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TURKEY’S LAST CENTURY OF TROUBLE.
18C8 to 1812—Wars with France, Russia and the Christians. 1812—Peace of Bucharest; less of part of Moldavia and Bessar abia. 1817—Loss of principal mouth of Danube to Russia. 1821—War of Greek independence. 1826— Massacre of Janizaries at Constantinople after a revolt. 1827— Destruction of Turkish fleet at Navarino by powers. 1828— Capture of Adrianople by Russians. 1829— Peace of Adrianople; recognition of* Greece’s freedom. 1831 to 1833—War against Sultan by Pasha of Egypt. 1840—Revolt headed by Mehemet All, who was forced to desist. 1853—Start of new war with Russia. 1856—Defeat of Russia; treaty of Paris. 1875—Revolution by Herzegovina, Montenegrin and Servian prov inces. 1376—Granting of constitution; fruitless conference at The Porte. 1877— Declaration of independence by Roumania; war with Rus sia. 1878— Peace treaty of San Stephano, Turkey getting small end. 1881— French invasion of Tunis; treaty with Greece. 1882— Loss of Thessaly and part of Epirus. 1885— Revolution at Philippopolis; loss of Roumania. 1886— Recognition of loss of Roumania. 1891—Annuling of constitution of 1876. 1908—Regranting of constitution of 1876; political amnesty; other reforms. 1908—Loss of Bulgaria, because of declaration of independence; loss of Crete because of union with Greece and loss of Al bania, on account of declaration of independence. Prospec - tive war. ULTAN ABDUL HAMID II. of Turkey, the people’s choice, popular hero and the inan whose name is a household word through out the Ottoman empire. Never before in history were such nice things said about the • sick nan of Europe.” The reasons thcrefo. are simply the revival of the constitution of 1S76. which bestows upon Turkish subjects many rights' which were taken away years ago. With the revival of the constitution came a general amnesty to all political prisoners and many other details, which were outgrowths of the new order of things. Two years ago if you h»d told an Americanized Turk that you had wit nessed a 47-minute demonstration for the sultan in Constantinople, Jig would have retired behind the coiner lamp post and laughed himself to death. To day he will smile with pleasure, for demonstrations for the former tyrant of the Yildlz are of weekly occurrence. The sultan seldom leaves his palace without his people giving him an ova tion. sM/r/teM. N\AW/<Sf>? /ySot-te y Of roe 16 NITONS Sons t.very rormer subject of Turkev well remembers the Yildlz Kiosk which was declared to be a synonym for Turkish tyranny. The kiosk Is slluatod up •on Ihe Golden Horn and on Ihe croun.ls are ®Gor<>s of pavilions and each evening the stil T?St-W°nt t0 choose one °f the dormitories Jn which to pass the night. Travelers in Turkey declared It was his manner of escaping assassins, for it was never known to outsiders just whore the monarch chose to sleep. “Uneasy rests the head that wears a crown.” said some wise patriarch long ago. The sultan’s rest was probably the un easiest of any in the world during the years ♦hat there was no constitution. He was always surround ed by his own bodyguard; then there was an outer guard and a battalion of soldiers, besides innumerable secret service men. whose business consisted of spying upon the personal bodyguard. Turkey was so full of spies, a tourist declares, that men could not talk freely within the sacred confines of the family home for fear that a kinsman might he in the government s employ as a spy. It is declared that 25 per cent, of the Turkish subjects were spies, em ployed to tell tales about the other 75 per cent. Naturally it was uncomfortable to even think harsh thoughts about his highness. The first demonstration which created a Turkish fad was the ovation given Abdul when ho went to Selamlik • for the customary prayers in the Hnmldie Mosque. He was received with the wildest fervor by his people and lie did an unprecedented thing when he stood up in his carriage to acknowledge his subjects' greetings. That was soon after he proclaimed the constitution of 1876 to be In force. Since that Friday there have been numerous wild cheers for his highness and no longer does he find It necessary to employ substitutes as targets for plans of assassins. The photograph of the sultan accompanying this article Is made from a crayon drawing'for which the ruler posed. It Is probably the only likeness of the mon arch which was ever produced with his consent. It took weeks after the granting of the constitution to recuro his permission to sit for the sketch. He was even then a trifle peevish and the sketch had to be finished in one sitfing of a half hour. The picture is declared to he the hcs» likeness of his majesty which was ever produced. The sultan has never of his own will been photographed since he came to the throne of Turkey. He has shunned camera fiends as he would shun a bomb-throwing enthusiast, but never theless there have been thousands of photos distributed throughout the world. Consequently the reproduction shown in this issue Is the first authPiiUo and official like ness of Sultan Abdul Hamid II. It was made by a noted Turkish artist high In favor In court, circles. The story of the tyranny of Turkish monarchy is a long one and now is said to be ended in the restoration of the constitution. The tale begins with the founding of the empire back In the thirteenth century. The Ottoman Turks came originally f:om Central Asia and In tba sixth century they, in connection with other Turkish tribes, pushed west. From the Saracens they l took their first religion. First the Turks were slaves, * than mercenaries and eventually they succeeded their masters In the caliphate. They next, appeared In the world's history as allies of the Seljuklan Turks early In the thirteenth century. They fought and defeated the Mongols nnd for their efforts received a grant of lands In Asia Minor. Their leader, Osman, became a powerful ruler and immediately after the death of the Sdjuk sul tan he proclaimed himself sultan In his own right. That was late In the thirteenth century. He died a natural death in 1326. Thus we see the Turkish empire founded upon the ruins of the Seljuks, Mongols and Saracens. Passion for military honors and religious fanaticism flowed through the reign of eight princes who followed Osman In the possession of power and as a result the period be tween 1300 and 1566 saw the Turkish empire rals< ^ to the position of one of the first military powers of Eu rope. That was probably the reason that the world to day called the rule of the sultan tyrannical, for he ruled with military discipline to which the remainder of the Inhabitants of the earth ha\y> grown unused. The constitution of 1876 was brought, about through rebellion In various parts of the empire, which started In much the same manner that the revolt of the Young Turks party of today did. It was the stand taken by the latter only a few months ago which caused the sultan to restore the constitution and hand to historians a bit of history to add to the checkered career of the country. It was In 1875. the year before the granting of the original constitution, that the people of Herzegovina de clared they were no longer able to bear the oppression to which they had been subjected. They rebelled and a year later were followed by the Servians and Monte negrins. The Servians a few months later abandoned the war. but the Montenegrins fought on. The powers of Europe, tired of the tnctlcs taken by rulers of Turkey, kept pressing the Ottoman sultan strong er and stronger in the direction of reform. Toward the latter part of the year 1876 a big conference convened at Constantinople with a view towards making some sort of a settlement. The recommendations of the confab wore unceremoniously rejected by the Turkish govern ment. Then Russia became wrathy and Issued a sensa tional manifesto, telling the Turk that the Slav bear wai about to consume him. A great war followed and the Turk was beaten. In order to hold what few subjects he had left to his cause, the constitution was granted by the sultan. A few years ago It was said that tho great power* of the world were arming to lay hands upon certain parts of the Ottoman empire which were most suited to their immediate purposes. The “sick man of Europe" didn’t pay his debts as quickly as the powers thought he ought to and the frequent, demonstra (Ions which occurred in the vicinity of The I’orte grew to be of a menacing character, It being the belief of many experts on International affairs that sooner or later some of the demonstrators would shell the sacred city and take therefrom their dues. Latest developments In tin* Turkish situation pointed to war. For a while It looked like a war In which all F.u rope would take part. In the ante-bellum talk Servla. Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Greece and a few of the others were apparently prominent movers. The trouble of the present year started with Bulgaria announcing Its Independence from Turkey. Of course that made the sultan awfully mad and his people having recently become his friends, became equal ly sore on the proposition. The Turkish ministers then held a cabinet session at the monarch's settee and de clared that Bulgaria should not become Independent. So forthwith the dally papers summed up the fighting strength of the two nations In time <*f war and In time of peace and found that Turkey had about !,000,000 men ready to go Into the field. Bulgaria had far less at that time. When that had been decided Crete announced Its In dependence also and as a protective measure united with Greece, which declared It would protect Crote to the best of Its ability. Then the Aunauts of A1ba.iia pro claimed that they were no longer servants of the Turkish government. With everybody proclaiming Independence it began to look as If there would remain llttlo of Turkey with the exception of Constantinople, aud the danger existed that some of the ever-ready powers would per haps devour The Porte Itself. The Berlin treaty, a sort of protective measure which experts took as n plan of Turkey’s to keep It from losing lots of Its small territories, bothered Kussla, France, Germany, England and several other signers. Now that there was likely to be war nol>ndy wanted to be the ’’fall guy,” so the revision of the articles of the document was strongly suggested by St. Petersburg. America was only a looker-on In this trouble and was not likely to get mixed up In It at any time. But the other powers who have always had an Itching of the palm whon Turkey was mentioned were said to crave a chance to tear off a yard or two of the Ottoman map for themselves. Austria Hungary was the first to make a move In that direction. The people of Servla simply ached for war. The farmers, merchants and every citizen promised to contribute to the expenses of war and those who had no cash to contribute went out on the streets late at night and rioted fo* (he purpose of calling attention to the fact that the/ demanded war and the stlffeat kind of ZlBDi/l /YBBf/BB C/ffi/PMGF a fight to settle Europe’s little argument of “who’s to get the Turk?” However, to date these conditions had become of serious character, but the longing to possess Turk ish lands still lingered In the breasts of the war dogs of the old hemisphere. So It was natural that with the revolt of the Young Turks gaining sway throughout th* Interior the sultan should scent dnnger from afar. Had the Young Turks overcome the empire It would have been but. the work of a few weeks before the collections of the great powers would have been made by taking binds most suitable to their purposes, war authorities declare. So his royal highness capitulated. Ho granted the same constitution which had appeased the peopls during the struggle of 1876, but which he later took away. Abdul Hamid felt that he could ward off danger from without or within, hut he could not hold his own with the struggle going on both without and within, so he ap plied the easing process where he had power to do so. Since the conclusion of the treaty of Merlin, which ter minated the wars of 1876-77, were the French Invasion of Tunis In 1881, the treaty with Oreece, the same year by which Turkey ceded to the former country the whole of Thessaly and a strip of Epirus; the occupation of Egypt by Oreat Britain In 1882; and the revolution at Phlllppopolls In 1886, when the government of Eastern Itouiiiolia was overthrown and the union of that country with Bulgaria was effected. The results of that revolu tion were in 1886 recognized by imperial flrmln. The last event which attracted world wide notice was the granting of the constitution this year. WA LKERS OF THE PAS 7 The recent walking matches at. the stadium take the memory back to the late ’70s, when similar long distance competitions flourished amazingly under the aegis of Sir John Astley and when E. P. Weston, Howes, Vaughan and Hlbberd were the heroes of the hour. Though Weston, the pioneer, accomplished some fine performances, they were soon eclipsed by our own walk ers, whose feats created a great sensation at the time. One of the best of them ail was Hilly Howes, a little one eyed athlete, who walked 100 miles In the truly marvelous time of 18 hours, 8 minutes, 15 seconds, a record which still remains unapproached. Hlbberd covered 50 miles in 7 hours 54 mirnites 16 seconds, nnd without stopping lowered all existing records up to 70 mil**, for which distance his time was 11 hours 38 minute* 35 seconds. Even more wonderful was the performance of George Littlewood, who at Sheffield tramped b3l miles in IS j> hours 48 minutes 30 seconds, an average of not muc • less than four miles an hbur, night and day, betwee Sunday and Sunday.—WcAir'nster Gazette.