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PEOPLE READ AND OFFICIAL REPUBLI CAN ORGAN OF mcdowell county MAGAZINE SECTION THE MCDOWELL TIMES FROM THE BILLION COAL FIELD IN THE GEOGRAPHICAL CEN TER OF INDUSTRY KEYSTONE, WEST VIRGINIA WEEKLY NEWS ANALYSIS By Edward C. Wayne Hitler Continues ‘Drive to the East’ As Pressure Nets Results in Balkans; Labor Unrest in Defense Industries Will Be Handled Under New U. S. Agency (EDITOR'S NOTE—When opinions are eipiessed In these columns, they are those at the news annlcst and not necessarily of this newspaper.) i Relei.sert by Western Newspaper Union ■ __ SURRENDER: Prelude to Peace Nazi soldiers marched into Bul garia. They were not opposed. Bul garian officials who earlier talked bravely, but took no steps to pre pare the nation for resistance, capit ulated to Berlin’s demands w'hen the final test came. Hundreds of thousands of Ger mans poured across the border in 48 hours. Panzer divisions raced across roads and took positions on the borders of Turkey and Greece. They supplanted officials known to be unsympathetic to their cause, ra tioned food, directed transporta tion, and virtually placed the whole nation under German military law and economy. Secret police fol lowed close behind to round up those who loved their country too well for German interests. Berlin announced the occupation as a great military victory, although not a shot had been fired. But the action did have a strangely familiar ring. It paralleled closely the Nazi pattern that brought the downfall of many other European nations where officials had been induced to visit Munich to “guarantee peace.” Fascism had come to Bulgaria, ruled by King Boris, from within, long before it had been compelled by force of arms without. Bulgaria was sold out, as many other brave but hesitant nations had been sold out—by those groups within its own borders who believed they stood to gain in influence, in prestige and in wealth if a Fascist form of govern ment would be established. They will be disillusioned, as other groups have been disillusioned in other once independent nations—in Austria, in Norway, in Denmark, in the Netherlands, in Spain, in France and even in Germany itself. Drang ISach Osten It is said no man lives unto him self alone; that his every action re flects on the life of his community and his nation. If that is true, then it is equally true that no nation lives to itself alone; that its policies re flect on its neighbors as well. So it was with Bulgaria. The highways of Bulgaria lead to other frontiers and 300,000 conquest-seek ing Germans rested on the borders of Greece and Turkey. The small Greek army had halted the first Axis move to the east by defeating superiorly equipped Italian soldiers. Turkey, allied to Britain, had stood as the guardian of the eastern Medi terranean. But these nations found KINO BORIS OF BULGARIA hucitm came from within. themselves in peril. Jugoslavia, through which better roads lead to Greece, was in the same situation. All found themselves facing the choice of fighting against an efficient war machine or bowing to the will of Britain. None had much hope for success if they fought. All looked to England for help, but the problem of sending such assistance was monumental. The Germans had available 26 divisions for use in the Balkans. The only British force competent to deal with such num bers was in North Africa. Whether the British had the means available to transport and land an expeditionary force was problemat ical. General Wavell’s speedup campaign in Libya undoubtedly was to clean up that area quickly in the hope of using his troops in the Bal kans. The factor of time and space in such a movement, however, seemed unrurmountable. The hibernating bear of the North, Russia, began to show signs of alarm. Moscow sent a sharp rebuke to Bulgaria, denouncing the surren der. Significantly enough, no pro test was made to Germany. Berlin shrugged ofT the Moscow statement, with the observation that Russia's attitude was only a defensive one, that its army was not equipped for offensive action. Therefore the pro test was of no importance. Adolf Hitler wasted no time while Turkey, Greece and Jugoslavia trembled. He quickly sent couriers to their capitals with offers of “peace.” He said he had no de signs on their territory. Turkey and Greece took small comfort from these assurances. They had seen the same kind of pledges given Po land, Czechoslovakia and other small countries that now have no way of life of their own. Hitler seemed well along toward success of the old German ambition of drang nach osten, drive to the east. To the east lies the riches of Asia—Egypt, Persia, Syria, India and East Africa. NEW LABOR PLAN: By Executive Order A new labor board to serve as a “supreme court” in disputes involv ing defense industries is in the mak ing. It will be created by President Roosevelt by White House order and consist of 11 men, three to represent WILLIAM S. KNUDSEN He wanted 30 days before a strike. the public and four each from labor and industry. The board of non-salaricd mem bers would act only in cases where the labor department’s conciliation service failed to make progress and so certified. It would have no power of compulsion but would be so con structed as to make mediation ma chinery possible. Strikes The President’s decision was said to be caused by the 48-hour strike at the Buffalo plant of the Bethle hem Steel company. There 14,000 employees brought their work to a halt when the Steel Workers Organ izing committee (CIO.) said the corporation failed to bargain with them. Picket lines surrounded the several miles of fence. But the Office of Production Man agement in Washington quickly stepped in, without waiting for the labor department to get under way. William S. Knudsen and Sidney Hill man, OPM directors, offered a com promise plan of settlement which called for return of all workers with seniority protected, negotiations with the union and an NLRB elec tion. Both sides accepted. Meanwhile in Michigan the United Automobile Workers (C IO.) filed notice with the state of Michigan that it will call a strike at the three main plants of the Ford company. Notice of such intention is now nec essary under Michigan law. Knud.sen Plan Knudsen, in the meantime, wrote a memorandum to Representative Sumners (D , Texas), chairman of the house judiciary committee, which is considering changes in the national labor laws. Knudsen's plan would deny protection of the Wagner act to unions or employees consid ered recalcitrant. He proposed that strikes be forbidden in defense indus tries unless employees of a plant had given their consent by secret ballot, conducted under the super vision of the U. S. labor department. After such notice is served, he pro posed the OMP be given 30 days to seek settlement. Legionnaires Return From Inspection of War Legion Commander MUo Warner, right, with three other Legionnaires, shown on their return to America after an eight-day tour of England. They are enjoying cofTee here. Warner said England can win the war with American aid. He will report to a special meeting of the Legion during March. ' — ' ——«— Bermuda Base Site Transferred to U. S. This soundphoto shows his excellence, Lieut. Gen. 8lr Denis J. C. K. Bernard, governor of Bermuda, saluting the honor ruard of the U. 8. marines on Tucker’s island during an historic ceremony in which the Tucker’s and Morgan’s islands were transferred to the United States government for air and naval bases. Breaks Relations After reading a strongly worded British note to Bulgarian Premier Bogdan Filoff, George W. Rendel (shown above), British minister to Bulgaria at Sofia, formally broke off diplomatic relations with the Bal kan kingdom. Office Closed Giacomo Profili, the Italian vice consul In Detroit, Mich., whose ofllea was ordered closed by the fovern ment. Profili heads the Italian con sulate in Michigan. -vieuij. 4 4 4 Spring Beckons as Daffodils Bloom Spring conies marching in on March 21, and close upon its heels will follow the Puyallup Valley daffodil festival, at Tacoma, Wash., March 26-30. The event will include a spectacular parade in which about a half a million blooms will be used. The above scene depicts daffodil time in Puyallup valley. Final Ski Event The National Four Event Com bined championships and Harriman Cup race will climax the skiing sea son at Sun Valley, Idaho, March 20 23. Pictured here is Alf Engen, who will defend his championship title at this event. England May Get Food Under Lease-Lend' Bill Increasing Shortages Now Appear Likely; Roosevelt Opposed to Censorship Of ‘Defense’ Information. Ity It \l KIlA(.i: Xnlional Farm and Home Hour t'.ommcntutnr. WNIT Service, 1395 National l’ress Bldg., Washington, I). C. WASHINGTON.—In the past few weeks the tall figure of a I (nosier farmer has been seen frequently en tering and leaving the White House. This was not so strange to us who watch the busy portals because the man was Secretary of Agriculture Wickard. Like other members of the cabinet, he is called in for fre quent conferences with the Presi dent theee days. Cabinet officers and other government officials have been helping the President plan the con crete steps to be taken to aid Brit ain under the lend-lcnse bill. But what a lot of us did not guess was just what Secretary Wickard was up to. The purpose of those visits has not been officially an nounced, ns I write these lines. But it can be safely predicted that he was working out plans with the 1’res ident to include farm products among the first supplies to be loaned or leased to England. Secretary Wickard was nble to achieve his purpose purtly us u re sult of his own persuasiveness, and purtly for other reasons that I will explain later. Here is the tip-off on the plan the secretary discussed with the Presi dent, in Mr. Wickard’s own words. It is pretty cagily expressed but if you know how, you can read be tween the lines. This is what Secre tary Wickard said in a public speech during the congressional battle on the lend-lease bill: Overproduction Held Unlikely. “Frankly speaking, there is little likelihood that we will produce too much meat, butter, cheese, milk and other dairy products in the months to come. I have on idea that oil we produce in the South and else where will be needed. “The reports about the British food situation are not too encouraging. The British hove lost their sources of food supply on the continent. They are handicapped still further by their shipping losses. The Eng lish may want some of our food nnd wont it pretty soon. If they cull on us, I think we will answer the cull.” Almost all of the products to be sent to Britain under the lend-lense plan will be proteins (meat, milk and milk products and eggs). There will be, however, some cotton, wheat and tobacco, but these commodities will constitute a minor part of the shipments. The practical arguments for sending proteins are obvious: 1. The extra physical demands on fighting men require a greater pro tein diet. 2. These products up to now have been shipped to Englund all the woy from Australia, New Zealand and the Argentine. Two trips can be made from New York to Britain while one is being made from these distant points. Unfortunutely the protein commod ities which are needed by England are not the ones we most want to sell. They do not constitute our great surpluses, disposition of which has caused the biggest headaches in the department of agriculture since the farm problem was tossed in the government’s lap. Surplus Produce Unaffected. Furthermore, they are the prod ucts which, later on, when the de fense industries expand, we will need at home because if alj our un employed were working full time and eating three meals a day, we would not have enough proteins at the pres ent rate of production to satisfy them. The things we do want to get rid of—the things of which we have enough and to spare—are not as greatly affected by increased em ployment. Department of agricul ture experts here will tell you any day that in prosperous times there is not on important increase in the I use i»i onion, lonacco ana wneat. But as far ns the British go, they have to consider first things first, and they have all the cotton, wheat and tobacco they need, or they can get these products as conveniently from their own dominions as from the United States. So this new "lend-lease” market won’t solve the problem of farm sur pluses. Nevertheless, it will absorb some of them, for the government is insisting that along with the pro teins, some of the surplus products will be included in the commodities we dispose of under the lend-lease plan. How long this new market over s«*us will last no one can say. It is impossible to predict bow long the emergency will last or what the fortunes of war will he. But the ef fort of the New Deal planners is to build up an Increasing demand at home for the things tin* farmer raises. As Secretary Wirkard says on every occasion when he gets tile chance "Whether they lose or keep the foreign markets, farmers must try to Increase consumption in their best murket the domestic market.” President Discusses News Control With Reporters Imagine tin- head of a Kuropean state silting for half an hour while h«* was questioned by a group of newsmen on any subject they chose, including tin* government's confi dential transactions I And, yet, that happens twice a week in Washington at the White House press conferences. There the President sits at his desk covered with pupors; members of the White House stall sitting about him, two secret service men standing incon spicuously behind him, between the stars and stripes and the presiden tial flug. To us in Washington, the White House press conference is routine. But a recent meeting was so demo cratic, so unlike anything that could possibly happen abroad, that it stands out clearly in my memory. Mr. Roosevelt started it. The ques tion which the American public ought to think about, as he put it, had to do with the ethics, morals and patriotism of making public, matters which might be injurious to national defense. First, should a member of congress divulge testi mony before a secret committee ses sion; second, should n newspaper publish or a radio station broadcast such information. The issue was ruised by the publi cation of testimony Riven by the chief of staff, General Marshall, be fore an executive session of the sen ate militnry affairs committee m connection with a shipment of army bombers to Hawaii. Censorship Not Desired. The President said he had neither the desire nor the power to censor the news, but he wished us to con sider whether it wus ethical, moral or patriotic to publish any informa tion which the heads of the army and navy believed should, in the in terests of national defense, be kept confidential. The newsmen did not question the advisability of withholding from the public important military secrets, but they showed plainly that they re sented any suggestion that the free dom of the press be interfered with. One correspondent said frankly that the chief of staff ought not to tell things to congressmen which he did not want to get out because such information always leaked. The President replied, quietly, that nat urally, one did not like to withhold any information asked for by con gress. Another reporter asked how the press was to know what information, once they had received it, ought to be withheld, and what could be printed. The President answered this could be determined by what the heads of the army and navy felt would be injurious to national de fense. The President admitted he had no specific proposal to suggest. No definite conclusion to the dis cussion was reached at the interview The incident had one effect. Short ly after the meeting, a writer who is usually excellently informed, stat ed that the President had turned down flatly a plan to place all in formation concerning defense under what amounted to a censorship board. It had been long known that such a plan was placed on the President’s desk at the time war broke out abroad. The President turned it down then. When it came up the second time, he again turned it down. Later, Lowell Mellett, ad ministrative advisor to the Presi dent, said no plan of censorship was being considered. ir war comes, some method of regulating the publication of milita ry information will probably be put into effect. But until that moment, the press and radio will fight for freedom of speech, the spoken wojxl, or the written.