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EMINENT SCIENTISTS ENGAGED >N ITS SOLUTION. Progress Made by Octave Chanate of Chi cago?Trying to Copy the Birds ? Diffi culties of Air Conditions? Mr. Chanate's Experiments? Lilienthal's Work* [Special Correspondence.] Chicago, Jan. 10. ? When I was in Boston last fall, tho secretary of tho Aeronautical society told rue that ho ?Jhought the problem of man flight Would be solved within a year by Oc tave Chanute of Chicago, the well known engineer. I called on Mr. Cha nute today to ask if this prediction was likely to be verified. Mr. Chanate distinctly denies any such expectation on his part. I found him at his home on Huron street, not POISED FOR FLIGHT. far from the lake shore. There was not a sign of Mr. Chanute's hobby about In fact, he does uot ride it in winter, and he does not care to exploit it at any time, as I found, lor fear that he will be classcd by the newspaper reading public as a "crank." Even the assur ance that th-s number of eminent scien tists engagtd iu the solution of tup problem as well as his own reputation in the scientific world was a guarantee of the seriousness of the pursuit doos not serve to convince Mr. Chanute thai the public will look with an under standing eye on his work. Mr. Chanute says that he took up the study of man flight as he approached tho end of his professional career. He did not expect to have time to solve more than one of its mauy difficulties, that of providing for equilibrium aud consequent safety, but if he succeeded in that undertaking he would be satis fied. "The end is not going to be reached by one man or by two men," he said. "One man is going to follow the thread a little way into the maze. Then anoth er is going to take it up where he has dropped it. After four or five men have followed it some one is going to reach the heart of the maze and be heralded as the discoverer. That may not be for several years. What I think will be ac complished within a year is a flight by some experimenter for the distance of a mile. I have little doubt that will be done^ but I question whether it can be repeifted indefinitely." Mr. Chanute s investigations have been confined to the maintenance of man s equilibrium in the air. In his study of this problem he has made a great many experiments along the line laid down by Lilienthal, reversing, however, the principle of the apparatus. In fact, his first experiments were made with a Lilienthal machine. He told me that at the time Lilienthal was killed making a flight with one of his ma chines be himself was demonstrating a way in which the Lilienthal method could be made safe by a change in the machine. "Every bird," said Mr. Chanute, "ii au acrobat. You have seen them, if yTJu have ever observed bird flight, moving their wings, their necks or their feet to maintain their equilibrium in the air. Lilienthal endeavored to maintain hii equilibrium in the same way ? that ia by balancing, to keep the center of grav ity in a direct vertical line with the center of pressure. I conceived the idea of so constructing the aeroplanes as to make the center of pressure return to a print in line with the center of gravity go that the man would not havetomov? himself. Lilienthars experience there fore need not discourage any one in ex perimenting with concave surfaces su periniposed on one another. I am afraid, however, that his death has retarded tho investigation of tne question some what. I am afraid, too, that some of our friends are proposing to go ahead too rapidly this year, aud that we ar6 going to bave some legs broken if uoth ing worse. The Future Dlotor. "Experiments in still a!r along the line 1 have been following ure of little comparative value. The air is not the calm, steady stream that it seems to us. It is full of eddies and cross currents. The machine which is going to support man in safety on this thin, unsteady medium* must bo prepared ^o meet all these conditions. When such a machine ha-> been evolved, the motor which will carry it through the air is still to be perfected. I believe, however, that the machine which will maintain man's equilibrium is to be made in the near f in ure. The motor question will be the most serious after that. Already a num be: of very able men have attacked it They have produced surprising results Hargrave has made a steam motor which weighs only ten pounds to the bor:-e power. Maxim's steam motor weigns only eight pounds to the horsepower and Langley'sonly seven. But tlies* motois approach the limit of eudurancn This does not count the 30 pounds of water to be vaporized every hour. But. it is re markable in view of the fact that when the experiments of these gentler, en be gau the lightest steam engine weighed 60 pounds to the horsepower. 1 celieve the motor of the future for use lu t;ie propulsion of llying machines ie? to bo one operated by gasoline or petroleum." In answer to a question abour com pressed air Mr. Chanute said that it could be use to advantage perhaps iu preliminary experiments and ttut pos. bioly it coal.i be made to operate a ma chine for a few muiutes, but at b^t it was only a stored op force or a spring. So was liquid air. What was needed was a motor which would carry a mail 02 a journey. When I asked Mr. Chanute what the utilities of the flying machine were, he answered that they were rather few, but he did not accept my comparison of the search :Eor it with the hunt for the uorth polo. "It will be used for exploration," he :aid. "Stanley cgpld have crossed Af rica with a flying machine in a week. It will be used for war purposes, and I believe it will hiake nations less will ?ing to enter on warfare with one anoth er. It is essential to the conduct of a battle that tho commander should be well protected ? that he should occupy a sheltered .position at one side, wher6 he can direct operations without danger to himself and send his soldiers to car ry out his plans. His position will not bo so desirable when it is possible for tho enemy to send a flying machine to drop a bit of dynamite on him, and I rulers will not be so anxious to go into war. The Speed Element. "Of course it is not possible for the flying machine, operated on so thin a supporting medium as the air, to com pete commercially with other carriers. The load it can bear will be at best light, and the expense of carrying this load will be heavy. But the flying ma chine will be capable of attaining a speed possible to no other carrier. Speed is an essential element of flying. The faster the machine goes the less, within certain limits, is the expenditure of power. Man will undoubtedly- reach eventually a speed of 100 miles an hour or more in the air. The swallow, you know, flies at tho rate of 150 miles an hour, the swift at 200. We have never been able accurately to measure the weight of the motor ? that is, the mus cles ? of birds to the horsepower devel oped, but it is something between 6 and 20 pounds." Mr. Chanute said, in answer to a question, that he had spent about $10, 000 in his experiments ? $5,000 on pie liminary work and $5,000 on apparatus. All of this has come out of his own pocket. Ho doe-j not expect to get any return for it unless some credit may at tach hereafter to what he has done for , the science of aeronautics. He says the 1 only persons who will make any money i out of flying machines will be the men 1 who make "sporting machines," for he thinks the most common use of the fly- i ing machine will be in trials of skill and speed. The act of flying through the air is very exhilarating, and he believes the sport will be popular when it has been made reasonably safe. Mr. Chanute's chief experiments have been conducted on the lake shore about 30 miles from Chicago. His chief assist ant for a long time was a Mr. Herring. Mr. Herring has now gone off by him self, and recently he accomplished the longest flight that has ever been made in America, using a machine of the type with which Mr. Chanute has been experimenting. His record ? 927 fe^ ? does not equal that of Lilienthal, how ever. Lilienthal made one or more flights of 1,000 feet. Not Flying;, bat Gliding. Mr. Chanute does not call it flying. He says that his experiments are "glid ing" experiments. The motor he uses i9 the constant force of gravity, and his machines have been tried always on the eide of a hill. The hill was 94 feet high, but the highest point to which Mr. Chanute has gone is 61 feet. From that point a glide was made of 360 feet. The machine has traveled at the rate of 52 miles an hour through the air. One of the problems which seemed most formidable when Mr. Chanute be gan his experiments was the problem of stopping at will. It might be easy enough to launch yourself on an aero plane from the side of a hill. But how about the stopping at the bottom? That question was answered by watching the STRUCK BY A SIDE GUST. sparrow. Look at one some day when be is flying down to the street. See bini tilt himself backward and drop to the ground. One of his feathers could not alight more softly or easily. That is the way the man witn the gliding ma chine comes down. He throws himself back a little, raising the front of the machine, increasing tne angle of iuci dt nee and consequently the air pressure. The cushion of air in front of him stops the flight of the machine, and in all the experiments which have been made with the Cbanute apparatus there has not re sulted even a sprained ankle. This prob lem has not been solved yet for the dy uamic machine v>f the future, but it is settled for the gliding machine. Start ing up under all conditions is another problem and one which has not yet been solved. Mr. Cbanute says that Lilienthal was the first to point out a method through which, he believes, final success will be won. Ke accomplished more toward I practical solution of the problem than anj previous experimenter. Mr* Cba nute took up the work where Lilienthal left it and has carried it at least one step forwaW. If his experiments shall result within a year or so in a flight or glide of a mile on a machine of the type with which he has been experiment ing, he will feel that his work has not been in vain and that possibly science has goue a long way toward the final solution of that interesting question ? man flight. George Grantham Bain. Artesian Wells Successful. Artesian wells have proved successful in New South Wales, the area within which underground water is found ex tern. ing over 62,000 square miles. Is Rather Remarkable, A Half Dozen* Ideas will Sug gest Themselves to the ' Reader While Pe rusing It. It. is seldom that a passenger on board a train gives a thought to the man at thfe throttle, and rarer still that a man chosen above all others by the people does so. Of all the flowers placed on the presidential train as it passed through Pittsburg and Allegheny City on its way to Washington there is one cluster of white carnations destined to be pre served for generations, and handed down to children and grandchildren as long as the petals and stems will hold together. TJiat was the hand some boquet presented by Presi dent McKinley to the locomotive engineer. This graceful act of the president has nothing to do with the locomotive engineer. David Kilway, who handles the throttle ot engine No. 9 on his daily trips be tween Bridgeport and Massilon, O., over the ,C. L. & W. R. R. We merely introduce him in this way so that in a measure the reader may know who we are talking about and if afflicted as he was the benefit of his valuable advice can be utilized. Read what he says: "I have followed railroading," be said, "for a fifth of a century. Of recent years I have been bothered a great deal with my kidneys, and on several occasions I have been obliged to lay off for a time until I got better. I had constant aching pains across my loins, which when I would stoop would be sharp and piercing. The kidney secretions were copious and distressing, and I also suffered from severe headaches and attacks of dizziness, always worse when my back was troubling me the most. I h^d heard several speak of Doan's Kidney Pills, and I in company with my brother and Conductor Craig, went to a drug store and got a box each. They re lieved me right away, and I have felt free from all symptoms and well since. Both my brother and Mr. Craig say the same. I bad my wife use some of them as she was also troubled as much as I was, and they produced the very best results. We cannot say too much in praise of Doan's Kidney Pills. I would not do without them for any considera tion." Doan's Kidney Pills for sale by all dealers. Price 50c. Mailed by Foster- Milburn Co. Buffalo, N. Y., sole agents for the United States. Remember the name ? Doan's ? and take no other. REGULATED BY STATUTE. How the iArage Bostonian Observes the Growth of Fnbllc Control. An imaginary Bostonian, on rising in the morning, finds his wholo toilet, his breakfast and breakfast service under gov ernment supervision. Nor do this average Bostonian and hie family escape from public control upon rising from the table. The children are by law compelled to go to school, and though thero is an option to attend a private school the city gratuitously furnishes a school and schoolbooks. As for the father himself, when he reaches his door he finds that public servants are girdling his trees with burlaps and searching his premises for traces of the gypsy moth. Without stop ping to reflect that he has not been asked to permit these public servants to go upon his property ho steps out upon a sidewalk constructed in accordance with public re quirements, crosses a street paved and watered and swept hy the public and en ters a street cur whose route, speed and fare are regulated by the public. Reaching the center of the city, ho as cends to his ollice by an elevator subject to public inspection and reads the mail that has been brought to him from all parts of the United States by public servants. If the dimness ot his ollice may cause him te regret that sunlight appears to be outside public protection, he *iay be answered thut by recent provisions the height of buildings is regulated and the malicious construction of high fenoes is pronibittri If now he leaves his office and goes to jo.!/.' store or factory in which he owts an in terest. he finds that for female employees chairs must be provided, that children must not be employed in certain kinds of work, thut dangerous machinery must, be fenced, that lilt) escapes must be furnished arid probably that the goods produced or sold must 1)0 marked or packed in a cer tain way or must reach a certain stand ard. Indeed, whatever this man's business may be. it is almost certain that in one way or another the public's hand comes between him and his employee or between him and his customer. ? Professor Eugene Wambaugh in January Atlantic. Jaii.tr* Bain's Heroism. Jamas Bain, chief engineer of the ill fated steamer State of Florida, not only risked his life, but deliberately sacrificed It, to save a woman. The disaster was most pitiful. The steamer collided with bark in midoce* n, and both vessels sank almost immediately. Only two men wen saved from the bark, and only a handful of passengers and part of the ship's com pany from the steamer. Bain was safely in one of the lifeboat*., which was about to cast off, as there were as many people in it as it could hold. At that moment he saw a woman at the steamer's rail. She was too dazed to move. The steamer's deck wa.- almost level with the water Bain deliberately left his place in the boat, stepped on to the steamer's deck, lifted the woman over the taffrail, placed her on the 6eat he had occupied, cast off the boat and wont down with thy steamer. ? Gusta ; Kob'cc in January Ccjitury. Oar Glues Factory. Our readers can rest assured that as soon as the railroad can get to running again they can expect work to begin actively on the new glass plant. The gentlemen who are going to put up the plant have been corresponding in regard to a location for the plant. The Well's sisters have made ? a price for a parcel of land south of town 200 feet fronting on the railroad by 250 deep, that is very reasonable,in fact the price named is away below what we had hoped would have been named. The price given has been mailed, and as soon as the letter can reach its destination we expect the men right on to begin work. In the meantime a corporation is being organized and everything is being pushed along as rapidly as possible From April 1st till the 10th is the time fixed for letting the contract for the erection of the building, and in the mean time the owners are making ar rangements to buy the machinery, all of which will be entirely new and of the very best and latest pat terns. In the meantime the Review is corresponding with two other firms who want to locate here. One wants to build a good sized woolen mill and the other wants to put in a knitting factory, such as the town of Martinsburg paid thirty thou sand dollars to have located in that city. We have heard nothing def inite from either of these applicants but expect a letter in the first mail. We should aim in getting manu facturing establishments here to have them as much diversified as possible, so if one is, shut up or even two or more it will not mate rially effect business in the city. Work will resume on the macadam pike in a few days as soon as the weather settles again. Morgantown ElkM* Lodge. Morgantown, W. Va., March 27. ? A lodge of Elks with forty mem bers has been instituted here.. Dr. T. C. Nesbitt, of Fairmont, con ducted the installing ceremonies, and large delegations from Union town, Pa., and Fairmont, Grafton, Clarksburg and Mannington lodges i were present to witness them. The ceremonies concluded with an eK aborate banquet at the Hotel Pea body. ; w. c. r. u. Notwithstanding the rain and ris ing river, the W. C. T. U. met in i the Baptist church, March 23, at 3 p. m. Mrs. L. M. Reynolds pre sided. Committee on demorest work re ported Mrs. Evans asked to be re ; lieved from superintending the first contest further, and Miss Witten, | elocutiouist; requested to take her I place. A dime social was appointed at the home of Mrs. P. Ackerson, April 5, at 7 p. m., a general invitation is given. A committee was appointed ' to visit Rev. Anderson and thank him for his sermon on the life of Frances Willard, and request a copy of same for publication. The com mittee were cordially received and a synopsis of the sermon was prom ised. Mrs. P. Ackerson was ap pointed superintendent of flower | mission. On account of the flood the L. T. Iy. did not hold its usual meeting. ; An "Oil Mens Supper" for the L. T. L. is to be served in the near future. Voted to give the Baptist church 50 cents per week to h lp care for the church. Next meeting to be held in j the Baptist church April 6th at 2:55 | P- m- * Purchased a I.ot. John Stealey has purchased the half lot on Brown Betty, adjoining Al. Simon's lot, and will build for themselves a handsome home. The lot was purchased of J. W. Boyer. The consideration is private. The house on the lot at present is oc cupied by Ed. A. Aggas. Fiduciary Notice. Notice is hereby given that the following Fiduciary accounts before me for settlement, to wit; John M. Smith and Arza Underwood admin istrars of the estate of C. I. Cona way, deceased, William Morris, ad ministrator of the estate of James R. Ankrom, deceased; also Hester A. White, guardian of David S. Mary E. Earley O. Jane and Jasper Lee White, infant children ot Isaac White, deceased., Given under my hand this the 17th day of March 1898. G. D. Smith. Conrr of Accounts for Tyler Co. E, STEWART ?fc. CO. Easter Opening Thursday, Friday Saturday March 31; April 1 & 2. We have endeavored to get the Latest and Richest Nov elties in the market. We keep in constant touch with the largest and best milli nery houses of the world and there is no reason why we cannot please the most fastid ious. Our head trimmer, Miss Ethel Trader, has had advantage of the largest and best millinery houses in the east. Our Paris copies are just as pretty as the original and cost you about one-fourth as much. Call and get our pri ces and see our styles; we are confident that we can please you both in style and prices. Yours to please, E.Stewart&Co. Agents for Butterick Pat terns. ..ASSIGNEE'S SALE.. .OF. HENRY RAUCH This stock consists of High-grade Clothing and Gent's Furnishing Goods and must be sold as soon as possible by order of Court to satisfy creditors. I am appointed assignee by the Court, and my object is not to make profits, but to sell the stock and be done with it. In order to close out the stock as soon as possible I have Cut Prices Still Lower! ? . ? Everything in the house will go at the lowest price possible. Is a saving of 50 per cent, an object to you? If so, it will pay you to take advantage of this sale. M. E. MOCH, Assignee.