OCR Interpretation


The McDowell times. [volume] (Keystone, W. Va.) 1904-1941, March 14, 1941, Image 5

Image and text provided by West Virginia University

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86092050/1941-03-14/ed-1/seq-5/

What is OCR?


Thumbnail for

A NEWSPAPER
PEOPLE READ AND
OFFICIAL REPUBLI
CAN ORGAN OF
mcdowell county
MAGAZINE SECTION
THE MCDOWELL TIMES
FROM THE BILLION
COAL FIELD IN THE
GEOGRAPHICAL CEN
TER OF INDUSTRY
KEYSTONE, WEST VIRGINIA
WEEKLY NEWS ANALYSIS By Edward C. Wayne
Hitler Continues ‘Drive to the East’
As Pressure Nets Results in Balkans;
Labor Unrest in Defense Industries
Will Be Handled Under New U. S. Agency
(EDITOR'S NOTE—When opinions are eipiessed In these columns, they
are those at the news annlcst and not necessarily of this newspaper.)
i Relei.sert by Western Newspaper Union ■ __
SURRENDER:
Prelude to Peace
Nazi soldiers marched into Bul
garia. They were not opposed. Bul
garian officials who earlier talked
bravely, but took no steps to pre
pare the nation for resistance, capit
ulated to Berlin’s demands w'hen
the final test came.
Hundreds of thousands of Ger
mans poured across the border in
48 hours. Panzer divisions raced
across roads and took positions on
the borders of Turkey and Greece.
They supplanted officials known to
be unsympathetic to their cause, ra
tioned food, directed transporta
tion, and virtually placed the whole
nation under German military law
and economy. Secret police fol
lowed close behind to round up those
who loved their country too well for
German interests.
Berlin announced the occupation
as a great military victory, although
not a shot had been fired. But the
action did have a strangely familiar
ring. It paralleled closely the Nazi
pattern that brought the downfall
of many other European nations
where officials had been induced to
visit Munich to “guarantee peace.”
Fascism had come to Bulgaria,
ruled by King Boris, from within,
long before it had been compelled by
force of arms without. Bulgaria
was sold out, as many other brave
but hesitant nations had been sold
out—by those groups within its own
borders who believed they stood to
gain in influence, in prestige and in
wealth if a Fascist form of govern
ment would be established.
They will be disillusioned, as other
groups have been disillusioned in
other once independent nations—in
Austria, in Norway, in Denmark, in
the Netherlands, in Spain, in France
and even in Germany itself.
Drang ISach Osten
It is said no man lives unto him
self alone; that his every action re
flects on the life of his community
and his nation. If that is true, then
it is equally true that no nation lives
to itself alone; that its policies re
flect on its neighbors as well.
So it was with Bulgaria. The
highways of Bulgaria lead to other
frontiers and 300,000 conquest-seek
ing Germans rested on the borders
of Greece and Turkey. The small
Greek army had halted the first
Axis move to the east by defeating
superiorly equipped Italian soldiers.
Turkey, allied to Britain, had stood
as the guardian of the eastern Medi
terranean. But these nations found
KINO BORIS OF BULGARIA
hucitm came from within.
themselves in peril. Jugoslavia,
through which better roads lead to
Greece, was in the same situation.
All found themselves facing the
choice of fighting against an efficient
war machine or bowing to the will
of Britain. None had much hope
for success if they fought. All
looked to England for help, but the
problem of sending such assistance
was monumental. The Germans
had available 26 divisions for use in
the Balkans. The only British force
competent to deal with such num
bers was in North Africa.
Whether the British had the means
available to transport and land an
expeditionary force was problemat
ical. General Wavell’s speedup
campaign in Libya undoubtedly was
to clean up that area quickly in the
hope of using his troops in the Bal
kans. The factor of time and space
in such a movement, however,
seemed unrurmountable.
The hibernating bear of the North,
Russia, began to show signs of
alarm. Moscow sent a sharp rebuke
to Bulgaria, denouncing the surren
der. Significantly enough, no pro
test was made to Germany. Berlin
shrugged ofT the Moscow statement,
with the observation that Russia's
attitude was only a defensive one,
that its army was not equipped for
offensive action. Therefore the pro
test was of no importance.
Adolf Hitler wasted no time while
Turkey, Greece and Jugoslavia
trembled. He quickly sent couriers
to their capitals with offers of
“peace.” He said he had no de
signs on their territory. Turkey and
Greece took small comfort from
these assurances. They had seen
the same kind of pledges given Po
land, Czechoslovakia and other
small countries that now have no
way of life of their own.
Hitler seemed well along toward
success of the old German ambition
of drang nach osten, drive to the
east. To the east lies the riches of
Asia—Egypt, Persia, Syria, India
and East Africa.
NEW LABOR PLAN:
By Executive Order
A new labor board to serve as a
“supreme court” in disputes involv
ing defense industries is in the mak
ing. It will be created by President
Roosevelt by White House order and
consist of 11 men, three to represent
WILLIAM S. KNUDSEN
He wanted 30 days before a strike.
the public and four each from labor
and industry.
The board of non-salaricd mem
bers would act only in cases where
the labor department’s conciliation
service failed to make progress and
so certified. It would have no power
of compulsion but would be so con
structed as to make mediation ma
chinery possible.
Strikes
The President’s decision was said
to be caused by the 48-hour strike
at the Buffalo plant of the Bethle
hem Steel company. There 14,000
employees brought their work to a
halt when the Steel Workers Organ
izing committee (CIO.) said the
corporation failed to bargain with
them. Picket lines surrounded the
several miles of fence.
But the Office of Production Man
agement in Washington quickly
stepped in, without waiting for the
labor department to get under way.
William S. Knudsen and Sidney Hill
man, OPM directors, offered a com
promise plan of settlement which
called for return of all workers with
seniority protected, negotiations
with the union and an NLRB elec
tion. Both sides accepted.
Meanwhile in Michigan the United
Automobile Workers (C IO.) filed
notice with the state of Michigan
that it will call a strike at the three
main plants of the Ford company.
Notice of such intention is now nec
essary under Michigan law.
Knud.sen Plan
Knudsen, in the meantime, wrote
a memorandum to Representative
Sumners (D , Texas), chairman of
the house judiciary committee,
which is considering changes in the
national labor laws. Knudsen's plan
would deny protection of the Wagner
act to unions or employees consid
ered recalcitrant. He proposed that
strikes be forbidden in defense indus
tries unless employees of a plant
had given their consent by secret
ballot, conducted under the super
vision of the U. S. labor department.
After such notice is served, he pro
posed the OMP be given 30 days to
seek settlement.
Legionnaires Return From Inspection of War
Legion Commander MUo Warner, right, with three other Legionnaires,
shown on their return to America after an eight-day tour of England.
They are enjoying cofTee here. Warner said England can win the war
with American aid. He will report to a special meeting of the Legion
during March. ' — ' ——«—
Bermuda Base Site Transferred to U. S.
This soundphoto shows his excellence, Lieut. Gen. 8lr Denis J. C. K.
Bernard, governor of Bermuda, saluting the honor ruard of the U. 8.
marines on Tucker’s island during an historic ceremony in which the
Tucker’s and Morgan’s islands were transferred to the United States
government for air and naval bases.
Breaks Relations
After reading a strongly worded
British note to Bulgarian Premier
Bogdan Filoff, George W. Rendel
(shown above), British minister to
Bulgaria at Sofia, formally broke off
diplomatic relations with the Bal
kan kingdom.
Office Closed
Giacomo Profili, the Italian vice
consul In Detroit, Mich., whose ofllea
was ordered closed by the fovern
ment. Profili heads the Italian con
sulate in Michigan.
-vieuij.
4 4 4
Spring Beckons as Daffodils Bloom
Spring conies marching in on March 21, and close upon its heels
will follow the Puyallup Valley daffodil festival, at Tacoma, Wash.,
March 26-30. The event will include a spectacular parade in which about
a half a million blooms will be used. The above scene depicts daffodil
time in Puyallup valley.
Final Ski Event
The National Four Event Com
bined championships and Harriman
Cup race will climax the skiing sea
son at Sun Valley, Idaho, March 20
23. Pictured here is Alf Engen, who
will defend his championship title
at this event.
England May Get Food
Under Lease-Lend' Bill
Increasing Shortages Now Appear Likely;
Roosevelt Opposed to Censorship
Of ‘Defense’ Information.
Ity It \l KIlA(.i:
Xnlional Farm and Home Hour t'.ommcntutnr.
WNIT Service, 1395 National l’ress
Bldg., Washington, I). C.
WASHINGTON.—In the past few
weeks the tall figure of a I (nosier
farmer has been seen frequently en
tering and leaving the White House.
This was not so strange to us who
watch the busy portals because the
man was Secretary of Agriculture
Wickard. Like other members of
the cabinet, he is called in for fre
quent conferences with the Presi
dent theee days. Cabinet officers and
other government officials have been
helping the President plan the con
crete steps to be taken to aid Brit
ain under the lend-lcnse bill.
But what a lot of us did not guess
was just what Secretary Wickard
was up to. The purpose of those
visits has not been officially an
nounced, ns I write these lines. But
it can be safely predicted that he
was working out plans with the 1’res
ident to include farm products
among the first supplies to be loaned
or leased to England.
Secretary Wickard was nble to
achieve his purpose purtly us u re
sult of his own persuasiveness, and
purtly for other reasons that I will
explain later.
Here is the tip-off on the plan the
secretary discussed with the Presi
dent, in Mr. Wickard’s own words.
It is pretty cagily expressed but if
you know how, you can read be
tween the lines. This is what Secre
tary Wickard said in a public speech
during the congressional battle on
the lend-lease bill:
Overproduction Held Unlikely.
“Frankly speaking, there is little
likelihood that we will produce too
much meat, butter, cheese, milk and
other dairy products in the months
to come. I have on idea that oil
we produce in the South and else
where will be needed.
“The reports about the British food
situation are not too encouraging.
The British hove lost their sources
of food supply on the continent.
They are handicapped still further
by their shipping losses. The Eng
lish may want some of our food nnd
wont it pretty soon. If they cull on
us, I think we will answer the cull.”
Almost all of the products to be
sent to Britain under the lend-lense
plan will be proteins (meat, milk
and milk products and eggs). There
will be, however, some cotton, wheat
and tobacco, but these commodities
will constitute a minor part of the
shipments. The practical arguments
for sending proteins are obvious:
1. The extra physical demands on
fighting men require a greater pro
tein diet.
2. These products up to now have
been shipped to Englund all the woy
from Australia, New Zealand and
the Argentine. Two trips can be
made from New York to Britain
while one is being made from these
distant points.
Unfortunutely the protein commod
ities which are needed by England
are not the ones we most want to
sell. They do not constitute our
great surpluses, disposition of which
has caused the biggest headaches
in the department of agriculture
since the farm problem was tossed
in the government’s lap.
Surplus Produce Unaffected.
Furthermore, they are the prod
ucts which, later on, when the de
fense industries expand, we will
need at home because if alj our un
employed were working full time and
eating three meals a day, we would
not have enough proteins at the pres
ent rate of production to satisfy
them. The things we do want to
get rid of—the things of which we
have enough and to spare—are not
as greatly affected by increased em
ployment. Department of agricul
ture experts here will tell you any
day that in prosperous times there
is not on important increase in the
I use i»i onion, lonacco ana wneat.
But as far ns the British go, they
have to consider first things first,
and they have all the cotton, wheat
and tobacco they need, or they can
get these products as conveniently
from their own dominions as from
the United States.
So this new "lend-lease” market
won’t solve the problem of farm sur
pluses. Nevertheless, it will absorb
some of them, for the government
is insisting that along with the pro
teins, some of the surplus products
will be included in the commodities
we dispose of under the lend-lease
plan.
How long this new market over
s«*us will last no one can say. It
is impossible to predict bow long
the emergency will last or what the
fortunes of war will he. But the ef
fort of the New Deal planners is to
build up an Increasing demand at
home for the things tin* farmer
raises. As Secretary Wirkard says
on every occasion when he gets tile
chance
"Whether they lose or keep the
foreign markets, farmers must try
to Increase consumption in their best
murket the domestic market.”
President Discusses News
Control With Reporters
Imagine tin- head of a Kuropean
state silting for half an hour while
h«* was questioned by a group of
newsmen on any subject they chose,
including tin* government's confi
dential transactions I
And, yet, that happens twice a
week in Washington at the White
House press conferences. There the
President sits at his desk covered
with pupors; members of the White
House stall sitting about him, two
secret service men standing incon
spicuously behind him, between the
stars and stripes and the presiden
tial flug.
To us in Washington, the White
House press conference is routine.
But a recent meeting was so demo
cratic, so unlike anything that could
possibly happen abroad, that it
stands out clearly in my memory.
Mr. Roosevelt started it. The ques
tion which the American public
ought to think about, as he put it,
had to do with the ethics, morals
and patriotism of making public,
matters which might be injurious to
national defense. First, should a
member of congress divulge testi
mony before a secret committee ses
sion; second, should n newspaper
publish or a radio station broadcast
such information.
The issue was ruised by the publi
cation of testimony Riven by the
chief of staff, General Marshall, be
fore an executive session of the sen
ate militnry affairs committee m
connection with a shipment of army
bombers to Hawaii.
Censorship Not Desired.
The President said he had neither
the desire nor the power to censor
the news, but he wished us to con
sider whether it wus ethical, moral
or patriotic to publish any informa
tion which the heads of the army
and navy believed should, in the in
terests of national defense, be kept
confidential.
The newsmen did not question the
advisability of withholding from the
public important military secrets,
but they showed plainly that they re
sented any suggestion that the free
dom of the press be interfered with.
One correspondent said frankly
that the chief of staff ought not to
tell things to congressmen which he
did not want to get out because such
information always leaked. The
President replied, quietly, that nat
urally, one did not like to withhold
any information asked for by con
gress.
Another reporter asked how the
press was to know what information,
once they had received it, ought to
be withheld, and what could be
printed. The President answered
this could be determined by what the
heads of the army and navy felt
would be injurious to national de
fense. The President admitted he
had no specific proposal to suggest.
No definite conclusion to the dis
cussion was reached at the interview
The incident had one effect. Short
ly after the meeting, a writer who
is usually excellently informed, stat
ed that the President had turned
down flatly a plan to place all in
formation concerning defense under
what amounted to a censorship
board. It had been long known
that such a plan was placed on the
President’s desk at the time war
broke out abroad. The President
turned it down then. When it came
up the second time, he again turned
it down. Later, Lowell Mellett, ad
ministrative advisor to the Presi
dent, said no plan of censorship was
being considered.
ir war comes, some method of
regulating the publication of milita
ry information will probably be put
into effect. But until that moment,
the press and radio will fight for
freedom of speech, the spoken wojxl,
or the written.

xml | txt