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THE PIOCHE RECORD
Friday, September 3, 1929. otherhoodl x V 1.57' .4 IV 1 ft' i n Us T3 1 L 54 J-!ftl r7r ' j-.. r-...r.f 4.-''s J l2 '2 By ROBERT H. MOULTON. IIB United States depart ment of agriculture Is charged with the work of promoting agriculture In Its broadest sense. Hence the department contains many bureaus. The of fice of fnnn mnnngoment, for lnstan ', has for Us main object the Improve ment of farm practice liy introducing better business methods and by apply ing the principles of science. Then there are the weather bureau, the bureaus of animal Industry and plant Industry, the forest service, the bureaus of soils, entomology, biological survey, crop estimates and so on. Among these are the bureau of chem istry and the bureau of markets. The former is largely concerned with ana lytical work and Investigation under the food and drugs act and questions of agricultural chemistry of public In terest The bureau of markets has a wide scope. Its work la divided Into four branches Investigational, demon strntlnnal, service and regulating. One branch of Its Investigational work la the securing of basic Information of fundamental importance regarding marketing methods and conditions and also regarding the standardization of agricultural products and methods used tn their handling. So many of the activities of the de partment revolve about the grnln that the United Statea produces and eots. The specific activity with which this article Is concerned Is "the milling and baking qualities of grain for which standards have been established under the United States grain standards act." . Scientific milling and baking have received the attention of a corps of In vestigators. An experimental mill and baking laboratory have recently been Installed at a cost of $50,000. They are quite up-to-date and by means of them a large amount of, accurate In formation, hitherto unobtainable, has 1 been secured. The laboratory .8 really a series of laboratories, each equipped for doing : a particular part of the Investigational work. The wheat samples obtained for . testing purposes first pass through the grading laboratory, where a complete mechanical analysis is made of each sample and a detailed record kept of vltg condition, physical characteristics, nurlty and soundness. This feature of the Investigation is not the least lnv portnnt as It Is through the observn Hon In this room that these lnvestlga Hons con be definitely connected with practical grain grading and wheat vnl nation. After this operation is completed the samples pass Into the hands of the miller, who p's them through the cleaning machinery, where they . are handled In practically the same man ner as In the commercial mill cleaning department. The equipment here con sists of two grnln separators and j scourer. Once clenned, tho sample Is ready for tempering. Every type and condition of wheat . grown In the country is met with in the course of tho work of this Inbora- . tory, and owing to the fact that the treatment required for the different samples varies considerably, depend ing upon Its physical character, the udgment of the miller must be assisted by definite Information concerning the sample. In this he lms before him the record obtained In tlf ' fading labo ratory, which Include;Tthe very neces sary data regarding the moisture con tent. As comparatively small quanti ties are used In the milling tests, the addltlou of moisture and the control of all conditions surrounding this process are relatively simple. The milling Is done ou a small non- automatic testing mill consisting of fur single stands of six by six Inch rolls, three corrugated and one smooth. The mill Is so. operated that the flow of a five-break nine-reduction roller mill, such as Is In commercial use. can be closely Imitated. Every effort Is made to standardize the conditions under which the tests are made, In order that the results se cured may be comparable In all cases, One Innovation In this connection, which Is considered of extreme Impor tnnce, Is apparatus for controlling the humidity of the milling room. This has proved to be a very valuable ad' junct, and la a distinctly new feature as applied to work of this character. After a short period In storage the flour produced In the mill goes to the bakery, where Its actual quality Is de termined by Its conversion into breud under standardized conditions. This bakery Is very completel equipped for accurately controlled work. Dough-mlxlng machines, , an electrically heated fermeutatlon cabi net In which the heating Is automat ically controlled, and an electric bak ing oven constitute the main equip ment used by the baker In producing his numerous miniature batches ot bread. Once baked, the expansion of the loaf and the texture, color and fla vor of the bivad are determined and recorded. Other tests of technical nature, such as will show gluten, protein and mois ture content, nre made on the flour, to assist In determining Its commercial value and Interpreting the results ot tho baking tests. Much of this work In done In a well-equipped laboratory ad mining the bnkery. In addition to thin the unsurpassed facilities or me ou- reau of chemistry are also available in the conduct of Investigations that lead Into the field of chemical research. The Immediate direction of the work of the laboratory Is under the chief of the bureau of markets, and the prob lems holding first place at the present time relate primarily to the many fac tors that must be considered in the proper revision and Intelligent appli cation of the federal wheat staudards ; however, the facilities offered by this specialized equipment and corps ot workers nre olso available to other bu reaus of the department. Numerous milling and baking tests are made for the bureau of plant in dustry to assist in their efforts to de velop for the various sections of the country more prolific strains of wheat hnvlug superior milling and baking qualities. mt m imi i,fi 1 2 There shall ris from tfiis confuted sound of voice A firmer faith than that our fathers knew, A Jeep religion which alone rejoices la worship of the Infinitely True, Not built on rite or orient, but a finer And purer reverenc for a Lord diviner. There shall come from out of the noise of strife and groaning A broader and juster brotherhood, A deep equality of aim, pot .'poning AH selfish seeking to the eneral good. There shall come a time when each shall to another Be as Christ would have him brother unto brother. There shall come a time when knowledge wide extended, Seeks each man's pleasure in the general health. And all shall hold irrevocably blended The individual and the commonwealth; When man and woman in an equal union Shall merge, and marriage be a true communion. There shall come a time when brotherhood shows stronger -Than the narrow bounds which now distract the world) When the cannons roar and trumpets blare no longer, And the ironclad rusts, and battle flags are furled i When the bars of creed and speech and race, which sever. Shall be fused in oe humanity forever. Lewis Morris. GATHERED FACTS Labor Organization in America Can Be Traced to Movement in 1803 Some of the caterpillars found In the region of the Darling river in Australia are more than six Inches In length. In only a few cities of western !' berla are there two-story nouses. Rathe In houses are very rare, public baths being used. Great interest in American ready- built bouses has been expressed in both France and England, according to John U. Walker, lumber .trade com missioner, t Hannah Montague, wife of a black smith, made the first defamed linen collar for men In Troy. N. Y., In 1819. Now In one collar factory In that city 200,000 yards of linen Is used daily. An English fire department Is test Ing a. new fire escape by which per sona nre lowered In a basket from a tower raised against a building In stend of being curried down ladders. The shah of Persin possesses per haps the most valuable pipe In the world. It Is the Persian ofllclnl pipe, and Is smoked only on state occa sions. It is set with rubles and din monds. and Is valued at $5W)000. Matches are turned out In huge quantities by machinery. The ma chines now In use cut up great planks of wood Into jnntch splinters nt light nlng speed. The ends of th splints are then passed through n pimit.in bath and receive their bends. . An Argentine physician treats whooping cough by Injections of an xtract brewed from the patient's sputum. In 1700 only 20,000,000 pounds ol tobacco were sold In the United States. Last year the sales reached 914.000, 000 pounds. Time equivalent to R.000,000 days Is said to have been saved to the women of .the United States by the electric washing mnchliics sold last year. Fifty thousand Indians from nil parts of Mexico recently completed their week of homage to their patron snlnt, the Virgin of Guadalupe, and their pllgrlmago to the shrine of the virgin. The Mennonltes derive their name from Meimo Simons, formerly a Oath olic priest, who became a teacher and lender of the Anabaptists about 1537, nnd published his "True Christian Relief" In A dally newspntwr In St. Peters burg, Fin., gives away Its whole edi tion every day the sun doesn't shine, nnd In nine years and six months there have been only fifty-six free Is sues of the paper, 1 I . Frank M. Clark of Hedley. Tex, recently received S.',(I0Q Insurance on th ; life of the lnrgest hog In the world, which died on his Silver Crest- farm. Not Ions ago Sir. Clark refused $S,000 for the cnimnl. - , Organizations among American la borers began In 1803, when the ship carpenters and calkers of New York and Roston organized. The tailors of New York formed a union the same year, and 1803 also witnessed the first Industrial strike In America, when the New York sailors refused to work. Refore that, however, there had been labor disturbances among the bakers ot New York and the boot and shoe makers of Philadelphia. It was dur ing the sailors' strike of 1803, the Massachusetts shipbuilders' strike of 1817, and the Albany printers' strike cf 1820, that the terms "rat," and "scaV' were first used. From local unions, the organization of labor pro gressed until In 1850 the first Inter national labor union, that of the print- i rs. was launched. The first "martyrs to trade union- Ism were thrown Into jail at Tol- puddle, . Dorsetshire, Eng., 77 years ago. They were James and George Lovelace, Thomas Stanfield, James Rryne. The first three men were Wesleyan preachers, who worked as farm laborers on week, days and preached the gospel on Sundays. Their Imprisonment was due to their attempt to form a union of fnnn la borers to protest against a proposed reduction In wages from seven shill ings to six shillings less than $1.50 a week. The landlords were all-powerful In Dorsetshire, and the "con spirators" were arrested, stripped, shorn of their hair and cast into Jail and eventually sentenced to seven venrs' Inprlsonment. 1 The first deinnnd of labor unions for an eight-hour day was made at a convention held In Raltlmore, Au gust 21, 1888. This congress also marked the first attempt to organize a mtinnal federation ot the varloui trade unions, national and Interna tional, then existing tn the United States and Canada. One hundred del egates were present, representing about 60 organizations. The demand for the eight-hour day was but on In cident In the sessions of the congress, fctit at snpceedine cathertngs It as- buml jreat Importance nod became the leading plank of organized la bor's platform. The second convention was held In Chicago In 18G7. The Na tional Labor union, after meetings In Roston, Philadelphia and Columbus, went out of existence in 1874, nui ai an International congress held at Rochester In thi.t year the movement was revived under other names. Sev eral organizations divided the allegi ance of organized labor, but In 1881 the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor t nlons of the United States .mil Piiniiilt was launched, and out of this hns grown the powerful Amer ican Federation of Labor. Labor's First Striving for 'Place in the Sun Was Mainly Political Eurly manifestations of the labor feeling In the United States were po litical. In 1829 a workingmen's ticket was placed In nomination In New York. This political movement spread Into Pennsylvania nnd Massachusetts nnd contributed to the formation of the Loco Foco party which played an Important part In the politics of that period. Political organization hastened organization for trade purposes and in 1833 the General Trades union of the city of New York elected Its presi dent to congress. In 1S32 the New Trophy Is Highly Prized Gold Cup, Chief Award at Ascot Meet- Ing, Man In England. The Gold cup, which rewardB the winner of the chief event nt tt Ascot meeting. Is perhapt the most coveted prize of the tort. It hns hud varied history. In 1807 the first race for the Gold cup was witnessed by George GTi Queen tad "tin three princesses In white Spanish mnntles, nnd the prince of Wuleu glorious In bottle green." Thirty-seven years later the Czar Nicholas I wns so delighted with the rnce for the cup that he begged to bo allowed to substitute a piece of plate, which, appropriately enough, wbs won In the following year by Lord Albe mnrle'i Emperor, so numed In honor of the czar, says the Manchester Guardian. f This "Emperor's Pinto" was a very handsome trophy, being . a reduced copy of the famous statue ef Peter the Great nt Petrograd, ornntnented wltb figures of Russian soldiers and with 'views of Windsor castle, the kremltn and the winter palace. When the Crimean war broke out the' Gold cup regained tho place of honor. Hongkong packs and ships abou' 2,000,000,000 pounds of rice annually. LABOR'S HOLIDAY. In 1834 the Knights of Labor held a parade In New York on the first Monday In September and a resolution adopted made It thereafter Labor dy. Colo rado led In making It a state holiday on, March 15, 1887, and now only two or three statea have not followed, tn Penn sylvania In 1893 the first Satur day was appointed, but on June 23, 1897, Governor Hastings signed the bill falling in line with the "First Monday." England Association of Farmers, Me chanlcs and Worklngmen was organ- ' (zed In Roston. The three most Im portant labor organizations which ap peared before the Civil war were or ganized tn 1845: The New EnglaniS Workingmen's association, the New England Protective nnton and the In dustrial Congress of the United States. All three organizations wanea In the early '50s, and from that time until the end ot the Civil war many trades unions of the narrower kind were formed. During tills period many trade union leaders ' characteK Ized the trade union as exclusive and warmly advocated the formation of broader organizations which would elevate the masses by other means than the strike and the regulation of apprenticeship. In 1S66 their efforts resulted In the formation of the Na tional Labor union, which attempted to found a Labor Reform party and died In 1870 "ot the disease known as politics.' The work laid down by the National Labor union fell Into the hands of tho Knights of Labor, formed In Decem ber, 18G9, by leaders of a dissolved local union of garment cutters In Philadelphia. Until 1882 the name and purpose oi the rrder were kept secret. In 1S8G It became Involved In the Missouri Pacific strike. Its mem bership then numbered 700,000. There after, spilt by Internal dissensions, nnd wenkened by strikes, its member ship and Influence declined. In 1914 It had less than 100,000 members. The American Federation of Labor orig inated In an attempt to found a gen eral organization of American work lngmen distinct from the Knights of Labor on a trade union basis. A pre liminary convention was called by the Knights of Industry and the Amalga mated Labor union the latter com posed largely of seceders rom the Knights of Labor and met In Terre Haute, Ind., August 2, 1881. The first official convention met at Pittsburgh, Pa., In November, 1881. The Ameri can Federation of Labor hns prac tically taken the place of Its former rtval, the Knights of Labor, the organi zation which was all-powerful some twenty-five jrs ago. KING VICTOR HOUSING POOR; Monarch Only Member of Roman Aristocracy to Respond to Appeal o? Official. Rome, Italy. Commandatore Luslg noli. the new head of the housing commission, with a touching belief In ' tho goodness of human nature, cele brated his appointment by sending an apiMal to the aristocracy of Home asking the members to allow any spare rooms In their splendid old palaces to be rented to some of the weary seek ers after house room In the Eternal City. All begnn to make excuses except King Victor. He has already mrfile ten jew apartments for humble families In the large stables near the Qulrlnal palace, whtch his father, Klnj Hum bert, kept full ot horses, but which since the accession of the present monarch have always been more or less empty. At an expense of near $200,000 he plans to construct thirty nine more apartments. Italian Aristocrats In Denim. Rome. A large number of aristo cratic young men In Rome, Florence and other Italian cities, by agreement, are wearing a special costume this summer, made of denim, costing about $0 to $S. In one of the municipalities of India tbe native women, of al classes recent ly Joined In a great public demonstra tion ot protest against the discrimina tion practiced with regard to the edu cation of girls.