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ccws?/P/^7S* CJV&^T/P ^yy^r~ CTO^l O/P^s&C? sP/S<??& 1?1wmw^m yy^^yy^ sz? y^i^r /s~ y-f cy^i^Pyr^y Projects in View Fifteen Times theTotal Area of Those ? Already Undertaken ? Some of the Miracles Achieved By Engineers in Transforming Deserts Into Gardens. BY RENK BACHF OS'E-SIXTH of the total area of the United States is absolute desert. Nineteen-t wentieths of this desert is hopeless, irreclaim able. The remaining 5 per cent, can j be watered by irrigation. That is the business of the Re clamation Service, which has already succeeded in transforming 2.000.000 acres of desert intokgarden spots that rival In fruitfulness the most pro ductive agricultural tracts in the world. These areas, in formerly wa terless valleys, are widely scattered over the West and Southwest. Thev are. properly speaking, oases, artifi cially created. What has heen done, however, is only one-sixteenth of the entire work, j There (s water available for 30.000.000 j additional desert acres, and plans to | furnish it have been made. When the tremendous task is completed, a ! total area somewhat greater than that j of the State of Ohio will have been reclaimed. The 2.000.000 acres already re claimed support 400,000 people. The j 30.000.000 acres to he watered will | provide a living for K.ooo.000. What makes a desert? Lack of water. The African Sahara is a desert for no other reason: if it could be watered, it would be one of the most fruitful regions on the earth. The dry valleys of our West have a -oil of wonderful richness, requiring no fertilizer, but for lack of water j they are barren. Creation Of Storage Tanks Happily, it is practicable in some! instances to irrigate these valleys, by I bringing water into them through canals, or by storing winter rainfall j In reservoirs high up In the moun- i tains In .each instance of the kind i there is a special problem to be tackled by the engineers. and in over coming the difficulties involved they have done things which approach the miraculous. It is true that a bigger job than any they have yet undertaken now confronts them. It is the damming I of the great Colorado Canyon, where- j by the largest irrigation reservoir in I the world will be created, holding j enough water to form a lake 1.000 square miles in surface area and 33 feet deep. For the erection of the dam. choice I has been made of a narrow place in j the canyon, where there are suitable ' abutments of rock on both sides. At that point the great cut, chiseled by the river that runs through it. is near lv .a mile deep. The dam will be 2.000 feet long and *>00 feet high, and. together with the contemplated power plant at the site, will cost about $50,000,000. It will reclaim more than 1.000.000 acr?s of desert that is now worthless and uninhabitable, and I the power incidentally developed will ! be distributed. In the form of elec- I tricitv. over a vast region. ? Though so huge a job. the project j above described offers difficulties by j no means so great as some which have confronted the engineers else where. and which they have success fully overcome. For example, there was the puzzle they struck in the 1'ncompahgre Valley of Colorado. It I is one of the most beautiful valleys ! In the world, and was watered, though not plentifully. Settlers who went in | there in large numbers found that 1 there was not enough water for their | crops, and appealed to the Reolama tion Service for help. \erontplisbing The Impossible The provoking thing: about the sit uation was that there was a good sized river not far away. Hut the river, running through the Gunnison Canyon, was separated from the va!le\ by a mountain range half a mile high and six miles thick. The canyon is walled by almost vertical cliffs, and no man had ever gone through it alive. Nevertheless, two engineers, let down into it by ropes, found a place where the beginning of a tunnel could be made. The tunnel was dug from both ends, the workers meeting in the middle of the mountain, and now a big cement-lined pipe runs through the range, supplying 13.aoo cubic feet of water per second for irrigating 135.000 acres of land in the I'ncom pahgre Valley Where the Colorado Canyon dam is concerned, a very important object in view is to control the waters of the I Colorado River and so prevent floods | which at frequent intervals do enor j rnotis damage. The same sort of trou ble made the turbulent Rio Grande a ! menace until, only a few years ago. that stream was brought under dis cipline hv the construction of the Ele phant Butte dam, in south-central Xet^ Mexico. The Elephant Butte dam is bigger than the famous Roosevelt dam. It is 305 feet high, and creates a reservoir which contains enough water to rover the whole State of Connecticut to ^ depth of 10 inches. The lake which it forms is forty miles long and over 200 feet deep. Inasmuch as all the tributaries of the Rio Grande enter ? that stream above th? dam. the latter controls the entire flood discharge of the river it cost $S.000.000. The wa ter which it conserves irrigates iso. j 000 acres, some of it being poured , out over the thirsty land through j ditihes ihat were used by the ahori . gtfcs for the same purpose when jt'fjronado marched up the vallev at thi head of his hand of Spanish ad j venturers. .Marvels Of F.ngtneoring The Roosevelt darn, in the Salt ; River valley of Arizona, spans a deep i mountain gorge. It is 2S0 feet high, and forms a lake twenty-five square I miles in area and 200 feet deep. Th' | lake contains enough water to cover the whole State of Delaware a foot deep?or. putting it otherwise, to Ml a canal 300 feet wide and IP feet doi-p extending nil the way from Detroit to i San Francisco. When a big problem of desert ir rigation is under consideration, the engineers pick out a place in the mountains where there is a great hol low that will serve the purpose of i tank. Then, after darning the gaps between the hills, they turn a river r r j into it. Thus describes in a general i way the srhenw, which, of course, varies with natural condition.* as they , urn found to exist. Thus in working out. th? Hondo Projedt. in the Pecos Valley of southeast New Mexico, five i Mich caps were stopped, the result i being the creatgon of a vast reservoir of water in storage. In Western -Nevada is the Forty Mile l tesert which in ancient times was the lied of a large lake. The four principal rivers of Nevada then (lowed tnfo it. Rut the rivers ceased to flow, the Ilk0 dried up, and its former bottom "became an uninhabit able region, the abode of drought and desolation. Many people, trying to cross ir, found, their craves rhere in the fifties and later, through igno rance of the fact that rhev could have obtained plenty o'f water by digging a few feet down. Much of this area lias been con verted into a garden by the govern ment englnet rV-, who look bold of the ' Truekeo River and turned it out of | ;t? bed Into the Parson Valley through 1 a canal thirty-one miles long. Not 'content with that, they went up into the mountains and tapped for water a magnificent. sheet called Lake Tahoe. There was, you see, plenty of water to he had, but It was necessary In go after It. When it. was supplied, the desert was a desert no longer. Washing Away The Ilills On the Okanogan Project, in the State of Washington, a vast reservoir [ has been formed by the erection of a dam of earth 1,000 feet long and 60 feet high. It was built in a very odd | way. Down a mountain side ran a small brook so steeply as to furnish a great deal of power, which was used to operate a giant hose. The stream from this hose, directed against the sides of a gorge, washed away the material required to block the gorge and thus fill the gap between two hills likewise of earth is the great Owl Creek irrigation dam, in South Da kota. It is a mile and a fifth long and 100 feet high. The water impounded by it moistens 120,000 acres. The Pathfinder Dam, in Wyoming, is 225 j feet in height, and is the means whereby 400,ooo acres are watered. The artificial lake which it creates holds enough water to cover the whole State of Rhode Island to a depth of 12 inches. The Shoshone Dam is In Wyoming, seventy-five miles east of the Yellow stone National Park. It is 328 feet hich, and recreates a prehistoric lake, i | An ancient stream, flowing out of the lake, cut in the course of ages a | poree so deep that the lake was emptied and ceased to exist. The engineers closed up the gorge with a dam. enabling (he hollow in the mountains to hold water again, and today the recreated lake covers ten square miles, the fluid it stores serv I ing to irrigate 150.000 acres. . To re I store the lake, part of the Shoshone j River was diverted from Its course, 'so that it. might he poured into the hollow and keep the latter properly filled. The Lacuna Dam (Arizona-Call* fornia) is on the Colorado RlV*r. above Yuma. Jt is 4.780 feet long, and rests upon the quicksands of^thd river's bed, being: held in place by Kf r own weight. Most of the water whicfcfV#; it impounds during the winter -tlm*:# is brought down in the dry month* on the California side, by canal, be cause on the Arizona side the Oil* River is in the way. To get it over to Arizona, it is siphoned under the Colorado River through a cement lined tube 1,000 feet long and 14 feet in diameter. This is practicable be cause the ievel of the land on the California side is much higher. Pow- : er. incidentally developed, is used to ? pump some of the water up onto * * ? high mesa, where it is utilized for th* growing of crops. * y Water Power For Electricity On the various Irrigation project* water power is commonly used for the production of electricity, for light ing and other purposes. Usually thlf j feature is a public utility; but the In- . dividual settler can make the "Juice" | for himself if he chooses, He get* hi* " water (derived from the main canal) _ 1 through a ditch, into which it pour* * . with a small fall. The fall represent* power, which is convertible into el*e .ricity by the help of simple' machln- v cry, the Cost of currept being almost * nothing per kilowatt hour. At Minnedoka. in Idaho, is the *o? * called Electric Project, which get* It*".* name from the fact that everything In the place is run by electricity. Th* <S "juice," in fact, is in more general A use there than anyjvhere else In th* ^ world, even the cooking being doof.'^ by the housewives on electric raflff*^. g This implies, of course, that the el#0- 't tricity is cheap. There happens to Mg. 2 on thaf project a great deal of sag* * plus power, which is turned to **? ^ count in the production of elctrteMJI; |AHONCTMtyv*PVIE' ?STAR5 c==? ' yyy ~??/js&sPCsr C&ct&o/yjr ~ ^Jn c ^fr/p/p>^ /?o?/?/y?> //y' vy/A' /v/^^/r ~ V cscsf/y S"co7~7 1-/pr/rj?r/yy&/y \//y "7^r/fia| ^?P&B I /X?rs7~" IS///T/P/.OC/T ^ = /f/YO C/CY/YY YPSVVYT/PS//Y SOt/SY/CY~<.S<YW s&fvpy Msy/y/y - ? ? ^ Alice Terry ? "Divorce Coupons" ? "The Timber Queen" ?"South of the Suva"-Mary Wynn - j "The Love Nest"-Eille Norwood. CWO years ago Alio* Terry. nnw [ nineteen years ol'l. was attending ? high school in a small town in Illinois. She took a trip West, i Arriving In Los Angelos. the girl with j the spun gold hair and the Madonna smile soon caught the fever that per meates the motion picture colony in Hollywood While visiting a studio she received an offer to do "atmos phere." Then came Rex Ingram, famous d1 r?'"or He was looking for a girl i<? plav an :nipo?-tant role in "Hearts Are Tramps." Alice Terry seemed made ser the part, and she was promptly engaged Then came other triumphs. She played Marguerite T.atirier in "The Four Horsemen of the Apo calypse"; Eugenie Orandet in "The Conquering Power" and Elsie Tilling er In "Turn to the Right." Her latest role Is that of the lovely Princess Flavta. In "The prisoner, of Zenda " Aa the charming noblewoman who must choose between love and loyalty. Miss Terry presents an appealing and i sympathetic characterisation. In private kfe Miss Terry is Mrs j Ingram, having been married to rh* ' director several months ago, during j the course of the production of "Ti?e j Prisoner of Zenda." "Plvonv Coupons" Corinne Griffith in "Divorce Coti-' pons" plays 'hp part of a lift!" girl ' who lives in the South and where, as she burls into womanhood, she longs for something more than the languid and prosaic life on a plantation. Then conies the opportunitv. A man of great wealth falls in love with her and offer? to take her away to the life that she desires. They marry, and ' the Kirl realize* soon after that mar riage without love is a frui\ without I flavor <">n this premise is built th?? j subsequent tense situations which j make "Divorce Coupon?" a photoplay ! of unusual suspense. |n the support | of Miss OnflUh are Holmes f\. Her- ! | bert, Vincent Coleman and Mma Lisa ' "The Timber Quoth" Marked by daring riding, and i | brand of thrills surpassing her pre j vlous serials. Ruth Roland in "The j Timber Queen." reveals a new prow- | ess as a horsewoman In every episode. I b"he dashes madly across the plains on an unbroken mUHtang. On horse back she leap* a canyon gap thou- I -and? of feet above the stream below, j She races a horse to a neck-and neck victory and wins the horse race Classic. Coer the rocky Sierras, in the forest, on the prairie, this serial beauty has conceived and enacted <a play which has well hcen labeled tlm i surprise-,a s?-i ond serial Th"> varied locations will also make I L *?rr^> their appeal. In- the Vorthwejrt. In snow capped Alaska, in balmy Argen tine. or. land, on sea, in air. In auto, on steamer, on sled and particularly on horreback. . "South Of The Sura" Phyllis Latimer and Pauline Leonard are bound to Suva in the Fiji Islands. f'n shipboard Pauline decides to continue with a man. she falls in love with?and not to loin John Webster, the miardian to whom she was poinp but bad never seen Phvlli.s Is on her way to join her husband who left for the Fljls after her marriape three years before On | reaching his plantation she finds him drunk and degenerate, a prey to the Insidious Influences of the tropics She | aarees ro help him towards reponera tton. but he continues his dissipations with the natives and she flees to Suva, where she uses the letters of Pauline j L?onard to pose as the ward of John J Webster, a successful plantation oei;. er. Latimer incites the Islanders! apalnst Webster, who repels the at- i TO tack by dynamiting the lacnon. kill ing a number of the native*. Webster goes to Suva for authority to have Latinier deported. While he is away the latter sneaks In to burn and destroy finds his wife, and takes her bark to his island Failing t? break her spirit, he turns her ovrr to tlte natives who propose to hold rannlballst lr rites to appease the wrath of th? gods. Phyllis hail taken money from | Webster's safe to wire The real ward. I Pauline, and Webster misunderstands j her flight until (he real Pauline ar rives Then he embarks for the Lati mer Island In time to save Phyllis front the cannibalistic fate in stor" for her. Latimer is killed during the rescue. Phyllis is now free to marry | John whom she has- lenrtu-d to love. Mary Miles Minter takes the pirt-of Phyllis and John Powers that of ] . Webster. -The l.ovo Vest" ! , The dauph'er of >1 hoarding house 1 keeper on flsiterfolk"? i?!and falls in . love with a handsome stranger who 1 I A A h : -''I n I \ -i .? ?? ? i i >;; V I \ i milr,'. Ill till- Is'.TM.) ?h"$ n.HTts h??r fiirmi'i' ,::utor, who <!o |i:irrs for tho .? frto ohr.iii an c<!u r-ji? !?iti on nion.'v nlitalnm) In his fath er in s?-)lini: i rook !? diro in thn <1 iMtn-'-r In i -loni iiini* I ho rojorfod IrinT ri'inins. nnii m n halt In .viih a| ._5Z^3Z smuggler proves to the girl that he renlly Is a man. Tito stranger also proves lie is a fighter. but too girl discovers that she was only "tla**led" bv his attractiveness and that she does not love him. !I?? explains his pres mt'i' by the fact that he sought to hide until a certain legal aftatr "blew over." Jean Scott. Richard Travers and ? Robert Kenyon play the principal.^ roles Mary Wynn ? Winsome Mary Wynn, a demure Ilt?. tie lady of seventeen years, has won a peace for herself in the film firmament. J She had a small part In "A Bride of 4 The Oods." and one of the principal roles in "The Man Who Smiled." Mary Wynn is a highly attractive ij blonde. Shp was born in San Fran- | c-isco. bt:t has resided In Los Angela* ] for the past six years, during wbldl ^ time she has earned an enviable f*P*< -'i utation as a classic dar.cer, appear!!?-' ,'j at many public functions. EJIle Norwood ^ Kille Norwood makes an Ideal 8hth lock Holmes in the film producfioaa gf ?' 1 the famous stories by Conan Doylw. ] "The ;>vil"s Foot" is the current. ?g> j lease.