DECEMBER 28. 1912 3? OFFICIAL PARCEL POST MAP. This map li for use only In unit Na.i 1071, In which the city of Washington located. Numbered squares represent unit of area; circlet indicate boundaries of zones. FUG RATES UNDER PARCEL iT Government Goes Into Business of Transmitting Merchandise Through the Mails. INEW LAW FULLY EXPLAINED Country Divided Into Zones and Units for Purpose of Fixing Charges for Carriage No Package Weigh ing Mora Than Eleven Pounds Is Mailable Anything Properly Wrap ped Which Will Not Injure Other Mall May Be Sent. , By EDWARD B. CLARK. ' With the coming of the New Year the United States government will en ter Into a new field of enterprise the transmittal of merchandise by what Is known as the parcel post. For years there has been a demand (or such a system of Inexpensive transmittal of packages. The camps of favor and disfavor of the parcel post scheme have been about equally divided. Finally at the last session of congress a bill was passed which will put the plan Into operation, but only It must be said In little more than an experimental way. It Is the Intention of Uncle Sam to move rather slowly In the parcel post matter. He wantB to find how popu lar It will be. how much It will cost the government, and whether there Is to be a profit or loss at the ond of each year. If It la found that the Clan Is successful from the point of lew of the people, which means the government also, the parcel post will be extended until finally It reaches the proportions which Its proponents ay they believe It is destined to as sume. j Zone System Explained. I It is no exaggeration to say that thousands upon thousands of inquir ies have been mado of the postmaster general as to just what the parcel post will mean to the people. It was the law of enrsress establishing the eystem which made provision for a division of the country into zones and Into 35,000 units which are to be used as centers in describing the cir cles which mark the boundaries of the zones. There has beon no clear understanding, apparently, of ils sone system, but really It is a very simple matter. 1 The accompnnylng map shows the country divided into zones from the unit in which Washington Is sit uated, as the center. Accompanying the map Is a table showing the rato of postage per pound for parcels from Washington to places within all the cones. Each unit contains an area thirty miles squaro. Now each unit Is a center from which the zones are drawn and so every unit In the coun try no matter where It Is situated will have zones drawn from It just exactly as Washington has them drawn from It. For instance, take Keokuk, la., which is in a unit in the fifth zone. Prom that will be drawn circles ex actly as they are drawn from Wash ington and they will be numbered from Keokuk as number one, just as they are numbered from Washington as number one. Of course, however, Zone Six will have a different geo graphical position as related to Keo kuk than It has as related to Wash ington, but as the radius of the circles drawn from Keokuk Is the same length as the radius of the circles drawn from Washington, Keokuk's Eone Six will be Just as far from Its center as Washington's Zone Six is. i How Ratea Are Fixed. I It can be seen from this readily enough that the postal rates from Washington to Its particular zone will tie the same as the poBtal rates from Keokuk to its particular sones. Each unit being about thirty miles square will of course contain in most cases a number of postofllces, but each office In the same unit is considered as be ing the center of the circles from RATES OF POSTAGE Parcels weighing four ounces or less are mailable at the rate of one cent for each ounce or fraction of an ounce, regardless of distance. Parcels weighing more than four ounces are mailable at the pound rate, as shown by the following table, and when mailed at this rate any fraction of a pound is considered a full pound. 1st zone 2d 3d 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th Wt. Local Zone zone zone zone zone zone zone zone Lbs. rate. rate. rate. rate, rate rate rate rate rate 1 ...$0.05 $0.05 $0.06 $0.07 $0.08 $0.09 $0.10 $0.11 $0.12 2... .06 .08 .10 .12 .14 .16 .19 .21 .24 3... .07 .11 .14 .17 .20 .23 .28 .31 .36 4... .08 .14 .18 .22 .26 .30 .37 .41 .48 5... .09 .17 .22 .27 .32 .37 .46 .51 .60 6... .10 .20 .26 .32 .38 .44 .55 .61 .72 7... .11 .23 .30 .37 .44 .51 .64 .71 .84 8... .12 .26 .34 .42 .50 .58 .73 .81 .95 9... .13 .29 .38 .47 .56 .65 .82 .91 1.08 10... .14 .32 .42 .52 .6S .72 .91 1.01 1.20 11... .15 .35 .46 .57 .68 .79 1.00 1.11 1.32 '"For a full explanation of the Zone see the Parcel Post Guide. which the zonos are drawn. The rates of postage are fixed from the unit In which the Bending postofflce 1b situated, but the price to every place In any zone is just the same. To il lustrate, it will cost exactly the same amount to send a parcel from Wash ington to Erie, Pa., that It costs to send It to Atlanta, Ga., because Erie and Atlanta with reference to Wash ington are situated in the fourth zone. The rates therefore are fixed from the unit in which the postofflce is located, but they are the same from that office to any point In any one zone. It will be seen by reference to the table of rateB of postage that it will cost more per pound to send a pack age a long distance than it does to send it- a short distance. The rato in creases for a package weighing one pound at the rate of one cent for each zone. No package weighing more than 11 pounds can be sent un der the new parcel post law. It should be said right here that on the long hauls the parcel post may not be able to compete with the express companies, but that on shorter hauls it can so compete. It was the ex pressed desire of the legislators and of the postofflce officials that the par cel post system should be made of particular use to persons having farm and factory products to transmit to customers. It is probable that pro ducers must study the rates of post age and tho convenience of trans mittal and compare them with the cost and convenience under present methods before individually a man can determine whpther he 1b to profit or not by the change. Then there la an other thing to be considered and which only can be known definitely when fuller regulations have been made to specify exactly what kind of things can be sent by parcel post. It can be said In a general way that any thing can be sent which Is propsrly wrapped and which will' not Injure other mall matter with which It may come In contact. Copy Foreign Countries. It, Is probable that the government will adopt a means of transportation for certain kinds of Its merchandise much like those which have been adonted In parcel post countries abroad. What the EnglUh call ham pers, basket like arrangements, prob ably will be adopted, and aB these can be kept separate from the ordinary mail matter it Is believed that the regulations as finally adopted will al low the sending of eggs, butter, dress, ed poultry, live poultry, honey, fruit, and other products of the country. The 11-pound limit for a single pack age may work at first against any very extonded use of the parcel post for some of the articles which have been named. Of course, more weight can be sent It It Is sent In different Darcels. but the cost In that case would be heavier because the In crease per pound on a single package Is not great up to 11 pounds, and probably it would Increase at no great er rate If the 'government were to raise the limit of weight which Is now fixed. To make it simpler, it will cost more to send two packages of 11 pounds than It would to send one package of 22 pounds If the govern ment eventually should allow a heavi rates of postage In the First er Blngle package to be carried and should charge In proportion Just what it does now for one 'package of 11 pounds weight. Every postmaster In the United StateB will have a parcel post map like the one which Is here reproduced except that the zone lines will be shown with the unit of his postofflce aB a center. All that a postmaster will have to do when a parcel la pre sented for transportation is to find out In what zone the destination of the package lies. His table will show him Instantly the rate per pound from the unit In which bia postofflce lies to the zone of the package's destina tions, the price as has been explained before, to every postofflce In any one zone being the same. The parcel post will take nothing but fourth-class mat ter. Printed matter is still In the third-class designation. Therefore books cannot be sent by the parcel post system. This the postofflce au thorities seem to think is In a way unjust and may work a hardship. It may bo that In the future the law will be changed so as to Include ull print ed matter. It seems to be certain that en attempt will be made to bring about this change as speedily as pos sible Must Bear Siamp. Postmaster Genoral Hitchcock has ordered that postmnstcrs be advised that parcel post packages cannot bo accepted for mailing unless they bear a distinctive parcel post stamp and have attached to them the return card of the sender. A series of distinctive stamps Is now in course of prepara tion for this class of mall as required by the law creating tho parcel post Eystem. Consignments of these stamps will be ready for shipment to nil poBtofflces In ample time for the establishment of the new system on New Year's day. The postofflce "department has given Instruction to every postmaster in the country to enlighten his patrons as much as possible on the general sub ject of the parcel post and especially on the use of the special stamps end the necessary attachment of the re turn card. The law requires that all fourth-class matter mailed B ier Jan uary 1, 1913, without parcel post stamps attached shall be treated as "Held for postage" matter. Parcel post packages will be mailable only at postofflces, branch postofflces, let tered and local named stations, end such numbered stations as may be designated by the postmasters. It has been announced by Postmas ter General Hitchcock that nearly 70, 000 scales will be required for use In the parrel post system which Is to go Into effect January 1st. He has ac cordingly authorized the Issuance of bids for that number. Two hundred of the largest postofflces and their branches will be supplied with auto mane gpnngiens scales. i ne nexi class of offices, numbering about 10, 000, will be given high grade beam scale, while the four class offices, numbering about 65.000, will be fur nished with the best spring balances obtainable, each having a capacity for twenty pounds. These scales will be used by postmasters to determine the amount of postage required on pascel post packages. The fact that many ot the postofflces of the country are now furnished with scales of a limited capacity makes it necessary for the postmaster' general to make this very large purchase of Bcales capable of taking care of the parcel post busi ness. It Is understood that this will be the largest single order ever placed for scales. Rate on 8eeds Not Affected. It should be said that the act of congress which puts a parcel post plan Into operation does not In any way affect the postage rate on seeds, cut tings, bulbs, roots, scions and plants as fixed by section 82 of the postal laws and regulations. The classification of articles mall- able as well as the weight limit, the rates of postage, zone or zones and other conditions of mallabllity under the act of congress, if the postmaster general shall find on experience "that they or any of them are such as to prevent the shipment of articles de sirable, or shall permanently render the cost of the service greater than the receipts of the revenue therefrom, he Is hereby authorized, subject to the consent of the Interstate commerce commission after Investigation, to re form from time to time such classlfl cation, weight limit, rates, zone or zones or conditions, in order to pro mote the service to the public or to Insure the receipt of revenue from such service adequate to pay the coBt thereof." Through many years different mem- bers of the house and senate have been Interested In promoting parcel post legislation. Among the men most active In securing the legislation which soon Is to go Into effect as law are Senator Jonathan Bourne of Oregon, Representatives David J. Lewis of Maryland and William Sul zer of New York, who has Just been elected governor of that state. To ascertain conditions surrounding the establishment of the parcel post system In places differing widely In size, climate and Industries, Postmas ter General Hitchcock recently sum moned to Washington, to confer with the special parcel post committee, the postmasters of five typical offices. They are William H. Davis, Pittsburg. Pa.; Daniel T. Gerow, Jacksonville, Fla.; M. H. Joster. Wilmington, Del E. M. C. Quimhy, Suffolk, Va., and Henry N. Bradley, Charlestown, W, Va. Confer With Postmasters, Tho postmasters of the five largest offices in the country have already appeared before the committee, so Pittsburg was represented as being a large first class office, thoush smaller than any of the greater five, and as being the center of a tremendous man ufacturing area. The postmaster of Pittsburg reported that the board of trade of that city has a special parcel post committee, working toward bringing the consumer and producer nearer to each other by the new sys tem. He also said that many of the merchants are planning to hnve their city deliveries made by parcel post. Wilmington, Del., represented - a large farming and manufacturing dis trict, with Its mail connections close with Philadelphia, one of the largest offices. Jacksonville Is the largest of fice in Florida, and the outlet for all the mail of the state. It is peculiar In having a special increase of force In winter, the tourist season, and the postmaster said that It was expected that travelers -would use the parcel post extensively la sending home five and ten-pound packages of fruit. Suffolk. Va., and Charlestown. W. Va., are both very small second class offices, one In the tide-water district, with large truck Interests; the other far Inlnnd In an orchard country, with diversified farm products. The post- masters of both offices reported great interest in the parcel post, and said that they had continual inquiries re garding Its scope. From these postmasters the com mittee was able to glean a great amount of valuable Information, which, added to that gained from the recent hearings In Maryland, puts It - , i a position to plan the details of the i service to the sreatest advantage of the producing farmer. Give Him Tim. "You're a pretty old man to be beg gln'," said the lady to the man at the back door. "Yes, ma'am'Veplted the man with his hat ln his hand. "Have you been begging all your life?" - "Not ylt, ma'am," APPROVES RULES FOR PARCEL POST Postmaster General Issues Reg ulations Governing System. WHAT MAY BE SENT BY MAIL Gives American People Opportunity to Send Farm and Factory Products by Mall From and to Any Point In United States. Postmaster General Hitchcock has Just approved the regulations which cover in detail the articles which may or may not be sent by parcel post These regulations are now being turned off at the government printing office on a "rush order" and they will be distributed as rapidly as possible. The rules as to what can be sent and what cannot be sent and the In structions for the preparation of mail able articles with other "official ad vice" are given here as they have Just been prepared by the postofflce de partment in Washington. The minimum rate will be five cents for the first pound and three cents for each additional pound to any point not exceeding fifty miles from the office of mailing; the local rate, which is five cents for the first pound and one cent for additional pound, applies to all parcels the delivery of which does not involve their transportation on rail way lines. The rates increase for each successive one of the eight zones, the maximum rate being twelve cents a pound, which will carry a parcel across the continent or to any of our possessions. Parcels will be limited to eleven pounds In weight and six feet in length and girth combined. Mailable Perishable Articles. Butter, lard and perishable articles such as fish, fresh meats, dressed fowls, vegetables, fruits, berries and articles of a similar nature that decay quickly, when so packed or wrapped as to prevent damage to other mall matter, will be accepted for local de livery either at the office of mailing or on any rural route starting therefrom When inclosed in an Inner cover and a strong outer cover of wood, met al, heavy corrugated pasteboard or other suitable material and wrapped so that nothing can escape from the package, they will be ac cepted for mailing to any offices with in the first zone or within a radius of 60 miles. Butter, lard, or any greasy or oily substance Intended for deliv ery at offices beyond the first zone must be suitably packed. Vegetables and fruit that do not decay quickly will be accepted for mailing to any zone If packed so as to prevent dam age to other mail matter. Eggs will be accepted for local delivery when se curely packed in a basket or other container. Eggs will be accepted for mailing regardless of distance when each egg Is wrapped separately and packed In a container. There Is no restriction on salted, dried, smoked or cured mats and other meat products, but fresh meat In any form Will be transported only within the first zone. Parcels containing perishable arti cles must be marked "PERISHABLE," and articles likely to spoil within the time reasonably required for trans portation and delivery will not be ac cepted for mailing. Manufactured Articles, Manufacturers or dealers intending to transmit articles in considerable quantities are asked to submit to the postmaster for approval a specimen parcel showing the manner of pack ing. When Bharp pointed Instruments are offered for mailing, the points' must be capped, or encased. Blades must be bound so that they will remain at tached to each other or within their handles or sockets. In' Powders, pepper, snuff, or other similar powders not explosive, or any similar pulverized dry substance, not poisonous, may be sent when Inclosed in cases made of metal, wood or other material to render impossible the es cape of any of the contents. Flour of all kinds must be put up in Buch manner as to prevent the package breaking or the flour being scattered In the mails. Queen Bees and Nursery Stor. Queen bees, live isects, and dried reptiles may be mailed In accordance with the regulations that now jpply to other classes of mall Seeds of fruit, nursery stock, and ail other plant products for preparation may be mailed under the same con ditions. Confectionery and Soap Candies, confectionery, yeast cakes, ap in hard cakes, etc.. must be in- soap in hard cakes, etc., must be in closed ln boxes and so wrapped as to prevent injury to other mall mat ter. Sealed original packages ot propri etary articles, such as soaps, tobacco, pills, tablets, etc., put lp la Ixed quantities by the manufacturer, and not in themselves unmallable, will be accepted for mailing when properly wrapped. Millinery. Fragile articles, such as millinery, toys, muBlcal Instruments, etc, and ar ticles consisting wholly or in part of glass, or contained in glass, must be securely packed and the parcel stamp ed or la nelea FRAGILE! -Unmallable Matter. The following matter is declared un mallable by law Matter manifestly obscene, lewd, lascivious; articles Intended tor pre- Tenting conception; article intended for indecent or Immoral purposes; all matter otherwise mailable by law, the outside cover or wrapper of which bears and delineation or language of a libelous, scurrilous, defamatory, or threatening character. All such mat ter, when deposited in a post office or found in the mails, shall be withdrawn and sent to the divisions of dead let ters. , . Intoxicants, Poisons and Inflammable Materials. Spirituous, vinous, malted, ferment. ed, or other Intoxicating liquors of any kind; poisons of every kind, and arti cles and compositions containing poi son, ponsonous animals, insects and reptiles; explosives of every kind; in flammable materials (which are held to include matches, kerosene oil, gaso line, naphtha, benzine, turpentine, de natured alcohol, etc.), infernal- ma chines, and mechanical, chemical or ' other devices or compositions which may Ignite of explode; disease germs or scabs, and other natural or artifi cial articles, compositions or mate rials of whatever kind which may kill, or in any wise Injure another or damage the mall or other property. Pistols, Animals and Birds. Pistols or revolvers, whether in de tached parts or otherwise; live or dead (andnot stuffed) animals, birds, or poultry, except as elsewhere pro- . vtded; raw hides or pelts, guano, or any article having a bad odor will not be admitted to the mails. Treatment of Undellverabls Parcels. Perishable matter will be delivered as promptly as possible, but If such matter can not be delivered and be comes offensive and - injurious to health, postmasters may destroy it, or the injurious or offensive portions thereof. Undeliverable perishable matter which in its nature does not become offensive or injurious to health may be delivered by postmasters to the proper local municipal authority to be distributed to hospitals, asylums or other charitable or reformatory insti tutions. If there is no such municipal authority, the matter may be deliver ed to any charitable Institution or or ganization making application there for. If no application Is made, the matter will be destroyed at the ex piration of two weeks. Parcels Improperly Packed. Postmasters will refuse to receive for maljlng parcels not properly in dorsed or packed for safe shipment When parcels on which the postage is wholly unpaid or insufficiently pre paid Is deposited for local delivery and the sender is unknown, notice of detention need not be sent but such matter will be delivered and the defi cient postage collected from the ad dressee by the carrier. If the ad dressee refuses to pay the postage the matter will be sent to the Di vision of Dead Letters. Insurance on Parcels. A mailable parcel on which the postage Is fully prepaid may be in sured against loss In an amount equiv alent to Its actual value, but not to exceed $50, on payment of a fee of ten cents in parcel post stamps, such stamps to be affixed. When a parcel Is Insured, the sen der will be given a receipt showing the office and date of mailing and number of the parcel. When a return receipt is desired by the sender of an insured parcel the postmaster at the mailing office will note the request on the margin of the insurance tag, and the postmaster at the office of address will obtain from the addressee a receipt and mall It to the sender. The liability for Indemnity shall cease when delivery has been effect ed. Forwarding of Parcels. Parcels may be remailed or for warded on the payment of additional postage at the rate which would be chargeable If they were originally mailed at the forwarding office, In which case the necessary stamps will be affixed by the forwarding postmas ter. Payment must be made every time the parcel is forwarded. Preparation for Mailing. Parcels must be prepared for mail ing in such manner that the contents can be easily examined. A parcel will not be accepted for mailing unless it bears the name and address of the sender preceded by the word "From." In addition to the name and address of the Bender, which is required, it will be permissible to write or print on the covering of a parcel, or on a tag or label attached to It, the occu pation of the sender, and to indicate in a small space by means of marks, letters, numbers, names or other brief description, the character of the par cel, but ample space must be left on the address side for the full address in legible characters and for the ne cessary postage stamps. Inscriptions such as "Merry Christmas," "Please do not open until Christmas," "Happy New Year," "With best wishes," and ths Uke- mr be Placed on tno COTeI lng ot the Darcel ln uch n,anner M not to Interfere with the address. Distinctive Stamps. The law requires that the postage on all matter must be prepaid by distinctive parcel post stamps affixed. Postmasters cannot receive for mail ing parcels that do not bear suck stamps. Parcel post stamps are not valid for the payment of postage on matter of the first, second, and third classes, and when used tor that purpose, the matter to which they are affixed shall be treated as "Held tor postage." Maps and Guides. Parcel post maps, with accompany ing guides, are to be sold to the pub lic at their cost. 76 gents, through the chief clerk of the fcost office depart ment In ordering mane care or should be taken to pnerlfr the noat office from which the postage rates) are to be determined.