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Friiay. Jam 25. 1520.
TR3 KSCITS RECCED Railway Wreck Eight persons were killed and sixty JNew York express train near Schenectady. The photograph shows the wreckage of the sleeping cars and workm wanning lor we Doaies or victims. Drum-Head Election of the Ancients .1 .III , I II . I II ill I. mil '! w Ml wimUMIIII linillli n M.mMimn nMMcmiM. 4 o ' - I i v - wr 111 - V 0 Scene during the annual drum-head I . iM,' ) - nas been In existence since Colonial days. ' Reims Cathedral iMl Wit " 'i f f5 1 ' ' ", W vJ U - The famous old Reims Cathedrul Is being used for service once more. This picture shows the beautiful old building, battle-scarred and shell-torn, as it appeared early In April when thousands of visitors attended Easter worship within its walls. , White House Wool for Salvation Army it - - . v 7s Bags of wool from i lie White Mouse sheep, which was given to the Sal ration army by President Wilson, to drive for funds la New York. in Yhich Eight Persons Vcre Killed others injured when an American Expret special crashed Into a Buffalo- election of the Ancient and Honorable in Use Once More be made tnto clothes to aid the army's rti r-i S v 1 aWtv.I and Honorables J Artillery of Boston, a society that ITALIAN ACE A VISITOR Colt Colon Picclo, regarded as ItulyV premier ace, Is now visiting the United States. He Is credited with bringing down 40 German and Austrian planes and three dirigibles. : ' SPOTS FORGED CHECK More- than 350 cases of forgery in government pay checks have been nipped In the bud by Louis Albert Hill and bis magnifying glass in tv past- year. HOUSAKDS of anxious sens had gathered In- the streets of Philadelphia where congress was assembled, for It was known that the final vote on the Declaration of Independence would be taken that day. Sine the hour of the as sembly of congress the old bellman of the Liberty Bell In Independence Hall had been In the steeple. He had placed his little grandson at the door to give him the word when the an nouncement should be made. As hour after hour passed by and no announce ment came the old man shook his head and said sadly, "They will never do It" Suddenly a shout came up from be low and there stood the little blue eyed lad clapping hie hands for Joy and shouting, "Ring, grandfather. rlngl" Bo the old grandslre swung the big Iron tongue and the Liberty Bell, clanging 100 times, sent Its brazen notes throughout the land proclaiming that the United Colonies were and of right ought to be free and Independ ent, and there was a tumult of re joicing In the city. This In effect Is the first Fourth of July, as many an American schoolboy has been taught It It reads well and there Is a thrill In It But it has one large fault It Isn't true. As a matter of fact there wasn't any real "Fourth of July Celebration" at all In 1776. There couldn't be, for the reason that the Declaration of Independence was a continuing operation that lasted pretty much the whole summer of that year. Incidentally, Its culmina tlon was July 2, Instead of July Moreover, it was not until 1777 that July 4 was fixed upon as "the day we celebrate." And It was In 1777 In Philadelphia that the first Fourth of July celebration was held. To get the history of the Declara tlon of Independence straight, we must start with the fact that the American Revolution was not begun for the achievement of independence. The American colonists began with the idea of securing the right guaranteed them as Englishmen by Magna Charta, the Bill of Rights, and their own charters. The Idea of separation and Independ ence was an afterthought and an out growth of the hostilities faced by the British at Lexington and Concord, The historic declaration of the citi zens of Mecklenburg county, North Carolina, In May, 177S, was one of the earliest manifestations of the trend of public opinion. In January of 1776, Thomas Paine's pamphlet "Common Sense" appeared and gave the move ment a tremendous Impetus. June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee, under In structions from Virginia, presented to the continental congress fats famous resolution which reads : "Resolved, That these United Colo nies are and of right ought to be, free and Independent states; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain Is and ought to be totally dissolved ; - "That It-is expedient forthwith to take the most effectual measures for forming foreign alliances; "That a plan of confederation be prepared and transmitted- to the res pective colonies for their considers tion and opprobatlon. Here, in fact was the Declaration of Independence in a nutshell. June 8, congress went unto a committee of whole to consider the resolution. For various reasons the delegates were not "Scientific" Legislators For lack of technical knowledge, leg islators are sometimes guilty of pass ing measures that are soon found open to severe criticism and sometimes fall to accomplish the end which was In tended and desired. To overcome this condition an - Australian doctor has come to the fore with a scientific first aid for legislators. He suggests that "royal commissioners of science" be appointed la each house of the Aua - Of tens had gathered In-the R-T" ' J VrViLW I streets of Philadelphia where "-y t - lA?s1 w AMTa. I congress was assembled, for 'jp .F3sr- XAI It was known that the final Sr "ST T t vote on the Declaration of ;g:3jr I A , all ready to vote on It June 10, con gress postponed final consideration for 3 weeks. June 11. congress appointed committee of five to draw up the Declaration of Independence. Lee wrJId naturally have been made chair man, but he had been called home by the illness of hie wife. Thomas Jeffer son of Virginia was made chairman and his colleagues were John Adams of Massachusetts, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Roger Sherman of Connecticut and Robert L. Livingston of New York. The committee in structed Jefferson to write out a draft of the Declaration. Jefferson did so. The committee made some changes and Jefferson then made a clean copy. Congress reassembled July 1, and the Lee resolution was passed July 2. How this action was then regarded Is shown by John Adams' letter to his wife. In which he said : "The second day of July, 1776, will be the most memorable epoch In the history of America. I am apt to be lieve that It will be celebrated by suc ceeding generation as the great anni versary festival. It ought to be com memorated as the day of dellverence by solemn acts of devotion to God Almighty. It ought to be solemnized with pomp and parade, with shows. games, sports, bells, bonfires, and Il lumination from one end of this con tinent to the other, from this time forward forevermore." Jefferson then presented the report of the Declaration committee, the docu ment now known as the Declaration of Independence. It was adopted the afternoon of July 4. John Hancock, as president of the congress, affixed bis signature. Charles Thompson countersigned as secretary. It was then printed and sent off to the sev eral colonies. July 15, the clerk was Instructed to prepare the document for signatures. Properly engrossed, It was signed by all who were present 50 members. Others signed In Septem ber and one member, Colonel McKean, did not sign until 1781. Seven mem bers, for one reason or another, never did sign It Pennsylvania, being the first colony to receive Its Declaration of Inde pendence, was the first formally to make public the action of congress. July 8, a general election day In Penn sylvania, was chosen as the time. A crowd of about 1,000 gathered near the platform erected by the Philosoph ical society seven' years before from which Rlttenhouse observed the transit of Venus. Mounted upon this, Colonel John Nixon read the docu ment In his btg voice and winsome Deborah Logan, leaning over the wall of the Norrts homestead, which was upon the present site of the customs house, heard him quite plainly. Both she and Charles Biddle, writing of the scene in their diaries, make the com ment that "few respectable persons were present" This was not remark able, for Philadelphia's wealthy class of that day was outright Tory in Its sympathy and John Dickinson, Ed ward Biddle, Thomas Willing and the others expressed Its sentiments ac curately when they voted against the Lee resolution. After the reading the crowd gave three huzzas and took down the king's arms from the state house. .The bell trallan parliament, who should have the right to be heard at the bar Of the house on any matter In which science plays a part They would; defote their whole time to this work and be paid such salaries as would attract men of the highest talents. Roman Way With Peace Negotiators. In the brave days of the early Ro man republic the consuls -might in- deed negotiate and sign treaties of peace on their own responsibility. But In the tower boomed ' Its message. Christ church bell keeping It company and the funny old guns of the Associa tion battery down at Old Swedes church, roared out their salute. The Philadelphia Fourth of July celebration of 1777 waa a public dem onstration, planned In advance. ' For tunately we have a short contemporary account of what took place. To Pennsylvania Gasetta, published ly by John Dunlap. 4ells In Its of July 0, 1777, of this first of a loaf line of Independence) day celeb raooaa. Here la the full account: "Friday, the fourth Instant being the anniversary of the independence of America, was celebrated in tola city with demonstrations of Joy and festivity. "About noon, all the armed ships and galleys In the river were drawn up before the city, dressed la the gay est manner, with the colors of the United States and streamers displayed. At 1 o'clock the yards being properly manned, they began the celebration of the day by a discharge of thirteen cannon from each of the galleys In honor of -the thirteen United States. "In the afternoon an elegant dinner was prepared for congress, to which were Invited the president and su preme executive council and speaker of the assembly of this state, the gen eral officers and colonels of the army and the members of the several con tinental boards who were in town. 1 "The Hessian band of music taken hi Trenton the twenty-sixth of De cember last attended and heightened the festivity with some fine perform ances suited to the Joyous occasion, while a corps of . British deserters taken into the service of the Conti nent by the State of Georgia, being drawn up before the door, filled up the intervals with feux de Jole. "After dinner a number of toasts were drunk, all breathing independ ence and a genuine love of liberty and commemorating the memories of those brave and worthy patriots who gal lantly exposed their lives and fell glori ously in defense of freedom and the righteous cause of their country. "Each toast was followed by a dis charge of artillery and small arms and a suitable piece of music by the Hessian band. The glorious Fourth of July was reiterated three times, accompanied with triple discharges of cannon and small arms. "Toward evening several troops of horse and corps of artillery and a brigade of North Carolina forces which was in town on Its way to Join the grand army were drawn up in Sec ond street and reviewed by congress and the general officers. ; "The evening was closed with the ringing of bells and at night there waa a grand exhibition of fireworks, which began and concluded with thir teen rockets on the common, and the city was beautifully Illuminated. "Everything was conducted with the greatest order and decorum and the face of Joy and gladness was uni versal.' "Thus may the Fourth of July, that glorious and ever-memorable day, be celebrated through America by the hosts of freedom from age to age till time shall be no more. Amen and amen.",,:. If the senate and people failed to rat ify, the correct practice waa to aur-. render the consuls to the enemy. Thus. according to Cicero (De Officils III, 30) ' Titus Veturiua and 8purlus Pos tumtus were delivered up to the Sam' nltes, with whom they had negotiated an unsatisfactory peace. And on a much later occasion Cains ttmdaua, who had negotiated a peace treaty with the Knmantlnl which the senate, failed to ratUy, waa m LUown moCaa sarreodered to tie Haw t public , ;'--;:,;y;.v ':'XT;U ;?': '