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Monongalia mirror. [volume] (Morgantown, Va. [W. Va.]) 1849-1855, December 17, 1853, Image 1

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A WEEKLY FAMILY NEWSPAPER?Independent of Party Politics or Religions
S- SIEGFRIED, Editor and PnorniEToit. )
S. SIEGFRIED. Jun., Assistant Editor. J
Governor's Message.
Gentlemen of die Senate,
and of the Howe of Delegates
I u-clcorae the general assembly ti
this city, and earnestly invoke their co
operation in doing everything that mav
be calculated to elevate the character,
(levelup the resources, and promote the
interests of the commonwealth.
Thecircumstances that surround us,
both Statu ami national, are peculiar))
'gratifying. Every class of productive
Ilidusi'iy u pt nsperoiis, and our citizen;
aro contented and happy. For these
continued blessings, we should be grate
iai to an ever kind prnvideuco, as be
conies the most highly favored people
upon earth. Under such auspices, I
cTn'ploascd to meet you; and in snny
pliance with an injunction of the consti
tution, communicate the condition of the
commonwealth, and recommend such
measures ?' if my judgment are calcu
lated to promote nor permanont inte
The new constitution, which it was
the privilego of your immediate prede
cessors to put into practical operation,
may, 1 think, after a trial of nearly two
year.', be regarded its a judicious and
. successful experiment. Doubtless time
and experience will prove that it has
imperfections; but if the hopes of the
most sanguine have not been fully '??
nlized, the fears of the most timid hare
ceitainly been dissipated,and confidence
Kca taken t'no place of doubt and dis
trust. The new and important feature
of our organic law, which conferred
"upon the peojile the election of the ;??
dietary, mote particularly excited the
Apprehensions of our most enliif.itened
and patriotic citizens. The distinquish
,ed gantlemen, however, who have been
Chosen to compose that branch of the
jrovernment, have given ample evidence
of the fidelity with which the people
have*performed this new duly; and it
this may be regnrded as n test ?f the
intelligence and fidelity with winch the
voters of this commonwealth are capa
ble of e'xfercising the elective lranchi.se,
all apprehension from the extension of
' this "privilege may be dismissed. I am
ttlad to be'ftble, therefore, to inform you
rfhafr though m.'s?lt
oeYftrprovcd, and, by judicious legoda
tio'ii, more efficiency given to othets.
ourxJwtitution bus worked well,given
satisfaction to the people, and bids fair
to fulfil the reasonable expectations ot
the public.
The last session of the general assem
bly was distinguished fiir the import
ance of its measures. The change of
our constitution rendered necessary a
re-organization of almost our enure do
mestic policy. Much new legislation
was, therefore, necessary, and many of
their acts could "but be regarded as ex
periments, to be approved, altered or
repealed, as your wisdom, assisted by
the lisht of experience, may dictate.
Coming, as you do, fresh iron, your
constituents, whero r.'.caiutfc. ane
been discussed, and their practical op
eration has be?" fe"> ?:c ft.=u'lal';
ly qualified to judge ol their ments.ano
to varaedv the ovil, where any exists.?
1 therefore ask for them your early at
tention. ? . ,
Iu examining into tho finances of the
State, it is gratifying to find them m a
prosperous condition. It n tiuci that
considerable addition to our debts has
been made during tho fiscal year, and
that within the next two or three yea s
the liabilities incurred under vai.ous
laws will be still further increased, but
when we reflect that the constitution
requires the Legislature to set apart^a
fund for the redemption of the dehil ex
isting on the first ofJanuary, ISM. and
provides thai no new debt shall bo cro
ated, unless a similar fund be created
for tho payment ofihe .uteres and the
redemption of the pr.nc.pa w thin thir
tv four year:\ wo may safely ofo; that
tho people will ?.,t permit 1'^,'l,a5 ^1
be incurred which cannot be
by such taxation as tlioy mi? ? ?
ling to bear. The present raw
with the productive stocks he.A by ?o
State, will be found sufficient to rne^
all her engagements ; and "0?pe l.en
appropriations will' i?.Ci 1
gant or wasteful, winch wi ? ^
' iTm'ir- ' r^'Slt tbe trnlh is, there is
no necessity to IhJ
Ol I uteres-, oil a lar.e 1 .
commonwealth dtbt. .v
part cf it yields an inters eqmv^nt
ceived upon the loans , a.
tute no small item in reiiui. i,
mount to be raised ii.r.nter^; Aeon
considerable portion oft ?< ,lunkl
currcdforsubscnptionstovaru^ ^
-to put them in ?Per? Vnmmon
crease their capita"* . , ,- r ,i,e
wealth received liom '^^, ",3 of stock
money subscribed, ceruf ? cerliti.
at their par value, Up ?J( m?!C
eatcs is recei>:ng '?? _ . .
than equal to eigl't Pe'\c,', ' leceivcs
sides the dividends deoaiei,.. ^ ^
the bonus exneted for the I
banking, and a tax "P01.^ .f^Siate.
to stockholders other M ^ moie
The value of this
tV.n equivalent to ibe debt .i.eu
Each share of stock is considerably a
bove par, and meets with a ready sale
in the market, and the State will be en
titled to her proportion of the bunks, at
the expiration of their charters. No debt
thus productive can be considered a bur
then to the qpmm>?nw<?alth. Another
portion of the productive stocks yield
an interest of 7 per cent, enough to pay
the interest upon the debr, and to lay a
side 1 per cent for the purposes of the
sinking fund.
The aggregate outstanding public
debt* on the 30th ofSeptember last, the
lermin'atirvN of the fiscul~year was SIS,'
011,775 50. The commonwealth now
holds a large amount of stock yielding
interest. The par value ofhor produc
tive investments is S8,125,171 63.?
Some of the stocks |^oduce C por cent.
Some more, and others less ?than 6 per
cent. The interest thus produced may
i bo safely said to represent an amount
of capital equivalent to that which
would yield that amount at G per cent.
This is a fair mode of arriving at (he
value of those s'tooks. Estimating them
by this standard, their value would he
OS, 121,500, beK' j* 5. their pal
vaSiie. If tfitt.ie profitable slocks were
' sold in the market,they would probably
yiejd the amount at which they are es
timated, and thus afford a fund sufficient
to redeem the amount of the State debt.
But if ihey are not sold, and the opera
tions of the Sinking Fund progress, in a
very short time, in comparison with ihe
existence of a State, the debt for which
they issued will be liquidated, and ihe
State will be in possession of thoje
stocks?probably enhanced in value,af
fording her so much capital .to aid in
meeting hor other liabilities or constitu
ting a fund for future improvement.?
If this amount then, ho doducted from
the aggregate outstanding debt, it would
leave a balance of unproductive stocks
on the SOih of September last, amount
ing to ?9,920.275 50.
Desiring, however, to make a fill ex
hibit of our finances, that our credit may
stand unimpeucheif and unimpeachable,
it is proper to state that the amount of
actual subscriptions, appropriations and
loans authorized by law and remaining
to bp paid after the 30th September last
is $7,,750.739 4/5.. The much groater
[ paxt of .litis amountswasiuciured. for
subscriptions, in the proportion ofiiiree
fitlhs on the part of the Stato to two
filths on the part of others, to bo paid
parripassu with the payments of indi
viduals and corporations. The whole
amount, therefoie, cannot be called for
at once, but only as tho works piogross.
It is estimated thatlhero will piobably
be demanded, between the 30th of Sep
tember, 1853, and tho 6ame period in
1S55, aboutSG,500,000, leaving the bal
ance to be calleJ for in afier year*. If
the whole sum, however, be added, the
Beside tho subscriptions, appropria
tions and loans actually made, the sub
scriptions authorized 10 1,B made to
companies of whose organization no in
P-rraali'in has been received, and of
which many perhaps may never be or
ganized, amounting to S2.910.0S0. But
this is a contingent, and not an actual
liability i it may or may not become re
al ; it depends upon the practicability
of routes to be determined by surveys
not yet made; upon tho formation of
companies not now in existence, and
upon subscriptions by individuals or
corporations, the books for which have
not been and may never be opened.?
Xo appropriation is necessary to meet
the interest upon such a debt, and it is
not fair to estimate the amount as de'ot,
when it is next to impossible that the
entire sum can ever bo made so. It is
a liberal allowance to compute the a
mount that may be called fur, atone-half
of the sum authorized. If, then, the re
maining half iie deducted, the whole
debt, after subtracting tho productive
investments as before, will be S19,12G,
054 95. All of this debt is denomina
te J unproductive; and though it is so
now, no oub doubts that some of the
principal works for which it was creat
ed, will becomc, as soon as completed,
highly valuable. *j!any of thein, even
iu their unfinished state, are worth more
thnn 50 and 76 per cent, and readily
fell fur those sums in tho market; o:id
thedsvi: ?>' .*:v li -Ui:: ?'.hen we may
i :i.ntly expect such to bring their
par value, am! yield a dividend equal to
the anticipations of their friends. If
they do the treasury will be relieved
from the payment ol'tlie interest of the
debt, to the extent of the dividends,and
ihe sum now levied for that interest
may he convened into a fund for tho
redemption of the principal. And even
with regard to those stocks which may
never be productive iu the form of div
idends, and which have no market val
ue, it is gratifying to know that the
works fir which the liability was incur
red, have been the cause of appreciating
the value of the lands in tho counties
through which they pass; of increasing
the population; developing the resour
ces ; augmenting tho taxable property;
diminishing the expense of transporta
tion; and offering thoroughfares to our
people?adding to their comfort and;
convenience. Thus, in another form,
ample return will be made to the trea-,
sui v, justifying and proving the wisdom j
ef the investment. If the entire pres
jent unproductive debt, with that whicl
'may be calicd for under existing lawa
'>i3 stated to S19,126,054 95, it io an a
! mount by no means great in coiuparitmi
, with the resources of the State. Tlx
value of the whole property of tho peo
pie is estimated by the auditor of pub
lie accounts at $500,000,000. The rev
enue to bo raised for the support of rov
ernment, including the payment of tlx
: interest upon tho entire debt, as roquir
led by the constitution, will be abou
8^,000,000. If tho whole of this surr
were raised by an ad valorem tax upto?
! all prfip&rty which might be subjected
to taxation, the rate of lax necessary tr
'produce the amount would lie less thai:
; thirty-five cents on the hundred dollars
; and if it be said thai a large amount ol
! the properly of the people has been ex
j empt by law from taxation, and if wc
: estimate that amount nt one third of the
| whole, yet, if the whole sum requisite
1 for thb annual wants of the government
be raised in like manner upon S100,
000,000 of property, (the retraining twe
, thirds,) the rale of tax will only be 5C
cents on $100, a small tax compared
with the magnificent results to bo attain*
ed by the debt Jincuned. But as the
, State derives about half of her revenue
from other sources.it is manifest that a
much less proportion in the hundred
dollars will be required?not more, it
1 is belioved than one-half that amount.
It will bo seen, that in enumerating
the liabilities of the Stale, I have omit
ted those to the Literary Fund. 1 have
, done so intentionally, because, in my es
timation, this can only he considered as
! debt from the State to herself. The to
jtal productive capital of the Literary
; iund is S1,706,S02 73. This amount
i was created with the means of tho State
aud is infested in the stocks of tho State
banks, in State certificates, in oilier
; Blocks, and in loan to colleges. The
jfund possesses SI,167,573 50 of Stale
? ceilificates. The State, then, owes this
I amount to her own fund. The object
in creating this fund was to provide a
capital whoso principal was never to be
diminished, bur which should be inves
ted so as to yield an annual interest for
, the purposes of education. If the State
|then pays the interest annually and
i never pays the principal, ehe accom
I plhrhes iho 'nHject she hadin-vtew hi
! creating the fund. It amounts to the
same thing as making an annual direct
appropiiation from the treasury equal
to this interest. It is never contempla
ted to pay the debt, and, therefore, it is
useless to estimate it as such. It is and
will be considered and estimated as u
part of tho ordinary expenses of the
government. The debt will not be ta
ken fiom one poCket and paid to ano
ther, but the means will'ever be faith
fully piovided for liberalizing and en
lightening our people.
The opeiations of the sinkincr fund,
which have only commenced during the
paai fiscal year, will in a few years ex
hibit result woithy of its projector? ?
T!?* ?;.'.ciits ol its receipts and dis
L'ur&otneuis accompany too report or
tho second auditor, herewith communi
The reports of the auditor of public
accounts and the treasurer, will present
the state of the treasury. I refer to
litem fur the details of the revenue, and
expenditure of the government. The
receipts during the last fiscal year, in
cluding the balance in the treasury at
the end of the preceding fiscal year,
were S1.959.S77 79, and the expendi
tures for the same period, adding and
deducting a smiill amount of warrants
issued ami unpaid at the termination of
the preceding and present fiscal year,
were SI,773,CIS 22, leaving an unex
pended balance in tho treasury ou the
first of October, 1853, of SiS6,l?59 57 ;
presenting the gratifying result that tho
taxes raised were more than sufficient
for the ordinary expenses of govern
The addition to the debt of the State,
made at the last session, will ofcouise,
require an increase in the amount of in
terest to bo provided for, so that wo
cannot estimate that the same balance
will be in the treasury at the end of tho
present fiscal year. It is estimated that
tho receipts into the treasury from all
sources for tho present fiscal year will
be about two millions of dollars, and it
is believed that the expenditures for tho
same period will about equal the receipts
showing as 1 stated before, that the pre
sent rate of taxation will be sufficient
for tho current expenses of government,
and to pay tho interest of the entire
debt of tho State, n* required by tho
constitution. It is impossible to esti
mate what appropriations may be made
at your present session. You willjudgo
of the necessity that requires them, and
of course provide the menus to meet all
our engagements and abilities.
In connection with the monetary af
fairs of tho .State, I hr.vo to announce
the death of the late estimable treasurer
Robert Butler. He died in this city on
tho 21st day of July last, having most
faithfully discharged bis duty to the
In supplying tho vacancy until it can
be filled by the general assembly, 1 ten
dered tho office to Henry A. Wise, of
Accomack, who declined the appoint*
ment. Jonathan R Stovall, ofllalifax,
I was subsequently appointed, and it af
fords me pleasure ro say that ho bus
1 qualified, and is now itf the performance
of the duties of his office.
; The report of the second auditor upon
the Literary Fund will give you full
; information upon that subject. The
design of tho legislature in the creation
of this fund was to diffuse the blessings
of education. Tho elevation of the ca
pacities of all to tho powers and duties
of government, became essential in a
J republic whose foundation rests upon
| virtue and intelligence. J t involved a
like the interests of humanity and" the
I preservation of the constitution, laws
and liberties of the people. The pri
mary school system was established
| with a view to promote this object, lr
was intended especially for those who
have limited means and a short time to
spare fiom their daily toil. The policy
whs a noble one, and deserves to be ox
tended and improved. It is to'be re
i gretted Ihut a more uniform system is
not observed throughout the common
wealth. Tho advantage's of such a sys
tem are too obvious to need recitation ;
end after an experience of several
years, the free school systom, as adopt*
, ed by several of the counties in tho
state, strongly recommends itself to our
| By an act passed at the last session,
! which appropriates the entire net reve
nue derived from the capitation tax to
; the purposes of primary and free schools
the amount applicable to that object has
| been increased more than two-thirds.?
, This law, however requires a modifica
tion of its details, because of the inabil
ity of the first auditor to transfer this,
; quota upon the first day of. January of
? each year, inasmuch as the whole am't
| will not have been paid into the treasu
; ry by that time* The sum of $75,000,
I which has heretofore boon set apart
j from the revenues of the Literary fund
| for the education of poor children, had
| proved insufficient either to secure the
; services of competent teachers, or to
educate all the children who were pro
: per subjects of its bounty. Under the
' provisions of the act referred to, there
was derived from tho capitation tax of
1852 the sum of about ?51,400, which,
together withjhp a n n u pX a p. p 'opri a t i o a
of^rs.ol^r madb^l 2dr406, tu be ap
plied to this purpose for the last fiscal
year. This sum, even under the pres
ent defective system, afforded very great
increased facilities for the education of
a numerous anil meritorious class of
children, whose minds as readily receivo
and improvti tho advantages of an edu
cation as any others.
Jt will be seen by the second auditor's
report, that the permanent capital of
the Literary fund is ?1,606,802 73, and
that the same is annually increasing,be
cause its accruing revenue exceeds its
expenditures. 1 recommend, therefore
that an amount be annually appropriat
ed from ti.is fund, wbW\ tojpth-r w!*1:
ihu iuiaiietf of officer* chargeable there
to, and the usual allowances to the uni
versity and military institute, snail equal
its revenues. It is estimated that fur
this purpose there will bo derived from
the capitation tax of 1853, tliosum i>f
$60,000; and in accordance with the a*
bove recommendation, 1 would advise
an appropriation of S83.000 from the
Literary fund, which would mako the
sum of ?148,000, to he expended in the
patriotic and philanthropic purpose of
educating those, many of whom are to
take our places, and upon whoso virluo
and intelligence must depend tho sta
bility and perpetuity of our institutions.
It ii only by preserving these that we
can hope to maintain our character and
secure the very liberty we so highly
A mong other evils of tho system which
liavo doubtless attracted your attention,
is that provision in tho law which au
thorizes the school commissioners in
their respective counties to fix tho price
of tuition, provided it shall nut exceed
four cents por day for each day tho
child may attor.d seho< I. In many of
the counties ;!.o compensation ia fixed
at 'ess than four cents p- rtiav, to enable
them tu extend the advantages to as
many as possible. Tho consequence is,
the services of competent teachers can
rarely bo had; those incapable of a
proper discharge of this delicate and
important trust are employed; tho mo
ney is expended; and but little if any
benefit ia derived. I would advise, j
therefore, for the purpose of securing
the services of competent teachers, that
a higher and uniform rate bo fixed by i
This subject must present itself to
every rcfiecting mind as one' of the first
importance, and I ask for it your early !
I am highly gratified to be able to J
inform you that tho higher schools and
colleges throughout tho commonwealth j
are enjoying an unusual degree of
prospeiity, and in their usefulness, are:
fulfilling tho high expectations of their j
Tho reports of the rector and visiters
of the university and of tho board of vis
itors of tho military institute aro here
with presented. These represent these
institutions as in a flourishing condition,
and promising soon tomeeL the anxious
expectations of the commonwealth
By reference to these reports, It will
be Been that a largo and important ad
dition has been made to the buildings
at the university, affording increased fa
cilities for the prosecution of tho object
of their erection. The building of this
new edifice has involved the institution
in debt, and prevented tho application
of funds to tho repairs that are necessa
ry for tho preservation of the other
buildings, and for which it would be
sound economy to make immediate pro
vision. The appropriation made, for
the erection.of a new and beautiful edf
fico at the military institute has fallen
short of its completion, and it is asked
that tho necessary snm may bo provi
ded. There arc ut present thirty-two
students educated at tho nnivni-HUv ft vi
of charge. In ingrafting ti;: feature
upon the system, it was intended to se
lect one btudent from each of th?? semi
torial district". Those districts have
now been increased to fifty, and 1 re
commend a similar increase in tho num
ber of free students, and that one be ta
ken from each district. For the same
teason, I again reconimcnd that the
number of state cadets ct the military
institute be likewise increased to fifty,
and that tho necessary provision be
made for the purpose.
The Deaf, Dumb and Blind Institu
tion is in a high state of improvement,
and the report from that institution,
herewith presented, is highly interest
ing. The science of teaching those eo
greatly afflicted, almost relieving them
of any sense of calamity and rendering
them agteoable and happy, demonstrates
the skill of man and the progress of
art. 1 would especially recummend
them to your fostering care.
Th? Eastern and Western Lunatic
Asylums appear to be judiciously man
aged, and, designed as they are to re
lieve the afflicted, who ate objects of
continued sympathy, 1 rcrommeud them
to your constant and kind attention.
I submit for your consideration the
report of the Adjutant General, exhibi
ting the condition of the militia, tho
public ordinaneo and arms of the insti
tutions connected with the military
force. The object of the law abolish
ing musters and trainings of the officers
a ppea re.- to* ha*e -beeir to-pre*c r*e the
organization of the officers, to have thg
militia cm oiled, so as to ascertain their
number arid to encourage volunteer
companies. 1 fear, that unless sorno al
teration is made in the law, it will de
stroy all organization, ond abolish, ex
cept in the cities, till descriptions of
force. Daily accounts have been recei
ved of the disbaridonment of volunteer
companies, and many of tho certificates
show the election of officers by less than
a majority of their companies. With
out enlarging upon this subject, how
ever, I would recommend t<? your favor
and fostering care tho volunteer comna
nies, ar'fl '1"! V ? ? , ?jn?*r.j
uros as will encourage their establish
ment throughout the State.
The duty will devolve upon tho Gen
eral Assembly of supplying the vacan
cy in the 7th brigade, occasioned by the
resignation of Brigadier GcneraJ Sam
uel II. Lewis.
I again beg leave to call your atten
tion to the piopriety of considering
wiieiiior sound policy arm ajusi icguru
for the finances of tlie ."State would *,var
iant a continuance of i!ie public guard
and ilie present armory establishment.
Without casting ibe slightest imputa
tion upon the olKcers and corps, whose
conduct and efficiency deserve applause,
could not the propel ty thus employed
be converted to purposes which would
confer far greater benefits upon the
State, and at much less expense ? The
subject is an important one, and is en
titled to your serious consideration.
The report of ihn superintendent of
public buildings asks for an nppiijutia
tion to make necessary repairs to the
public properly tmdor his care.
I submit also the report of the weigh
mnH'i/r of lire stock ?nd of the superin
tendent of weights and measures.
The bank teturns, herewith submit
ted, exhibit 'hose institutions in a sound
and prosperous condition. The chat
ters of most of these banks will expire
in 1S57, and ns the Legislature is now
restricted to biennial sessions, I deem
it more than probable that application
will be made during your present ses
sion for a renewal of those charters.
This subject is not without its difficul
ties; but in view of tho vast interests
involved, the question had better be
met and decided promptly. If wo de
sire to retrace our steps, and to dispense
with all banks, the experiment could
not be made without seriously embar
rassing every branch of business, and
subjecting many of our citizens to hea
vy loss. And while our sister States
continue the policy of chartering banks,
their notes would take the place of our
own, which would only detoriorato our
currency and contribute to their wealth.
It-is no less gratifying to us than hon
orable to the institutions themselves,
that tho?State banks of Virginia have
generally been conducted upon prudent
and safe principles, and in this respect
forming an excoption compared with
tho*o of other States. This may have
boon groatly owing to the many rofcitic
tions that have been imposed upon them
by their charters and the lawn of the
State; and whilst it proves the wisdon.
and propriety of thoso restrictions, it
should admonish us to continue them to
gether with any other conditions thai
prudence may dictate.in any new chatter
that may bet grunted. Experience ha*
abundantly shown that these mammoth
moneyed institutions cannot he too close
ly guarded to protect the public interest
Should the Legislature think proper to
renew thoso charters, I would recom
mend that the Jj3<rtb?ivj>&nk#.?ba recbac*
tered,with their present branches. By
doing so, we shall bo able to Keep up a
dir^ioolion ol t!i<; capital of the coun
try, and locate it ir? positions to be use
ful to all. We diffuse and tfiqualiza
those- commercial advantages which
might be ruon >p "''c<l ; we reducc the
cost of remittance:* or of exchanges at
iritei.ior aou remote points j and we ren
der them more secure, becauso the
mother bank and its btanches are res
ponsible f?ir losses that may occur at
any/me of them, by mismanagement or
Whether wo should have two separ
ate and distinct systems of banking in
the State as at present, might at first
appear questionable; but pet/naps this
would be more likely to result in good
than injury. The rivalry between the
two systems will pioduce a mutual scru
tiny into their munaneroet.:, end an ex
amination into their condition, that
would keep them under proper restraints
and within legal bounds?and thus, each
improve the other.
It is of great advanrago to the com
mniiity that its circulating medium
should bo known ; and yet, of the nine
independent banks that have 'gone jtifo
operation, there has been no public h:i*
nouncement, and it is impossible for
the people to know whether they are
legally constituted or not. These con-;
sist of tho Bank of tho Old Dominipiu
the Manufacturers and Fanners Batpf
of Wheeling, the Merchants Bank of
Virginia, the Contra! Bank of Virginia,
the Bank of Winchester, the Monticello
Bank, the Fairmont Bank, the Bank of
Berkeley and the Trans-Allegheny
Bank. The charters of these banks ex
empt them from tho operation of tho
?7th section of chapter88 of thn 'CocTeT
and hence theio is no provision for giv
ing notice to the public that any such
are in existence. I recommend that
some such provision be adopted.
While upon this subject, I ennnot re
frain from expressing the hope that
gome provision may .be made which
will effectually prevent tho issuing, by
irresponsible persons,df a worthless, ii
redeemable circulation. The present
law is admitted to be defective. 1 he
consequcnco is, it is wholly disregard-,
ed. 1 cannot believo t'hwt a law may,
not be framed to prevent the evil, audi
punish ihose who violate it. Nor do I
believe that the courts and juries would
fail to execute such a law. I respect
folly invite tlie attention of the Gener
al Assembly to the subject.
Tho repot upon tho Penitentiary,
with the accompanying documents,
herewith presented, is recommended t"
your favorable consideration. The mel
ancholy fact, that a largo increase of
ciimo has taken place iu the State, i*
clearlv exhibited. One hundred nnd
runt} ireo jiuikoijb noio ictci-wu m w.u
institution during the past year. They
cimoisted of SO white umi 29 free color
ed persons. At the end of the fiscal
year 207 remained in prison?consist
ing of ISO white males, l?nt no white
females, (a fact creditable to the females
of the State,) 81 colored males, and 6
colored females?exhibi'ingan increase
of o9 whites and 8 colored convicts in
the year. The report pre.ionts tho re
dirtfiot, that in the five years from
t io 1st of Ucloher, 1648, to the 30th of
.September,. lc?';3? no less than 304
unite* and 10i fVee persons of color
w?ie imprisoned. Ir* wo may regard
this ob an index to crime in the two ra
ce?*, we Ghai! find, by rcferonco to the
mhles of population, that the propor
tion among the free persons of color is
nearly sixlcc/i lime^ greater than among
the whites. This remarkable difference
is not indigenous to Virginia or other
sldvcholding States. A communication
from the Superintendent of the Peniten
tiary to a member of tho Senate in
March last. exhibits tho average pro
portion or crime among the fiee color
til population of Virginia and Mmy
laod together, as equal to7.til) to I white
whilst tho averago among tho same
classes in tho States of Pennsylvania,
New Jersey. New York, Connecticut.!
Massachusetts and Indiana combined, isj
in the proportion of 10.00 of the color- j
ed to one of white.
Upon tho subject of tho increase of
crime generally, since tho adoption of
the new Ciimiual Codtf.itis shown that!
in four years prior to the 30th of Sep-'
tember, 1847, the annual average of
convicts was about 47, whilst in the last
year 109 were received. It appears
that nearly one fourth of tho convicts
are sent for one year, and moro than
half for less than two. The Superin
tendent and the Board of Directors con
cur in the propriety of restoring the mi
nimum term of imprisonment to three
yetn, as tho best mvan^-of cherting
! crime end improving the convicts, ea
, well Q8 to render their labor more ptofi:
I :blo to the Stuto.
The manufactures havo increased
I urobably in proportion to ibfmucreaae
?f prisoners; but in conseqnenco o!;
increased expenses, no adtlitioffaf profiij
has been derived. For a.detailetl>?tato-,
?nent, however, of its financial;VwfVfc
rions during the year, I respectfully A
for you to the report and accompanygrak
papers. . . : V,; 3
In my first measagti to your p,M^;
40/d, ('called their BiteMiiotirlu?lg7i^
crease of our tree negro population,,
and recommended the adoption of ,m3"tij
energetic measured (for their roingvii^
If Biiythuiff iv?ro. w lnt.'u^ to Feminujftn.
of ihu necessity of nmioying litis' great*
;fhd growing evil, it iv furnished iti'ine
facts exhibited in the repeal upon tfiu"
IVmtentiary. With siiti^&r exhib'U
before me, I cannot bftsitf!R to again
call your a'.ienr ion to the suKijeely^. ,?
By 'the act passed .April
thfljSum of ?o0,00CL^per annum for five.
years, together wiilf the net amount .to ,
Ut raised by a tax of &1 .pfcr !iead3ljpor?
every male free negro b'etiveen 21 and
05 vout'3 of age; and tho ta^bn sedls at
tached to registers of freedom, was up*
pnjpiiaCed to bo'"expended by the colo
nization hoard in (lib tratjigftrfation of'
these pt-raond to Liberia; This pet,
though designed to rid us bf this evil,
will f-ii! of ita purpose, unless more uf
L'.cut,iuducenients be used to cause this
class ut persona :o consent to their re
Uiider the proviaiofis ofthc act refer
red'fu, a " coUtit^^bj/^a'i-d^ es du
ly organized paSm,* second df$May, |
1S5U, r.nd i heietfiw euj^jnit their first
atii^Mroporr. Tma leport is highly
intoffflKyg, and to it&eovetal wise'jind
judicTSns recoramotivation8 1 invitb*'
your particular atteiiiion. vh.'frj)] be"
seen tliuc small as tho amoufit appropri
d for this purpose was, it is not pro
its benefits. The law of 1850 was -in
operation three years, and in that time
there Were sent from Virginia, to Libe- *
ria 419 free blacks arid slbVfe*. at u cost ?
Kib?. ii J2?4ss lho i r,
presdnt)a\v,v jniBewralt?ifjjRp^ia^iwf 1
companies of emigrants, 'consisting of5
2-10 negroes, havo been sent to Liberia 1
from Virginia?a larger number than*
has gone frnmjfi&y other State in the
same time?lor \fhielr-?5,S00 have been .' J
drawn from the Trdbsyrv. and $3,COO
likely to be nnprop.Iaicd -in a tshor*1
time. The whole r/umber of emigrant^*?;
from Virginia to Liberie Since 1820, if"
stated to be' 2,SOD. Thus it nppe&y
that of the animal appropriation of. ?30,:
000, only 50.400 have been expended
in six months. Ttje board is, however,
Si.its infancy,' and idoubtless greater re- ?
suits may bo experienced hereafter. If
she operations o$ the fast aix months
may be regarded in a basis for calcula
tion and estimates, wo should have ao
annual emigration from this class of
?80, which the bohrd think* would at
least prevent any increase of the popu-?
l&iiori. This is: perhaps correct; butt*
by the census of ]S?0, the free colored
population of Virginia was 53,827; and ,
we may now safely put it down'at 55^
000. Suppose any increase of numbers^/
is pre*veuled, when aim nowsnau we gee
rid of these 50,000 ? Shall we and our'
posterity always endure the existing
vil 7 1 trust not; weshould not; and
I respectfully urge the adoption of more
efficient measures fur their rernoval,
leaving the sulection of tho mode,to the ?
united wisdom of the general assembly.
It is proper that I chuuld bring to, the
notice ol'the general assembly fcfie.coii
dition of the Wafhfngton Monument
Fund. , On the 22d of February, J849,
an octAvas parsed l?y the general bp
secibly d=! commissioners to be
appointed by the Executive to procUrrT
a model nirtho inoininient, with all ne
ccsBary plans and es'imutes for its ereci
tion. Cju the loth of October following '
the Governor then in office appointed
the commbsiiinors, who, in compliance
with the act, M-Wted tho plan, fixed
npon the ?iri? and piocured estimates for,
the structure. An appropriation;'with
tho Rmoutits previously raised by indi
vidual subset ipiioii, not to exceed one
hundred livusaud dollars, was made by
the Legislamiti. The plans and esti
mates submiried to tho commissioners
did uot exceed tho amount appropriat
ed. Ou the 22d r f February,-1850,the
corner stone of the Monument waylaid,
witfi thb rcobt imposing coremon^aB.atid
the woA has progressed most emergen- ?
cally. /It was understood that the'tVork
with ell its statues and equipments
wo:ild|require fire years for fjfKcdm*
pletidji. SVhen the comnfJssiouetfrpro
ceethfd to enter into written contracts
purine work, it was immediately found
that the estimates submitted were much
led than woro necessary to complete
the design selected, and accordingly
only & part of the statues ami equip
ments were contracted Tor, the cumdtis
ijonets preferring!" leave to the gene
ral assembly thewption of finiahmg the
work according to the plan, and of ap
propriating the necessary funds afiheir
own time. They therefore contracte'I
with Mr Cra^fard 'for t*r> #f th<Jftit

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