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Methods Recommended by the Department of Agriculture. GIY LLLIOTT MITCHELL. * w iv* i wouiu i>o most for midable animals were they enlarged to the size of the prehistoric dinosaur. tThelr teeth are huge in proportion to their heads nnd their bifurcated front Claws are strong, sharp as eagle talons uiul extraordinarily long. The gopher fcowever Is a little animal; yet because of his abundance nnd exceeding In dustry, he becomes more than a nuis ance—a menace in fact—to manv farm ing communities Pocket gophers infest all the States and Territories west of the Mississippi, and parts of Illinois, Wisconsin, Flor ida, Georgia, and the greater part of Mexico. All the species live under ground in ramifying tunnels, and all wrthg to the surface quantities of earth, , Jrhlch is heaped up in the shape of mounds. The habits of these animals •re everywhere much the same. Throughout their range jtockct goph ers sre very destructive to crops, much more so than moles. They eat the roots af fruit trees and In this way some times ruin whole orchards. They eat both root and tops of clover, alfalfa, grasses, grains, and vegetables, and are especially harmful to j>otatoes and ather tuberous crops. In addition to •11 this, they throw up Innumerable Bounds of earth in meadows, pastures, •nd grain fields, which cover and de stroy far more of the crop than is •tther eaten by the animals or killed aro active, all the animals should be' destroyed by the first application of the poison. Trapping Pocket Gophers. Trapping is a successful method when followed intelligently and jwrsist ently. it is especially adapted to small fields, orchards, and gardens, where only a few of the animals are present; but in the case of large areas that are badly infested, the method involves | too much labor. For trapping, an ordinary No. O steel trap may be employed but there are a i number of special gopher traps on the market that are better adapted for general use. In using the ordinary steel trap, the first step is to make an opening into the main tunnel. The trap should then be sunken so that the jaws are level with the bottom of the runwav and lightly covered with green clover or alfalfa or grass, or even loose soil, care being taken that these do not clog under the pan, or trigger. No bait is required. The holes should be just largo enough to receive the trap and should be covered so as almost to ex clude the light. Carbon Bisulphid. Carbon bisulphid has been employed for killing pocket gophers, and under favorable conditions its use is recom mended. If the burrows are extensive having the roots cut off. These ■sounds also prevent close mowing, s( that much of the hay crop is lost while the pebbles they contain ofter fcreak or injure farm machinery. The loss due to gopher mounds in the clovei • nd alfalfa fields in some of the West •rn states has been conservatively estl mated at one-tenth of the entire crop In many of the fertile valleys where ftophers abound they are by far the most formidable of the farmer’s auim ■1 enemies. Pocket gophers may be destroyed b\ poison, by traps, and by the use of car bon Lisulphid. Poisoning Pocket Gophers. • *>nu bli y i'iiiime is me most effective means known for killing these little animals, and, as it involves the least expenditure of money and labor, the biological Survey recom mends it for general use. As u rodent poison to be used by farmers, strych nine has several advantages. Its act ion is sure, its deadly character is known to most persons, and its bitter taste is an additional.safeguard against mistaking it for a harmless drug. Strychnia sulphate is the most conven ient form of the poison, since it is freely soluble in hot water and in the natural juice of vegetables used as bait. To disguise its bitterness so that ro dents may not be deterred from eating the baits, sugar is often employed, or the strychnine may be mixed with its n hulk of commercial saccharine. AV',gar syrup poisoned with strych nia^ may he used with excellent re gujj^ It is prepared as follows: Dissolve an ounce of strychnia sul phate In a pint of boiling water. Arid a Pint of thick sugar syrup, and stir thoroughly. The syrup Is usually scented by adding a few drops of oil of anise, but this Is not essential. If preserved in a closed vessel, the syrup Will keep Indefinitely. The above quantity Is sufficient to poison a half bushel of shelled corn or other grain (corn recommended), the cereal being steeped in hot water and allowed to Roak over night. It is then drained and soaked for several hours In the poisoned syrup. Before using, corn meal may he added to take up the excess of moisture. Dry crystals of strychnine also may be used. They are Introduced by means of a knife, Into small pieces of potato, carrot, or sweet potato, or Into entire raisins or dried prunes, a sin gle large crystal (or several small ones) is enough for each bait Raisins are especially recommended because they are easily handled and contain enough sugar to disguise the bitter ness of the poison. The prepared baits are placed in the underground runways of the gophers and are conveniently handled with a spoon. A stout dibble Is used to make holes Into the runways. Having lo cated the runways by use of the dibble. It is moved from side to side to make the soli firm about the hole, and then withdrawn. A piece of the poisoned potato or raisin or a teaspoonful of the poisoned corn !s dropped Info the hole which Is left open. Home farmers prefer to cover the holes, but the exper ience of the Agriculture Department is against such practice. By this method little labor fs neces sary, and the operator soon acquires skill In finding the runways. The halt should he placed In the i/.aln runways and not In the short laterals near the mounds. If placed In the laterals, the animals are likely to eover It with soil or throw It out without flndlne It A skillful operator can go over 20 to 40 acres of bad*y Infested land In s day. and, If the work Is carefully ione a» a time whea the pocket gophers 1 or the soil dry, the gases are dissipated • so rapidly that a large quantity of the , liquid is required to kill the animals and the method becomes too expensive. ’ If, however, the burrows are simple and and the soil moist, hisulphid may be used successfully. For pocket gophers an ounce of the liquid for each burrow is sufficient. The carbon bisulphid is ' poured over a bunch of cotton, rags, or other waste material and this quickly pushed into the burrow, which should be closed at once. Co-Operation Necessary. Any farmer may readily rid his prem ises of gophers by the use of poison or traps. i’nless, however, the entire community unites in active and intelli gent co-operation on the destruction of the animals, the cleared area will be sootier or later invaded from neighbor ini. premises, and the work of destruc tion must lie repeated. Co-operation only will effect n radical cure. When j c t Unsafe Location ^ For Farm ( Well. Hi eo-opcrntIve efforts for the extermlna-1 ♦ Ion of gophers over n considerable area aro attempted, fareful attention must *e to waste lands alone fences. I streams, public highways, nnd rail- | roa !■< Such places are favorite haunts of the animals, because fn them are foun.l loo e, sandy soil, moisture, and I succulent roots for food. It. Is from' smh resorts that adjoining farms are of -n restocked with pocket gophers. There are 21,M)0 colored school^ teachers In the United States—7,7u0 men and 12,3o0 women. Blind horses never err In choosing their diet wh^n grazing. Their sense of smell guides them infallibly in the selection of food. The caaba, or racred stone of Mecca Is re-covered every year with datnaah w*nt by the Sultan or Khedive. A ;^;ocover,Dg 0ti °cca*i,oQ*6081 TYPIWII) FEVER OS THE FARM, C. J. Blanchard, U, S, Geological Survey. “More than 40 per cent of the farm wells so far examined in thi3 State have been found to be polluted.” This is a significant statement made by the director of a Stato Board of Health laboratory, in which several thousand well waters hr.vo been examined. It helps to explain why the death rate from typhoid fever is greater in the country than In the city. It is a popular notion of city folk that a vacation in the country is a safeguard against all tho diseases to which the flesh is heir; physicians recognize this when they send their patients away from tho city. The country life is unquestionably tho ideal one; the popular cry “back to nature” has a largo measure of. justification, yet there are thousands of people who return from such an outing consumed "'•th typhoid fever. Why should this bo true? Typhoid an Index to Water Purity. A century of experience has shown that the typhoid rate in anv place is a good index of the purity of the water supply at that place. Therefore, when we find that the typhoid rate in the country is higher in the aggregate than in the city, 4t -can be fairly assumed that country water supplies are not as safe as city -supplies, and this in spite of tho fact that many of our city waters are notoriously bad. Tho state from which the above mentioned testi-^ mony comes is a typical one so far as its proportion of rural pollution is con cerned and that there is no reason to believe that if the matter were investi gated in other states, the conditions farm wells would be in any degree superior. In connection with its investigations of the character of water supplies, the mted States Geological Survey has noted repeatedly that typhoid fever is continuously prevalent in many rural sections. In some cases this condition lias been maintained for so many years that it is accepted by the communities as one of the ordinary incidents of life and becomes a matter of general com ment only during periods of especial virulence. The facts are, that there are comparatively few farm wells lo cated at points not subject to local contamination. » armor’s Swear by Their Wells. It is commonly observed that nearly every farmer believes in tho purity of his well water, especially if the -pi Jia3 -een use for generations., I be Tact that his grandfather believed* the water to be pure is sufficient evi dence for him to defend tho well, even though hfs family ho Vlevastated by typhoid fever. It is sometimes the casG that a well is used even after its taste and odor ought to be sufficient to demonstrate that it is polluted. A notable instance occurred not long Since, in which a certain farmer could not use the water from his well if it wero drawn up by a pump, but if a I Farm Well Located on High Ground and Free From Contamina tion woll swoop wore used and the wafer t«ik< ji from the* surface, no disagree* al»lo foalnrr.H w< r** noted. it was found U|)f>n r,;i .imiilon laat fho s.nk drain wiiioii had boon in use* for generations jmssed close lt» the wed I and a large* |»art of the drainage oniptleel Into it. Tills organic matter settled to the »>ot • otn of th«* well nn»l i>e*ranio putrid. Whenever the pump was used the voter containing this foul matter was dru\«n from tHe* lowe r part of the* well, while that obtainoel from the top by < ;*ns of the well swe ep was above the «>llfnininatle.n atiel eliij not give ev|* e’enoo e»f disagreeable oeior e»r taste, although it contained in solution a larue* amount of filthy matter The do ’ iorah'e; feature of this sltuatirm is fiat |t requires in the* majority of eases only the exercise of eommon s*nse in the selection of a |»oiut at whieh a safe well may he sunk The accompanying illustrations show safe and unsafe we*1l locations That showing the Improper location is thoroughly typical of conditions which may be found repeatedly In rural dis tricts. It is probable that typhoid fever will prevail in the country as long as the habit is common of sinking a well in a convenient, rather than in a safe place. Curias Persimmons. Prom a report recently prepared by David Ci. Fairchild, an explorer ol tbe Department of Agriculture, it appears that persimmons as they are eaten in Japan are as Arm in texture as a Northern Spy apple, free from as tringency, and of a delicious flavor. They are not allowed to ripen to the squashy consistency of the fruit as it is eaten in America. Investigations as to Japanese methods of curing per simmons show that the Japanese put the persimmons in sake (Japanese beer) casks as soon as the casks are emptied. The heads of these casks are immediately replaced and the pack age made air-tight. In from 5 to 15 days, according to weather conditions, tho persimmons are cured and can be removed and marketed, keeping in a Arm, edible condition for a long period. Foreins Rhubarb. Experiments have shown that the most satisfactory results in cultivating rhubarb, are attained by growing the roots from seed and forcing when the plants are one year old. Drying the roots has been found to have the same effect as freezing. Either drying or freezing serves the same purpose as a long rest, which is otherwise required, and tho product is more vigorous. FORCED AND UNFORCED RHUBARB When thus grown in darkness the leaf blade is greatly reduced, the green color is wholly absent, the tex ture is more crisp and delicate, due to a lessened development of woody fiber, the skin is much thinner than when grown in light, the water con tent is increased G to 10 per cent., and the ilavor is generally improved. Rhubarb thus grown commands a fancy price. Strong light injurious to Plants. Strong light has been found in some instances to hinder the growth of pol len tubes of plants. This is thought to b© the reason why tomatoes and cucumbers do not bear fruit in mid summer in Arizona. Strong direct sun light in summer also prevents the plant leaves from assuming the usual green color. Thus, strawberry plants in Arizona are yellow for about three months in summer even when grown under shade of cheese cloth. When grown on the north side of a dense shade of sorghum or cotton the plants remain green and dense all summer and are probably the most vigorous in the garden. Telephones in the Forests. The usefulness of the telephone be> comes more and more apparent as its territory of operation Is extended into remote corners of the globe. Nowadays, the traveler in the heavily wooded sec tions of the north country is amazed when ho sees how the march of pro gress has extended in the shape of telephones in the forest Ufieful as the telephone is in the city, where the steps it saves could some times be compensated for by the use of the automobile, the electric car, or the fast express, it is far more useful in the forest, where are none of these conveniences, and where the canoe or bateau is the common vehicle of travel. In logging operations the telephone now plays a most important part. The dams along the river are built not only to hold water against a time of drought but also to control the llood, so that the riv<T flow may be properly regu lated. To this end a considerable crew of men is kept at the dams all the time, to open or close the gates on short notice. Before the telephones came into use, instructions to the dam crew were conveyed up or down the river by relays of men, stationed at frequent in tervals along the banks, and the mes sage was shouted from one to another. The telephone lines are being ex tended every year, and it will not be long before telephones are almost as common In the woods as thev are in the city. Recently the telephone has been called Into use to aid the wood wardens In fire fighting in the northern and western forests. Fooled by Cleveland's Double. A large man with an impassive face I anil bearing a striking resemblance to an ex-president of the United States walked into the Great Northern Hotel, Chicago, Tuesday evening and regi3 tered as follows on the hotel book: "Grover Cleveland, Princeton. N. J." Two or three bell boys fell over one another in an endeavor to pick up tin- guest's baggage and the clerk smiled hospitably and si^archcd for hi? best room. This was a luxurious apart meni with a double bath. The guest accepted it, took his key, and then, turning to the register scratched off his signature and wrote: ' T. I,. MacKlroy, I^afayette. Ind.” ".lust a bet,” h(. explained to the astonished clerk. "1 manage to double my salary this way. I have tried it successfully on every hotel from New York to Han Francisco. I’m a travel ling man.” Mr. MacElroy secured a more modest apartment, after which he went out to collect his bet. James Lick, founder of the great Lick Observatory on Mount Hamilton, not far from San Jose, California, was in early life a poor Pennsylvania Dutch piano-maker. Because of the growing scarcity of good match timber, matches are being made in vast numbers of paper rolled spirally and dipped in wax or stearins. Only Sore Core. Positive and Pennon ei Absolutely Pore. $1.00 Package cures a ordinary case. $3.00 Package cares a catt or money refund* Sent postpaid on recei of price. A«knts Wa-n Ulasral Heave Remedy Co.. 414 4th Av«., PitUherf, F FAT PEOPLE I Will Send Ton a Trial Treatment Free *tren«U.«tit IL« h- art and enable* you to breath# eaaily, and quickly remove* doubl#. rhin.lari# itoeaeh and fm klpc Prominent phyatciaxia adviao tbnr patient# to take my treatment and lead lac d#et»re them* #*•!•## are my patient#. I absolutely jruaraat## aallafaetloa in rfrj cae# Writ# to-day for free trial treatment. 1 will aleo •end you fretmy new book on nheaity. It will (ire you detailed I outline of n»y treatment; it will i« ernt you free. Addrae# _ HUNKY C. HKAI»FOKl>, M. D., Bradford Baildiaf, Ho Last -.d Mreet, Bow York City. A man, to be perfectly proportioned should weigh, stripped, 30 lbs. for every foot of his height. Making rag dolls is an Industry in which many women are employed. The doll is popular with children and sella well in department stores. Oreat herds of elephants rang© th Abyssinian -country drained by th tTpper Nile. Menelik, the King ow. Abyssinia, recently sent President Roosevelt one of the longest elephant tusks In existence. I can r#dno#your wvirfit Tkr~a to Pit# Pound* a Week and tuna 111 health into robud health, men tal tlufgiahn##* into activity, an I relieve that fe#line *»f fulipou and oppreaaiun by producing healthy d*»ati<>n and aaeiinilatjon. No diata»tef i| dieting or starvat -n, no tMicuiDi, no nauaeatiny dnifa or airkenirf pilla that ruin tlio •touiarh. 1 am a reyalar praetiaieg pkjeieiaa and a ape ciaiiat in the aucceaa ful rod action of iu< perffuoui fat. My new and acientilically p«r Items of Interest. flOING TO BUILD? OUm inm book. u Get beating plana i_ by reading oar fro* Tell* about $40.00 [■ ('end for It today. Wm* Wtmuf k Ventilating Ca.. 744 T.V—XXdg.. <Sgja. ONE DISTINGUISHING FEATURE OF TH» Remington Typewritei 1S> THAT IT LASTS It doe* (food work when it 1* new. and cantinas U> do good work when it 1* old. KExnttTos TirmiuTcit co., tai Your Monty Back If You Want It CWill bring you by mail a 3 os. boa |ofa,,h"Vanilla Crystals. Orange. Lemon. .Almond Clove. Kutmer, • Ginger Rose or Cinnamon Crystal*. The bent Flavoring ever mad*. Non-Alcoholic and Unchangeable is Cooking. Superior to any 'Jie. bottle of Liquid Extract. Endorsed by U. S. Pood Cotnmiaaiaa Send lO Cents to-day to iOS. BUTLER CO.. 17 Battary Plaea. • N. Y. 0N$ Beautiful Flowers FREE OK a P«T»h^ co*t of rarkinu and pottage. Yon bVVi *]**. Hm (irand Collection of B<«u ■ tiful Flowers, an<i our N*-w Seed l.t*», ih« in*»ntl nffur .... I_ _ _ _ /. . .. . thf iin? i offt*r eT#*r n»*vle, an«l a Coupon Check yon one of the fluent Farm Papers published, by sending for tins grand oQer: 25 Package?Seed 1 pkt. Snow t•all A .o r. 1 pkt. A iij.lr Hal.irn 1 pkt. Mixed Portulaca. 1 pkt. M io l Sweet iva. 1 pkt. Sweet Mignonette 1 pkt. Sweet AlySMim. 1 pkt. Sweet William. 1 pkt. Mixed Poppy. 1 pkt. Mixed Candytuft. 1 pkt. Mixed l-arkspur. 1 pkt. Mired Pansy. 1 pkt. Mixed Nasturtium ,C1K11U, •* Itiilha. a Beaut 1 f u 1 Col lertIon. eent with this order. Including Hyacinths, Tulip*. Crocus. Tutw rov., (.ladlolu*, Caladlum, Oxaits, it you will stud at once a cents in *ilver or stamp*. Address 1 pkt. Morning dory, t pkt. Mixed Calliopsla. 1 pkt. Mixed Calendula. 1 pkt. Mixed Xigclia. 1 pkt. Mixed Phlox. 1 pkt. Sunflower. 1 pkt. Sweet Koekef. I pkt. Carnation Pink, t pkt. Mixed Kouro'Ok. 1 pkt. Mixed Mangold. 1 pkt. Mixed Petunm. 1 pkt. Mixed 7-lnnia. 1 pkt. Mixed Verbenla. I CURED MY RUPTURE I Will Show You How To Cure Yours FREE. I wm helpless and bed-ridden for years from a doable rnptnwt No truss could hold. Doctors said I would die if not operated on. I fooled them all and cured myself by a simple discovery. I will send the cure free by mail If you write for it. It cured me and haj since cured thousands. It will cure you. Write to-day. CapL W. A. Collings, Box 117, Wstcrtown, M. Y. Page Poultry fence Costs Less erected than common nettings ; fences poultry in and stock out; requires no boards and but few posts ; never sags, bags, or buck les. and outlasts the posts. Com plete description and prices fur nished on request. Write to-day, - --—• - - a iv'iuvai. mat io-uuy. Page_Woven Wire Fence Co.. Box 922. Adrian. Mich. 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