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BIMBO* SIEGFRIED, JVSIOR, EDITOH. MOROANTOWW: SATURDAY, March 14, 1857. <iT~ r 1 . 1 ' ~ ' i Buchanan's Cabinet. Tiro following nominations for the Cabinet by Mr. Buchanan, have boon confirmed by the Senate: Lewis Cass, of Mich. Sec. of State. Howell Cobb, ofGa. Sec. ofTreas. John B. Floyd of Ya. See. of War. Isaac Toucy of Conn. Sec. of Navy. Jacob Thompson, of Miss. Sec. of Int. Aaron Y. Brown, of Tenn. P. M. Gen. Jeremiah S. Black, of Pa. Atty. Gen. Out With Them. Here's cold comfort for the ofiico holders of the old extinct Pierce dy nasty: ? .Tt is said that Mr. Buchanan has emphatically announced that he will carry out the principle of rotation in oflico through the whole Union, vacat ing commissions as they expire. It is stated, in addition, that the President had already dispensed with the services of Peter G. Washington, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, and Elisha Whittlesey, First Comptro lcrof the Treasury. The decapitation of the former is said to have been Mr. Buchanan's first ollicial act. LATER. A Telegraphic despatch from Wash ington, Sunday night, says: The President and Cabinet have rc Bolvcd to turn out oflice holders gener ally on the expiration of their commis sions. Goed licks, out with them. Let's have new men, and better if possible. , AMB110TYPES! Thd greatest improvement in the art of transferring the liniments of "the human face divine," on to plate, or of miniature likeness taking is the Ami brotypc. It is far superior to and more ' durable than the Deguerreotypp. Mr. Oliphnnt, at the "Oar," is taking souio nmbrotypes which far cxcel any thing of Ihc kind ever produced here before. <*oand see his specimens if you doubt. Ho is an artist and his work proves it to a demonstration. AVc understand that he intends leaving here about the first of April; so that all who would a vail themselves of his services, should ^ do so at once. You can't do better ( this sido of sun down. At a recent meeting of the Ladies' and Gentlemen's Literary Club of this , place, the following resolution compli* ; mentary to Dr. J. I). M. Carr, &c. was passed and we publish it with plea sure, as requested: Tiesolred, That the thanks of this Society be tendered to Dr. J. D. M. Carr for his very able address deliver ed before the Society (at Court House J lull) on theovening of the 6th March ? also to Dr. 1). W. Roberts for the \ efficient manner in which he discharg ed the duties of Chairman of the meet ing; and to our excellent band, for the delightful music furnished on the oc casion. II. T. MARTIN, Pros' t. II. W. Biiock, Sec'y. ?Sr*Wc nrc gratified to learn that Eugene M. WilsoTi of thi< place, lias received the appointment of District Attorney for Minnesota. His talents, business qualifications and gentleman ly bearing will adorn the station and win him hosts of fritfids. 'The Wheel- , ing Daily Times says: I Eugene M. Wilson, Esq. of Winona, | Minnem'a, has been appointed United ?States District Attorney for Minneso ta, vico Norman Eddy resigned. Mr. W. is a son of lltin. Edgar C. Wilson, of Morgantown, Ya., a grnduato of .Jefferson College, and a young man of talent and energy. Mai. Win. D. /inn announces him " flolf in to day's paper for a scat in the House of Delegates from Preston Co. The M ajor is a good man for tlio sta tion ? a man of good practical abilities discretion and integrity, and of cnlar? ged information in regard to our State interests. Wc hope he may be elect- i fld, as he would honor the station and the county. Head his circular ? it is a sound, stniiblc ond unanswerable pa per. ? ? ? * ? ... Jonathan M. Hock, Esq. of Hinithtown, is rocominonded in the last ? Mtar for tlio House of Delegates, hy | dome 80 of his Democratic fcllbw citi 7j? us. 'J'hfl longest polo knocks tin/ 'iimtnoiis.' I INAUGURAL CEREMONIES. Inauguration of Jauica Buchanan as Pre* aldent of (ho United States. 1IIS INAUGURAL ADDIIESS. A vast concourse of people from oil sections of th^Uniteil States wcro pro sent yesterdfrf in Washington to wit ness and participate in the ceremonies attending tho inauguration of Presi dent Buchanan. Wo subjoin tho pro ^ramo attending the interesting event in detail: ? "Washington, March 4. Inauguration day opened hero this morning with fair and beautiful weather was greeted with firing of cannon and tho ringing of bells. There is a great turn out of poople, most of whom are anxiously wending their way to the Capitol. The sidewalks of Pennsylva nia avenue are completely blocked, and all the balconics aro full with an im mense mass of living freight. Every availablo window and position from which a view can be obtained of tho procession was occupied long before the hour fixed for the starting of the same. TUB OUDBR OF TROCESSION. Aid*. Marshal-in-Chief. Aids. Tito military , under tho command of Col. W. llickey, or the senior olliccr on duty. A national Hag with appropriate emblems. Tlic President of tho United States with Presid't elect and suite, with marshals on their left, und tho Marshal of tho United States lor the District of Columbia and his Deputies on their right. A rigged ship, un emblem of national unity and pifwer. Tho committee of arrangement of tho Senate. The Jach^^n Democratic Association. Tho J udiciary. Tho Clergy. Foreign Ministers. Tho Corps Diplomatique. -Members elect, Members and ex-Members of Congress, and ex-Members of the Cabinet. .Governors and ex-Governors of States and Terri tories, and members of tho Legislatures of the same. Officers of tho Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Militia. Ofliccrs lyid Soldiers of the Hevolution, of tho war of 1812, and of subsequent periods. The Curporate Authorities of Washington and Georgetown. Other political and military associitions from the District & other parts. Organized Civil Societies. Professors, Schoolmasters and Students within tho District of Columbia. Citizens of the District and of States and Territories. The various organized bodies of citi zens, civil and military, from tho Dis trict of Columbia and elsewhere, assem bled on New York avenue and formed into line in double rank, tho right com posed of the military, resting 011 loth street, where that street intersects the avenue. At 1 L o'clock, A. M. the procession moved from the parade ground down the avenue to the hotel of the Presi dent elect. When that part of the | procession into which the President k President elect reached the hotel, the whole column halted under orders, fac ed inwards, and, ora the approach of j the President, presented arms. They then received the President and Presi dent elect, who wore then escorted in a carriage from the hotel to the Capitol. When the head of the column arrived abreast the entrance to the Capitol, tho column halted; tho military opened ranks, faced inwards, and presented arms, and the carriago containing the President and President elect passed through to tho place where the Senate committee were waiting to receive them. After the President and President elect reached tho Capitol, tho various portions of the procession witnessed the inauguration according to their pleas sure. At the conclusion of the ceremonies of the inauguration at the Capitol, 31 guns were fired on the public grounds. After which the military, with the mar shals, assistant marshals, and aids, as tho final ceremony, escorted tho Pres ident and his attendants to the Execu tive mansion. Program of the Inauguration of the 1* resident Elect on the 4 th of March, 1857. The doors of the Senate chamber j were opened at 1 1 o'clock, for the ad mission of Senators and others who, by the arrangement of the committee, were entitled to admission, as follows: Ex-Presidents and Vice Presidents; the Chief Justico and Associate Justi ces of the Supremo Court; the Diplo matic Corps, Heads of Departments, & ex-incmbcrs of either branch of Com gress, and members of Congress elect; Officers of tho Army and Navy who, by name, have received the thanks of i Congress; Governors of States and Ter ritories of the Union, and Ex-Govern ors of States; the Comptrollers, Audi- i tors, Registers, and Solicitor of the j Treasury, Treasurers, Commissioners, Judges and tho Mayors of Washington and Georgetown; all of whom were ad mitted at the North door of the Capi tol. Seats were placed in front of the Se cretary's table for the President of the I'nitcd States and the President elect, and on their left for the Committee of Arrangements* Tho Chief Justico & Associate Justices of tho Supreme Court had scats on the fight, in front of the Eastern lobby. The Diplomat ic corps occupied places on the left of the principal entrance; Heads of De partments, Governors of States and Territories and other gentlemen enti tled to admission occupied thoso on the right# Mombcrs of Congress and members elect occupicd tho eastern lob by. Tluy entered tho Senate Cham ber by tho door at the top of tho main stair case. The eastern gallery was occupied by other citizens, who were admitted by the outside northeastern door only. The circular gallery was reserved entirely for ladies, *'ho enter ed the f'.ipitol (rom the terrace by the principal western door, and woro con ductor! to the rotunda and gallery. The othor doors and entrances to tho Capitol wcro kept closed. The So nate assembled at 12 o'clock* The Di plomatic Corps and tho Justicos of tho Supreme Court entered the Senate Chamber a few minutes before the Pre sident elect. The Vice President oloct was accompanied to tho Capitol and conducted into tho Senate Chamber by a member of tho Committee of arrange ments. At 11 o'olock, tho President and President elect, accompanied by two members of the Committeo of Arrange ments, proceeded in a carriage to tho north gato of the Capitol, and entered tho Capitol by tho North door, procee ded to tho Yico President's room. Tho Senate being ready to receive them, tho President and President elect wero introduced by tho Committeo of Ar rangements to tho seats proparcd for them in tho Senate. After a short pause those assembled in the Senate chamber proceeded to the eastern portion of the Capitol in the following order: Tho Marshal of tho District of Columbia; tho Supremo Court of the United States; the Serg eant at Arms of tho Senate; tho Com mittee of Arrangements; tho President of tho United States and the President elect; tho Vico President and the Sec retary of the Senate; tho Members of tho Senate; tho Diplomatic Corps; ? Heads of Departments, Governors of States and Territories, the Mayors of Washington and Georgetown, and oth er persons who had been admitted into the Senato Chamber. On reaching the front of the portico the President elcct took the seat provi- j ded for him on the front of tho platform. ! Tho ex-President and the Committee of Arrangements occupied a position in tho rear of the President elcct. Next ; in the rear of these the Chief Justice j and the Associate Justices of the Su- J promo Court occupied tho seats on the ? left; and the Vice President, Secretary I and members of tho Senato thoso on j ' the right. The Diplomatic Corps oc cupied tho seats next in tho rear of [ | the Supreme Court; Heads of Depart i ments, Governors and Ex-Governors I of States and Territories, and ex-mem I bcrs of tho Senate, ex-members and ! members elect of the House of ltepre ' sentatives in tho rear of the members j of the Senate. Such other persons as J were included in the preceding arra la ments occupied tho steps and tho resi due of tho portico. All being in readiness, the oath of office was administered to the President j elect by the Chief Justice; and, on the ! conclusion of the President's address, j the members of the Senate, preceded ' by the Vico President, Secretary and , Sergeant at Arms, returned to the So- | nate chamber; and the President, ac companied by the Committeo of Ar rangements, proceeded to the Presi dent's house. The Sergeant at Arms of the Senate, with the Marshal of the | District, were charged with the exc- ' cutionof these arrangements; and wcro i aided by the police of the Capitol in ! preserving order. All carriages and horses were excluded from the Capitol Square, whether in the use of the mil itary or otherwise. These arrangements were made with the desire that tho greatest possible accommodation be given to the people to witness the ceremonies. The ar rangements within the Capitol wcro i from necessity formod with reference to the limited capacity of the Senate chamber; and those for the exterior were deemed most appropriate with a view of affording the assembled multi tude an opportunity of witnessing the inauguration. ? PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. Fellow Citizens: ? I appear before you this day to take the solemn oath "that I will faithfully execute the of fice of President of the United States, \ and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Con stitution of the United States." In entering upon this great office, I must humbly invoke the God of our fa thers for wisdom and firmness to exe cute its high and responsible duties in such a manner U9 to rcstoro harmony & ancient friendship among the people of the several States, and to preserve our free institutions throughout many gen eration1?. Convinced that I owe my election to the inheront love for tho Constitution and tho Union which still animates tho hearts of the American people, let me earnestly ask them their powerful support in sustaining all just measures calculated to perpetuate these the richest political blessings which Heaven has ever bestowed upon any nation. Having determined not to be come a candidate for re-election, I shall have no motive to influence my conduct in administering the government, ex cept tho desire ably and faithfully to serve my country, and to live in grate ful memory of my countrymen. Wo have recently passed through a Presidential contest in which the pas sions of our fellow citizens were excited to the highest degreo by questions of deep and vital importance; but when tho peoplo proclaimed their will, the tempest at once subsided, and all was calm. Tho voico of tho majority, ppeaking in tho manner prescribed by tho Con stitution, was heard, and instant sub maission followed. Our own country could alone lmvo exhibited so grand fa striking a spectacle of the capacity of ? man for sell -government. j f "What a happy conccption, then, was t for Congross to apply this simple ulo ? that tho will of the unyority shall ;overn ? to the settlement of the ques ion of domestic slavery in the torrito ies! Congress is neither "to legislate laverv into any Territory or Stato nor o exclude it therefrom; but to leave he peoplo thorcof perfectly free to orm anu regulate their domestic insti utions in their own way, subject only o the constitution of the United States. Ys a natural conscquoncc, Congross ias also, prescribed that when the Terr itory of Kansas shall be admitted as a State, it "shall be received into tho [Jnion, with or without slavery, as their Constitution may proscribe at tho time >f their admission." A different opin on has arisen in regard to tho point of ;ime when tho pooplo of a Territory shall decido this question for thorn selves. This is, happily, a matter of but lit llo practical importance. Besides it is \ judicial question which legitimately belongs to tho Supreme Court of tho United States, before whom it is now pending, and will, it is understood, bo speedily and finally settled. To their iccision, in common with all good citi zens, I shall cheerfully submit, whate ver this may be, though it has ovor been my individual opinion that, under tho Nebraska act, the appropriate period will be when the number of actual resi dents in tho Territory shall justify the formation of a constitution with a view to its admission as a Stato into the U nion. But be this as it may, it is tho imperative and indispensible duty of tho*government of tho United States to secure to every resident inhabitant 1 the free and independent expression of his opinion by his vote. This sa cred right of each individual must be preserved. That being accomplished nothing can be fairer than to leave tho ; peoplo of a Territory, free from all foreign interference, to decido their ' own destiny for themselves, subject on- 1 ly to tho Constitution of the United j Statc3. The ?whole Territorial question bo- | ing thus settled upon the principle of1 popular .sovereignty ? a principle as ancient as free government itself ? eve- ; ry thing of a practical nature has been decided. No other question remains ; for adjustment; because all agree that, ! under the Constitution, slavery in the 1 States is beyond the reach of any hu man power, except that of the respec tive States themselves wherein it exists. May we not, then, hope that the long agitation on this subject is approaching j its end, and that the geographical par- | ties to which it has given birth, so much dreaded by the Father of his Country, will speedily become extinct! Most happy will it be for the country when the public mind shall be diverted from this question to others of more press ing and practical importance. Thro* out the whole progress of this agitation which has scarcely known any inter* mission for more than twenty years, whilst it has been productive of no pos itivo good to any human being, it has been the prolific source of great evils to the master, to the slave, and to the | whole country. It has alienated and 1 estranged the people of the sister States from each other, and has oven serious- \ ly endangered the very existence of the , Union. Nor has the danger yet en- , tirely ceased. Under our system, thorp is a rcmc dy for all mere political evils in the sound sense and sober judgment of tho people. Time is a great corrective. ? Political subjects, which but a few years ngo, excited and exasperated the public mind, have passed away and aro now nearly forgotten. But this ques tion of domestic slavery is of far grea ter importance than any mere political rjuestion, because should the agitation continue it may eventually endanger the personal safety of a largo portion of our countrymen where the institu tion oxists. Jn that event, no form of government, however admirable in it self, and however productive of materi al benefits, can compensate for tho loss of peace and domestic security around i the family altar. Let every Union lo ving man, therefore, exert his best in fluence to suppress this agitation, which since the recent legislation of Con gress is without any legitimate object. It is an evil omen of the times that men have undertaken to calculate tho mere material value of the Union. ? Keasoncd estimates have been presen ted of the pecuniary profits and local idvarttngcs which would result to diftor ^nt States and sections from its disso lution, and of the comparative injuries which such an event would inflict on >thor States find sections. Even des cending to this low and narrow view if tho mighty question, all such calcu lations are at fault. 'I'ho bare refer enco to a single consideration will bo Jonclusivo on this point. Wo at pre sent, enjoy a free trade throughout our extensive and expanding country, such is tho world never witnessed. This rade is conducted on railroads and Ca lais ? on noblo rivors and arms of the ?oa ? which bind together tho North k ;he South, tho East and tho West of )ur confodoracy. Annihilato this rade, arrest its free progress by tho ^oographicnl lines of jealous and hos ,ilo tttntcs, and you destroy tho pros perity and onward march of tho whole ind every part, and involve all in ono jommon ruin. JJut such considerations, important is they aro in themselves, sink into in* ignificanoo when wo reflect on the erriflc evils which would result from litmnion to every portion of tho con edctacj ? to the North not more than to the South, to tlio East not moro than to tho West. Theso I shall not attempt to portray; because X feel an humble conlidcnco that the kind Prov idence which inspired our fathers with wisdom to frame the most pcrfect form of govornmcnt and Union cve^ devised by man, will not sulfcr it to perish un til it shall have been peacefully instru mental, by its example, in tho exten sion of civil and religious liberty tliro out the world. Next in importance to tho mainten ance of tho Constitution and tho Union is the duty of preserving tho govern* ment frco from tho taint, or even tho suspicions of corruption. Public vir tuo is tho vital spirit of republics; and history proves that when this has de cayed, and the lovo of money lias usur ped its placo, although tho forms of free government may remain for a sea son, the substance has departed fore ver. Our prcsont financial condition is without a parallel in history. No na tion has ever before been embarrassed from too largo a surplus in its treasu ry. This almost necessarily gives birth to extravagant legislation. It produ ces wild schemes of expenditure, and begets a race of speculators and job bers, whose ingenuity is exerted in contriving and concocting experiments to obtain public money. Tho purity of official agents, whether rightfully or wrongfully, is suspected, and tho char acter of the government suffers in tho estimation of the people. This is in itself a very great evil. The natural mode of relief from this embarrassment is to appropriate tho surplus in tho treasury to great nation al objects, for which a clear warrant ' can be found in tho Constitution. A- j mong these I might mention the cxtin- : guishmont of tho public debt, a reason- [ able increase of the navy, which is at ' present inadequate to tho protection ! of our vast tonnage alloat, now greater than that of any other nation, as well as to tho defonoe of our extended sea ; coast. it is oeyonu an question tlio true j principle that no more revenue ought to be collected from the people than the amount necessary to defray the ex. penccs of a wise, economical, and cfti. cicnt administration of tlio government. To reach this point it was ncccssary to resort to a modification of the tariif, & this has, I trust, boon accomplished in such a manner as to do as little injury as may have been practicable to our domestic manufactures especially those necessary for the defence of the coun. try. Any discrimination against a j particular branch, for the purpose of : benefiting favored corporations, indi. I viduals or interests, would have been j unjust to the rest of the community & . inconsistent with that spirit of fairness ! and equality which ought to govern in ' the adjustment of a revenue tariff. Bi.t the squandering of tho public money sinks into comparative insignifi. ; cancc as a temptation to corruption | when compared with the squandering of the public lands. No nation in the tide of time has over ! been blessed with so rich and noble an inheritance as we enjoy in tho public ; lands. In administering this import. ' ant trust, whilst it may be wise to grant portions of them for tho improve. J mcnt of the remainder, yet we should j never forget that it is our cardinal pol. ! icy to reserve these lands as much as ! may be for actual settlers, and this at moderate prices. We shall thus not only best promote the prosperity of the new States and Territories by furnish, ing them a hardy and independent race of honest and industrious citizens, but shall procure homes for our children & children's children, as well as for those exiles from foreign shores who may seek in this country to improve their condition, and to enjoy the blessings of civil and roligious liberty. Such emit grants have done much to promote the growth and prosperity of the country. They have proved faithful both in pcaco and in war. After becoming citizens, they arc entitled, under the Constitu. tion and laws, to be placed on a perfect equality with native born citizens; and in this character they should over be kindly recognized. The federal Constitution is a grant from the States to Congress of certain specific powers, and the question who. tlier this grant should bo liberally or strictly construed, lias, more or less, divided political parties from the begin, ning. Without entering into the argu. mcnt, I desiro to state, at tho com. mcnccmont of my administration, that long experience and observation have convinced me that a strict construction of the powers of tho government is tho only true, as well as the only safe, tho. ory of the Constitution. Whenever, in our past history, doubtful powers have been exercised by Congress, theso have never failed to produce injurious and unhappy consorjucnccs. Many such instances might be adduced, if this wcro tho proper occasion. Keith, or is it necessary for the public sorvico to strain tho langungo of the Constitu. tion; bccauso all tho great and useful powers required for a successful adi ministration of the government, both in ncacc and in war, havo been granted either in express torms or by the plainest implication. Whilst deeply convinced of these truths, I yet consider it clear that.nridor tho war making power, Congress may appropriate money lowaids tho const! no tion of a military road, when this is absolutely ifocessmy to the defence of Siaio or Territory of Mni t/nlnfi against foreign invasion. Under the constitution Congress has powei "to du mmm mm*. clare war/' "to raiae and aupport ar- ' mies," "to provide and maintain a na vy," and to call forth the militia to "re pel invasion#, M Thus endowed, in an ample manner, with the war*making power, the corr?*ponding duty in requi red that "the IJuited Status shall pro tect each of them [the States] againat invasion.'1 Now, liovv is it possible to afford this protection to California and our I'ucific possessions, except by means of military roads through tho Territo lies of the United States, over which men and munitions of war may be spee^ dily tt unspoiled from the Atlantic States to meet and to repel tho invador? In tho event of a war with a naval power much stronger than our own, we should then have no other available access to tho Pacific coast, because such a power would instantly close the route across tho isthtr.us of Central Ameiicn. It is impossible to conceive that, whilst the constitution has express* ly required Congress to defend all the S:otea, it should yet deny to them, by any fair conatiumion, tho only possible means by which ono of these States can be defended. Besides, the government, ever siuco its origin, has been in tho constant practice of constructing mili tary roads. It might also be wise to consider whether the love for the Union which now auimatea our fellow-cit izens on iho j Pacific coast may not bo impaired hy our neglect or refusal to provide for them, in their remote and isolated con dition, the only means l>y which the power of the States on this aide of the ltocky Mountains can roach them in j sufficient limo to protect them against | invasion. 1 fotbear, for tho present, ! from expressing an opinion as to tho wisest and most economical mode in which the goveiment can lend its aid in accomplishing this great and necessary work. 1 believe that many oftlto difii culiieo in tho way which now appear for* j midahle will, in a great degree, vanish as soon as the nearest und best route \ shall huve been satisfactory ascei tuined. [ It mny be propor that, on this occa- ; eion, 1 should make some biief remit ks in regard to our lights ond duties ns a member of the great fomily of nations, j In our intercourse with them there ate some plain principles, approved hy our ! own experience, from which we should i never depart. We ought to cultivate I peace, commerce and fi ieudtdiip, with all nations ; a ti<) this not merely as i ho best means of promoting our own ma terial interests, but in a spirit of Chris tian bonevolence towards our fellow men wherever their lot may bo cast. ? Our diplomacy should bo direct ami frank, neither seeking to obtain m'>re, nor excepting less thun is our due. We ought to cherish a sacred regard for the independence of till nations, and never at tempt to intorfeie in the domestic con cerns of any, unless this shall bo imper atively required by the great law of self preservation. To avoitl entangling alli ances has been a maxim of our policy ever since thsdays of Washington, and its wisdom no one will attempt to dis pute. In short we ought to do justice in a kindly spirit, ti? all nations, and re quire justice from them in return. It is our glory that, whilst other na tions have extended their dominions by the swoid, we have never acquired any territory except by lair purchase, 01 as ( in the case of Texas, by the voluntary determination of a bravo kindrod, and independent people to blend their dea- i tiuies with our own. Even our ncquisi- i tions from Mexico form no exception. ' Unwilling to take advantage of the for- j tune of war iigainst a sister republic, wo , purchased these possessions under the tieaty of peace, for a sum which Was considered at tho time a fair equivalent. Our past history forbids that wo shall in the future acquire territory, unless this bo sanctioned by the laws ofjosticoaud honor. Acting on this principle, no nation will have a light to i nt e i fere or to com plain if, in the progress of events, mo shall still fuither extend our possessions. 1 1 it hoi to in all our acquioitions, tho peo ple, under the protection of tho Ameri can flag, have enjoyed civil and relig ious liberty, n9 well as equal and just laws, and havo been contented prosper ous and happy. Their trade with tho rest of ihd wot Id has rapidly increased ; arid thus every commeiciai nation has shared largely in their successful prog ress. 1 shall now proceed to lake the onih presciihed by tho Constitution, whilst humbly invoking the blessing of Divine Providence on this great people. JAMES BUCHANAN. Washington City, March 4ih 1857. The Now Tariff Hill. The following aro the piincipal prr? vialons of the new Tariff Mill which has lately passed Congress} 1. A largo extension of iho Freo List, placing thoieon many articles neat rely produced or rivaled in this country, which enter as raw materials into thu Composition of our manufuc I u res. y. A reduction of tho prosent rates of duty on iron, cotton and woollen fab rics, hemp, sugar, wool costing over twenty cents per pound, and most other mliclos now charged thirty to twenty five pot cent. 3. Wool costing Jess than twenty cents per pound will henceforth bo free. 4. Distilled spirits, liquois, &o , hiiheito charged ono liundrod per cent., are reduced to seventy-five per cent. f>. Wines, out glass, meats, raisins, snuff, cigars and all forms of manufac tured tobacco, all manufactures ol rose* | Wood, mahogany, iVc., hwectmeats, j prunes, & C., aro reduced from forty per j cent, to thiity, if not to a lower figure, j G. A general reduction of twenty per cent, on all articles not carried lo the j Free f<isl or reduced either to four or eight per Cent. - That this net will abundantly reduce tho revenue, within the com ho of two or ; (hrtPyutS; wo cannot doubt. , iiulll, immmmiin:?: * Northwestern Virginia Railroad . The lease of tb? Noith Western \ ?>. Rail'oad it now cornplet? and the r<M,| under t}?e entire control pf the Bnlrj. more and Ohio Company, which coin* pany is making every atrangeip'Mit to place the road in a lull working condi tion, capable of doing the heavy .l>u?i. HC8H, which will n<ti<irally accrue to i? . The Patketeburg News of the I8:h inst , says : lu the course of one month from this date, at the furthest, we are reliably. in formed the entire work of ballasting, wilt have been completed, at which limn all through freights that can b^ shipped to or from Baltimore via the Ohio fiver will be sent over this road) the post ponement of the date for commencing such shipment* which have been ien? dered expedient by the experience of the company in opening the Baltimore road to Wheeling before tlio road bed was in a condition to allow sending over it the vast amount of freight which of fered itself, by which act the company received a drawback from which it did not recover for a long time. The tarifT of rates for freights, &c., has been published and is now at the of. iico of the company in th is place. The rates charged tor through business are the same as those existing on the Balti more road, and die way churged are ul to propoi (innately the same, and in all other rcppects the two rouds are on pre cisely the samo footing. Already laige amounts of freight are being received bore from tho Musking um, and other points, while after the date of the final opening of tho road the entire trade of tho lower Ohio val ley, bound for tho eastern markets must necessarily pass over our road ? . The saving to ovoiy steamboat bound up tho river Indenod with freight, dl?? charging at this point, will average, be tween Wheeling and this place, full two days, and between Pittsburg and here, from three to five dnvs. Wo learn by telegraph that President Brooks, of the Baltimore and Ohio rail road, and othors, interested in opening (he Pai kersburg road, who are now 01 the West, left Wheeling on Saturday inoruing in thesteamei Courier, forPar korsbui g. Got. Walker and his Position. The Petersburg Democrat speakiHg of Walker and it is prospect*, says: ? Walker is a mno of genius, and, under heller circu rmtances, might hove been distinguished as a ruler of men. Tlie fatal mistake ho made in Nicaragua, was in disconnecting himself altogether from a Spanish paiiy. At fbst ho appeared only as the auxiliary of one of the par ties that were contending for tho popu lar snppoi t. In this character he ac quiied positive power, and a position which, if not strong, was. in a high de gree, h 'notable ami effective. He was not content with this. lie must bo the chief in name, as well us in fact, and I ho coiiHi-(]'ienco is that he has not only the whole Spanish populaiiou, but the whole ahoi iginal population of the coun try, against him. His wholp depend ence is upon adventuiers from abroad. Tlieso men are bravo to desperation; they are more than a match for any troops of any nation that can bo brought against them;hut they aro no match for countiy fev>r, and for that slow was ting of the strength that comes from tho want of proper food and raiment. Walker's strength, therefore, is occi dental w hile the forces that woi k against him aro certain and stdf-suppoB(-d. ? These lattor spiing from the soil ? they aie l ho people ? while he is peipetually in the light of a biid of prey, which comes fiom a distant horizon, and liar only for its object to gathor up some temporary spoil. They do not recog nir.e him as a part of themselves. Ho is a Miangcr valiant, terrible and pow eiful, but still a sfianger; and tho fuel intimation of weakness on his part, is tho signal for all hands to riso against him. No people love to be ruled by slrangeis. It is only when tho foreign foico is great enough to mako iiself fe 1 1 as it re sistahle, that it can establish itself as n pormument dominion. This, then, is tho secret of Walker's tinoafy position. Ho has dropped hi* Spanish paity, and has trustee! himself exclusively to a soorce of supply for bin at my which 19 uncertain at tho bes', and which is sure to fail him in tho ex igeucies of a campaign, by reason of the mul>g?anl influence of the climate. Perforated Pottage Stamp*. ~~ The P.. si Oflice Derailment lias recently i nt ruduct'il an improvornept in the post iii; ? stumps, which adds greutly to tlieii public convenience. It lins had them prepared on sheets \vi h perforations a ro u till the borders of each stump, so tha' tlioy can be separated, one from the oth er, without, using a knife (it pnir of sci.i sors. Besides the saving of timtf in thin impiovement, there h greater security that the stamp will adhere to the lettfti for the points or rough ed^e loft by the perforations will stick better to the letter, there being none of the lisk of the edges turning up, as when it is cOu? tinuous. This plan of perforating let ter stamps is practiced in Europe, The Fastest Growing State. ? There is a rivaby of rapid growth between Wisconsin and Iowa, Up to I80O, a 11 1 perhaps since. Wisconsin has grown foster than ever a state grew before, excepting California in the first heat of the "nob! fever." But the consos t'lken last yoar in Iowa, tho returns of which are just published, show tlmt Iowa is not fur behind, if indeed she does not con test pro eminence with Wisconsin. Mr. Buchanan's nephew is to be h?t Private Secretary, and his niece is to do the homo a? -in tho absence of his wile, The Michigan Legislature made ap pmpriatlonji 'o the nmuunt of $100,000 ? among which is $10,000 to Kansas, The nrtempt to raise rmtmi in Aus'rft li?t 11 1 e said to bo successful.