rriday. October 10. 1919.
f. r -
STOCK MAINTENANCE RATION
Silage, Corn Stover, Straw and Un
marketable Hay Should Be Given
Cattle to Be Grazed.
(Fiepared by the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture.)
The greatest obstacle In developing
the grazing Industry in many eastern
htid central sections is the cost of
wintering the stock. It is impossible
to buy young cattle or sheep in the
taring in sufficient quantities and at
u price to yield a satisfactory profit
from the summer grazing.
One of two plans must be followed.
A breeding herd may be kppt to pro
duce the stock, as is practiced on the
ranges of the West, or young stock
nmy be purchased In the fall the plan
followed by the grazers In the blue-
grtws region of the Virginias and Ken
tut fey. Either method necessitates the
wintering of animals.
jtignt nere snouia ne aui flown a
hard-and-fast rule. Cattle which are
to be grazed the following summer
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WiOC MftT (LOSt
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Cattle Feeding on Pasture.
should be carried through the winter
on a strictly maintenance ration. Si
lage, corn stover, straw, and unmar
ketable hay should form its basis.
The silo is almost indispensable for
economical feeding of such stock. No
raln should be fed if it can be avoid
ed. It has been the experience of graz
ers in the bluegrass region that steers
which have lost 50 pounds in weight
during the winter finish the grazing
period weighing the same as those
which made a gain of that amount
KEEP LARGER SHEEP FLOCKS
High Prleee of Wool and Mutton In
duct Western Growers to Increase
Number of Animal.
(Prepared by the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture.)
As a result of high prices of wool
and mutton and the value of sheep as
weed and waste utilizers, western Irri
gation farmers are keeping more and
larger flocks. As a rule these farm
flocks are of good breeding, many con
sisting of purebred animals, their own
ers making a specialty of selling pure
bred ram lambs to range-country stock
men, who do not reserve oreeaing
stock from year to year. Several
projects are now operating wool pools,
the main function of which Is to con
centrate the wool in large quantities
and develop keener competition among
buyers. Combination also favors grad
ing and better classifying of wool and
allows a small producer to realize
greater profits from his sheep-farming
ori.l "Johnny Appleseed find his way
to thousands of our schools this fall he
would see something that would well re
pay liiin for all the weary miles be
walked planting apple seeds yjrnrs ago.
In many states Arbor day comes this
fall, but the school children of the coun
try promise to make ulmost every day Arbor day
this year and duriug the spring of WJO. Hundreds
of towns and cities have been entered on the na
tional honor roll being compiled by the American
Forestry association at Washington. The associa
tion hopes to see every young American citizen be
come n "Johnny Appleseed, Jr."
You remeinher the story of Johnny Appleseed,
as they called him. who, many years iigo, went up
nnd down tin laud planting apple-tree seeds? That
was not his real name, hut that is what he came to
be called. Of course a lot of people laughed at
him, for there were so many trees then. Many
thought him enized. Hut now his idea is taken to
be n good one. For many things have happened
since the day of Johnny Appleseed. The world
war has set our people thinking about many
things. One of these things has been the way
lumber is being consumed. Then. too. there is the
high cost of living that agitates everyone. In many
places the planting of nut and fruit trees is advo
cated, and a campaign is on to have every victory
gardener plant n nut or fruit tree in bis garden or
back yard. Another tine opportunity for planting
is memorial trees along the motor highways and
good roads that are in the process of building.
To these calls of the American Forestry associa
tion the people of the country nre responding in
hearty fashion. So to the school children of the
country comes a great chance to enter actively Into
the study of outdoor life through the planting of
trees. The American Forestry association will
send any one a free planting day program and in-
structions how to plant a tree.
Coming Arbor days are: Georgia, first Friday In
December; Hawaii, first Friday in November ; Colo
rado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Illinois. Iowa,
Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, -Nevada,
New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Da
kota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Vermont,
Virginia, Wisconsin, Washington and Wyoming all
have days set aside by proclamation of the gov
ernor; North Carolina. Friday after November 1;
Porto Rico, last Friday In November ; Soath Caro
lina, third Friday in November; Tennessee, No
vember date set by county school superintendents.
With this day before us, Charles Lathrop Pack,
president of the American Forestry association,
sends this message to the school children of the
"No finer memorial can be erected by any school
or ciass than by the planting of a tree. Every
pupil will have a close and Intimate interest in
that tree and therefore the school after he leaves.
1 need not attempt to picture what that tree or
avenue of trees will mean to the ehtss of 1920 when
It comes back to the old school for the class re
union In 1940. A space on the campus or a walk
near the town can be lined with trees, one for
ench member of the class. The American Forestry
association Is registering all memorial trees In a
national honor roll and urges that all tree planting
be reported that It may keep Its rolls complete."
What Is Best to Plant
Last spring and full hundreds of trees were
planted, but much bigger plans have been made
111 a "I" "!' I" 11 I I TJ 'JlhtTJ
mi GEU,vcTZ?h'f syj?3rY rrfsranAL flam una tyvjjj,
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SUM'S, ESI lnffAiBJm I aill Vt X t
VV MJVO?ML AATy? ATL YYCtffilMG VA '
His Greatect Achievement
"Ili'foft you give your answer to
this tlotorox boy," said the careful
mother, "you must tell me what lie 1ms
achieved in the world."
"Well, mamma," said the dutiful
daughter, "among other things be has
achieved a father wbo hu u million
dollura, mid M
"Illess you. my children, murmured
mother. "I've always wanted you to
marry an industrious man."
Light Thrown on Proper Combinations
for Different Purposes Big
Aid to Grower.
The calculation of rations with the
aid of feeding standards and tables
will prove both Interesting and profit
able, for it will throw much light on
the proper combinations of food for
different purposes. At the same time
it promotes a spirit of Inquiry and
close observation on the part of the
farmer, which is one of the first re
quisites of a successful feeder.
for tree planting this year and next. If you are
.-r.A..A r u rrcno "ot Planting fruit or nut trees you will want to
CALCULATIONS OF HUG rttUO Mu,iy wnat best to plant and here is a list of such
trees divided for you by states :
New England states, New York, Pennsylvania,
New Jersey, Ohio. West Virginia, Kentucky, Indl
ana, Michigan, Illinois, Missouri and Iowa : Hard
wood Sugar maple, Norway maple, scarlet maple,
green ash, white ash, American white elm, red oak,
white oak, pin oak, American linden, scarlet oak.
Evergreen White spruce, Colorado blue spruce,
white piue, Scotch pine, bulsam pine, hemlock,
Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia, Vir
ginia. North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia,
Tennessee, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisi
ana, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas: Hardwood
Tulip, sycamore, plu ouk, white oak, scarlet oak,
black oak, red oak. white ash, bald cypress, Nor
way maple, scarlet maple, red elm, American white
elm, Kentucky coffee tree, American linden, red
guin, black gum. hackberry, willow. Evergreen
White pine, longleaf pine, magnolia, live oak, cedar
of Lebanon. American holly.
Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Da
kota. Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado. Wyoming, Mon
tana and Idaho: Hardwood Bur oak, linden, Nor
way maple, green ash, wild cherry, larch, American
elm. black walnut, hackberry. honey locust, black
locust (less desirable, cottonwood, box elder). Ever
greenScotch pine, Austrian pine, white pine. Nor
way spruce, Colorado blue spruce, white spruce,
red cedar, arbor vltae.
New Mexico, Arizona, Utnh and Nevada: Hard
wood Huckberry, honey locust, green ash. Ameri
can elm, black locust, bur oak, valley cottonwood,
mountain cottonwood, mountain ash, box elder.
Arbor vltae, deodar ceaar, dox, eu-
UVE STOCK NOTES
Lambs feeding in corn should never
be short on roughage.
Salt placed where the sheep may
save It when they want It Is essen
tial. e e '
For wintering cows or stock steers,
tover silage seems to be of decided
Stock bogs can be kept thrifty
largely en pastures; however,' they
will grow slowly without some grain.
w it is necessary to have the
lusre do harvest work the colt should
to leaned, even If he la not more than
Utfee months old
California, Oregon and Washington (coast re
Hon) ; Hardwood Large-leaved maple. European
linden, sveamore. weeping willow. Evergreen
Deodar cedar. Monterey cypress. Monterey pine.
California, Oregon and Washington (Columbia
Would It Were True!
"Ah," said the fucetious culler, ao
be found Scrlbson busily pounding his
typewriter. "Turning out a little up
"Yes," replied Scrlbson. wearily.
"I'm Just dashing off a note to my Im
portunate grocer telling him that I ex
pect to sell a story to the Friday Eve
ning Post in a few days."
The Lover Promise me, darling,
ijint you will never let anyone come
Darling's Futher (In the back
ground) From what 1 can see of you
I don't know, how anyone can 1
Elevator Man's Jest
"The elevator man hus asked
"Yes. He says he quits going up
qnless his salary goes up to."
busin) : Hardwood Norway maple, European lin
den, sycamore, green ash, silver poplar, Russian
poplar, white willow. Evergreen Lawson cypress,
On the planting of a tree you will want to pro
ceed with the greatest care. For the best results,
organize a tree-planting program in your town. If
there Is no shade-tree commission or city forester,
interest yourself in the proposition. In selecting
trees for street planting the ! following qualities
should be considered In about the order named:
Form, hardiness or adaptability, rapidity of growth,
shade protection, neatness and beauty. , If there is
any doubt on the questiou it is advisable to con
sult the state forest commission, the local forester
or some other authority who can tell what va
rieties are best for a given locality.
No general rules, of course, can be given, but in
a larger part of the eastern United States it will
be found that for narrow streets the red maple,
red gum or ginkgo can be recommended ; for wider
streets, Norway maple, basswood, horse chestnut
or pin oak; and for wide avenues, white elm,
white oak, red oak and tulip poplar.
Qualities Needed in Street Trees.
Street trees should have hurdiness and adapta
bility. They, should be vigorous, be able to re
cover from mechanical Injuries and be as re
sistant as possible against insect attack and dis
ease. It Is not desirable to have trees which cast
too much shnde, particularly on narrow streets.
Houses and sidewalks need sun, even In summer.
Deciduous, broadleaved trees are most satisfac
tory. Again, the questiou Of neutness should be
be considered; and the tiees which will break up
the pavement, such us silver nuiples, or those
which cover the pavement with then bloom in fhe
spring, such as cottonwoods nnd poplars, should
ne avoided. Black locust should not be planted
because it Is likely to be destroyed by the borei
worm. Beech Is a slow grower and casts too
dense a shade for any street.
Trees planted along a street should be of the
same kind, the sume size and uniformly spaced.
On narrow streets trees planted every 40 feet
. apart, and alternated on opposite shies of the
street, will be found sufficiently close. On wider
streets they should be from 40 to 60 feet, or even
farther apart, the distance being determined partly
by the size which the tree Is likely to attain and
by other habits.
Every tree should have at least six square feet
of earth above its roots. It Is more Important thut
there be plenty of space where the-pavement ami
roadway are paved with concrete than If brick or
other loose-Jointed materials are used.
Keep the Roots Moist
In planting a tree, move as many of the roots as
possible. A cloudy day Is better for transplanting
a tree than a bright, sunny one. because a bright
sun quickly exhausts the stored-up moisture. An
important point is In regard to packing the eurth
around the roots. They should have close contact
with the ground. To do this, fill In around the
roots with finely pulverized earth, working it
under and around the roots by hand and compact
ing It. If the earth Is wettd down as it Is put In. It
will make a much better contact.
Many trees which are unsulted for one reason or
another for s sidewalk are most attractive and
ornamental in a park or on a lawn. The beech, for
instance, which has no value for street planting.
makes a beautiful lawn tree; either the native or
the European species may be planted. The sour
or black gum grows under most adverse clrcum
stances, but apparently is not well suited toi
street planting, although as an oramental tree It
deserves a place.
Purchase trees from a reliable nursery ; beware
of tree peddlers. Choose healthy, well-formed
trees. Trees two or three Inches In diameter and
ten or twelve feet high are large enough for any
purpose. Where smuller trees can be used they
generally give better results, because the root
Hvstein is less disturbed bv transplanting. Do
not expose the roots to the sun, wind or frost.
Keep wet blankets or canvas wrapped tightly
about the roots until the tree Is ready to be set
out ; then plant with the least possible delay.
. Trim off any broken, torn or Injured roots. Use
a sharp pruning knife and make a clean, smooth
cut- Remove all broken branches and cut back
one-half to four-fifths of- the previous year's
branch growth. The size of the top must be pro
portioned to the size of the root system or the
roots will be unable to supply sufficient water and
food for satisfactory growth. Forest-grown trees
. have poor root systems and , must be severely
pruned by removing the greater part of the side
branches. Never cut back the main stem or leader.
, Dig Wide, Deep Holes.
Dig wide, deep holes. Trees become root-bound
and make poor growth or die if the roots are
cramped or twisted. The holes should be a foot
or two 'Wider and deeper than is needed to ac
commodate' the roots. For street trees, the hole
should be about twice as large as the root system
actually requires. Partly fill the hole with rich
loam and pack it down well. If poor soil must be
used, mix with well-rotted manure. Green or
partly decomposed manure will burn the roots and
must not be used.
Do not plant the tree too deep. The upper
root should He only an Inch or two deeper in the
. soil than they grew originally. Spread out the
roots in their natural position and work soil
around them, a little at a time, compacting it firm
ly with the fingers or a pointed stick. Occasion
ally tamp It with the foot so that no-air spaces
remain. Also see that the stem of the tree Is kept
perfectly vertical. Now water the soil generously.
The final Inch or two of soil should be left fine
and loose over the top of the hole to act as a
After planting, the tree should be staked to
prevent It from swaying In the wind and growing
crooked. The stake should be long enough to
support the trunk for two-thirds the height of the
tree. Trees exposed to traffic, horses and children
should be protected by suitable wooden or metal
guards.. In case any Injury to the young tree re
sults, apply tree surgery methods at once.
Shallow cultivation of the soil for three feet
around the tree is beneficial during the first few
years Of growth. Loosen the top soil with a spade
or hoe several times during the season to keep
down weeds nnd grass. During the hot, dry sum
mer months watering should be done not oftener
than twice a week.
Tree planting should form a permanent part of
the Improvement program in every city and town
In the United States. It should not be undertaken
In a temporary or haphazard manner; but It should
receive the constant thought and attention of those
who are interested in making the community at
tractive and at the same time in adding to the
future timber resources of the United States. It
must be remembered that what is done in one
city or two serves as an Inspiration to others.
Let us keep In mind a thought of future so well
expressed In the poem by Lucy Larcom, who said :
"He who plants a tree,
He plants love.
Tents of coolness spreading out above,
Wayfarers he may not live to see."
So In honoring loved ones let us of the present
look to the future and by memorial tree planting
make this a better country In which to live, which,
after all. is all the memorial those loved ones ask.
Yet what a memorial, if It be accomplished 1
Tedestrian Hey, mister, you're los
Autolst What Is It?
Pedestrian The pleasure of : m
company In your auto. Judge,
"You're always complaining- of
colds and rheumatism. I wouldn't
care so much if you only had some
"I wouldn't care either, hut for
two things. I haven't got the price
and I can't pronounce their names.'
1 cannot we how It will pay
i Qr beep .ma In temper serene
If I work only eight hours a
And worry the other sixteen.
. v Woman's Way.
"Why don't you ask your husband's
"I Intend to, my dear, just as sood
as I've made up my mind what M
Young Jobbles has bought a rakish
roadster. It's spltework, I fear."
"How so?" asked the other.
"The money spent for that car was
Intended for a bungalow. Young Job
bles wants to show the girl In the
case that he has no Intention of pro
posing a second time." ,
Wife Well. dear, since you com
plain of the high charges at the sea
side. I'll go to the mountains this sum
mer. Huh No. no! Even the air yon
breathe would be higher there.
Eating at High Prices.
"1 presume you are putting a little
something by for a rainy duy?"
"No. I'd rather take a chance on
vetting wet tomorrow and have some
thins to eat today."
His Something Near.
"He hasn't changed his occupation
except in degree."
"How so?" .
"He used to he a bnnk-runner, and
now he Is a walking delegate."
Sense of Human Responsibility.
"Didn't Hamlet say something about
being born to set things right?"
"I believe so," said the maD who
doesn't care for poetry. "You meet so
muny people who feel Ihnt way about
public affairs and simply succeed In
making matters worse."
"One of our little pigs was sick, so
I gave hlra some sugar."
"Sugar! What for?" ,
"For medicine. of- coarse. " Ha rent '
tou heard of sugar-cured hums?"
d . ;
. jr .
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