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Projects in View Fifteen Times theTotal Area of Those
? Already Undertaken ? Some of the Miracles
Achieved By Engineers in Transforming
Deserts Into Gardens.
BY RENK BACHF
OS'E-SIXTH of the total area of
the United States is absolute
desert. Nineteen-t wentieths of
this desert is hopeless, irreclaim
able. The remaining 5 per cent, can j
be watered by irrigation.
That is the business of the Re
clamation Service, which has already
succeeded in transforming 2.000.000
acres of desert intokgarden spots that
rival In fruitfulness the most pro
ductive agricultural tracts in the
world. These areas, in formerly wa
terless valleys, are widely scattered
over the West and Southwest. Thev
are. properly speaking, oases, artifi
What has heen done, however, is
only one-sixteenth of the entire work, j
There (s water available for 30.000.000 j
additional desert acres, and plans to |
furnish it have been made. When
the tremendous task is completed, a !
total area somewhat greater than that j
of the State of Ohio will have been
The 2.000.000 acres already re
claimed support 400,000 people. The j
30.000.000 acres to he watered will |
provide a living for K.ooo.000.
What makes a desert? Lack of
water. The African Sahara is a
desert for no other reason: if it could
be watered, it would be one of the
most fruitful regions on the earth.
The dry valleys of our West have a
-oil of wonderful richness, requiring
no fertilizer, but for lack of water j
they are barren.
Creation Of Storage Tanks
Happily, it is practicable in some!
instances to irrigate these valleys, by I
bringing water into them through
canals, or by storing winter rainfall j
In reservoirs high up In the moun- i
tains In .each instance of the kind i
there is a special problem to be
tackled by the engineers. and in over
coming the difficulties involved they
have done things which approach the
It is true that a bigger job than
any they have yet undertaken now
confronts them. It is the damming I
of the great Colorado Canyon, where- j
by the largest irrigation reservoir in I
the world will be created, holding j
enough water to form a lake 1.000
square miles in surface area and 33
For the erection of the dam. choice I
has been made of a narrow place in j
the canyon, where there are suitable '
abutments of rock on both sides. At
that point the great cut, chiseled by
the river that runs through it. is near
lv .a mile deep. The dam will be
2.000 feet long and *>00 feet high,
and. together with the contemplated
power plant at the site, will cost about
$50,000,000. It will reclaim more
than 1.000.000 acr?s of desert that is
now worthless and uninhabitable, and I
the power incidentally developed will !
be distributed. In the form of elec- I
tricitv. over a vast region.
? Though so huge a job. the project j
above described offers difficulties by j
no means so great as some which
have confronted the engineers else
where. and which they have success
fully overcome. For example, there
was the puzzle they struck in the
1'ncompahgre Valley of Colorado. It
I is one of the most beautiful valleys
! In the world, and was watered, though
not plentifully. Settlers who went in
| there in large numbers found that
1 there was not enough water for their
| crops, and appealed to the Reolama
tion Service for help.
\erontplisbing The Impossible
The provoking thing: about the sit
uation was that there was a good
sized river not far away. Hut the
river, running through the Gunnison
Canyon, was separated from the va!le\
by a mountain range half a mile high
and six miles thick. The canyon is
walled by almost vertical cliffs, and no
man had ever gone through it alive.
Nevertheless, two engineers, let down
into it by ropes, found a place where
the beginning of a tunnel could be
made. The tunnel was dug from both
ends, the workers meeting in the
middle of the mountain, and now a
big cement-lined pipe runs through
the range, supplying 13.aoo cubic feet
of water per second for irrigating
135.000 acres of land in the I'ncom
Where the Colorado Canyon dam is
concerned, a very important object in
view is to control the waters of the
I Colorado River and so prevent floods
| which at frequent intervals do enor
j rnotis damage. The same sort of trou
ble made the turbulent Rio Grande a
! menace until, only a few years ago.
that stream was brought under dis
cipline hv the construction of the Ele
phant Butte dam, in south-central
The Elephant Butte dam is bigger
than the famous Roosevelt dam. It is
305 feet high, and creates a reservoir
which contains enough water to rover
the whole State of Connecticut to ^
depth of 10 inches. The lake which
it forms is forty miles long and over
200 feet deep. Inasmuch as all the
tributaries of the Rio Grande enter
? that stream above th? dam. the latter
controls the entire flood discharge of
the river it cost $S.000.000. The wa
ter which it conserves irrigates iso.
j 000 acres, some of it being poured
, out over the thirsty land through
j ditihes ihat were used by the ahori
. gtfcs for the same purpose when
jt'fjronado marched up the vallev at
thi head of his hand of Spanish ad
.Marvels Of F.ngtneoring
The Roosevelt darn, in the Salt
; River valley of Arizona, spans a deep
i mountain gorge. It is 2S0 feet high,
and forms a lake twenty-five square
I miles in area and 200 feet deep. Th'
| lake contains enough water to cover
the whole State of Delaware a foot
deep?or. putting it otherwise, to Ml
a canal 300 feet wide and IP feet doi-p
extending nil the way from Detroit to
i San Francisco.
When a big problem of desert ir
rigation is under consideration, the
engineers pick out a place in the
mountains where there is a great hol
low that will serve the purpose of i
tank. Then, after darning the gaps
between the hills, they turn a river
j into it. Thus describes in a general
i way the srhenw, which, of course,
varies with natural condition.* as they
, urn found to exist. Thus in working
out. th? Hondo Projedt. in the Pecos
Valley of southeast New Mexico, five
i Mich caps were stopped, the result
i being the creatgon of a vast reservoir
of water in storage.
In Western -Nevada is the Forty
Mile l tesert which in ancient times
was the lied of a large lake. The
four principal rivers of Nevada then
(lowed tnfo it. Rut the rivers ceased
to flow, the Ilk0 dried up, and its
former bottom "became an uninhabit
able region, the abode of drought and
desolation. Many people, trying to
cross ir, found, their craves rhere in
the fifties and later, through igno
rance of the fact that rhev could have
obtained plenty o'f water by digging
a few feet down.
Much of this area lias been con
verted into a garden by the govern
ment englnet rV-, who look bold of the
' Truekeo River and turned it out of
| ;t? bed Into the Parson Valley through
1 a canal thirty-one miles long. Not
'content with that, they went up into
the mountains and tapped for water
a magnificent. sheet called Lake
Tahoe. There was, you see, plenty of
water to he had, but It was necessary
In go after It. When it. was supplied,
the desert was a desert no longer.
Washing Away The Ilills
On the Okanogan Project, in the
State of Washington, a vast reservoir
[ has been formed by the erection of a
dam of earth 1,000 feet long and 60
feet high. It was built in a very odd
| way. Down a mountain side ran a
small brook so steeply as to furnish a
great deal of power, which was used
to operate a giant hose. The stream
from this hose, directed against the
sides of a gorge, washed away the
material required to block the gorge
and thus fill the gap between two hills
likewise of earth is the great Owl
Creek irrigation dam, in South Da
kota. It is a mile and a fifth long and
100 feet high. The water impounded
by it moistens 120,000 acres. The
Pathfinder Dam, in Wyoming, is 225
j feet in height, and is the means
whereby 400,ooo acres are watered.
The artificial lake which it creates
holds enough water to cover the
whole State of Rhode Island to a
depth of 12 inches.
The Shoshone Dam is In Wyoming,
seventy-five miles east of the Yellow
stone National Park. It is 328 feet
hich, and recreates a prehistoric lake, i
| An ancient stream, flowing out of the
lake, cut in the course of ages a |
poree so deep that the lake was
emptied and ceased to exist. The
engineers closed up the gorge with a
dam. enabling (he hollow in the
mountains to hold water again, and
today the recreated lake covers ten
square miles, the fluid it stores serv
I ing to irrigate 150.000 acres. . To re
I store the lake, part of the Shoshone
j River was diverted from Its course,
'so that it. might he poured into the
hollow and keep the latter properly
The Lacuna Dam (Arizona-Call*
fornia) is on the Colorado RlV*r.
above Yuma. Jt is 4.780 feet long,
and rests upon the quicksands of^thd
river's bed, being: held in place by Kf r
own weight. Most of the water whicfcfV#;
it impounds during the winter -tlm*:#
is brought down in the dry month*
on the California side, by canal, be
cause on the Arizona side the Oil*
River is in the way. To get it over
to Arizona, it is siphoned under the
Colorado River through a cement
lined tube 1,000 feet long and 14 feet
in diameter. This is practicable be
cause the ievel of the land on the
California side is much higher. Pow- :
er. incidentally developed, is used to ?
pump some of the water up onto * * ?
high mesa, where it is utilized for th*
growing of crops.
Water Power For Electricity
On the various Irrigation project*
water power is commonly used for
the production of electricity, for light
ing and other purposes. Usually thlf j
feature is a public utility; but the In- .
dividual settler can make the "Juice" |
for himself if he chooses, He get* hi* "
water (derived from the main canal) _ 1
through a ditch, into which it pour* * .
with a small fall. The fall represent*
power, which is convertible into el*e
.ricity by the help of simple' machln- v
cry, the Cost of currept being almost *
nothing per kilowatt hour.
At Minnedoka. in Idaho, is the *o? *
called Electric Project, which get* It*".*
name from the fact that everything In
the place is run by electricity. Th* <S
"juice," in fact, is in more general A
use there than anyjvhere else In th* ^
world, even the cooking being doof.'^
by the housewives on electric raflff*^. g
This implies, of course, that the el#0- 't
tricity is cheap. There happens to Mg. 2
on thaf project a great deal of sag* *
plus power, which is turned to **? ^
count in the production of elctrteMJI;
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/f/YO C/CY/YY YPSVVYT/PS//Y SOt/SY/CY~<.S<YW
s&fvpy Msy/y/y - ? ? ^
Alice Terry ? "Divorce Coupons" ? "The Timber
Queen" ?"South of the Suva"-Mary Wynn - j
"The Love Nest"-Eille Norwood.
CWO years ago Alio* Terry. nnw [
nineteen years ol'l. was attending ?
high school in a small town in
Illinois. She took a trip West, i
Arriving In Los Angelos. the girl with j
the spun gold hair and the Madonna
smile soon caught the fever that per
meates the motion picture colony in
Hollywood While visiting a studio
she received an offer to do "atmos
Then came Rex Ingram, famous d1
r?'"or He was looking for a girl i<?
plav an :nipo?-tant role in "Hearts Are
Tramps." Alice Terry seemed made
ser the part, and she was promptly
engaged Then came other triumphs.
She played Marguerite T.atirier in
"The Four Horsemen of the Apo
calypse"; Eugenie Orandet in "The
Conquering Power" and Elsie Tilling
er In "Turn to the Right." Her latest
role Is that of the lovely Princess
Flavta. In "The prisoner, of Zenda "
Aa the charming noblewoman who
must choose between love and loyalty.
Miss Terry presents an appealing and i
In private kfe Miss Terry is Mrs j
Ingram, having been married to rh* '
director several months ago, during j
the course of the production of "Ti?e j
Prisoner of Zenda."
Corinne Griffith in "Divorce Coti-'
pons" plays 'hp part of a lift!" girl '
who lives in the South and where, as
she burls into womanhood, she longs
for something more than the languid
and prosaic life on a plantation.
Then conies the opportunitv. A
man of great wealth falls in love with
her and offer? to take her away to the
life that she desires. They marry, and '
the Kirl realize* soon after that mar
riage without love is a frui\ without I
flavor <">n this premise is built th?? j
subsequent tense situations which j
make "Divorce Coupon?" a photoplay !
of unusual suspense. |n the support |
of Miss OnflUh are Holmes f\. Her- !
| bert, Vincent Coleman and Mma Lisa '
"The Timber Quoth"
Marked by daring riding, and i |
brand of thrills surpassing her pre j
vlous serials. Ruth Roland in "The j
Timber Queen." reveals a new prow- |
ess as a horsewoman In every episode. I
b"he dashes madly across the plains
on an unbroken mUHtang. On horse
back she leap* a canyon gap thou- I
-and? of feet above the stream below, j
She races a horse to a neck-and neck
victory and wins the horse race
Classic. Coer the rocky Sierras, in
the forest, on the prairie, this serial
beauty has conceived and enacted <a
play which has well hcen labeled tlm i
surprise-,a s?-i ond serial
Th"> varied locations will also make I
their appeal. In- the Vorthwejrt. In
snow capped Alaska, in balmy Argen
tine. or. land, on sea, in air. In auto,
on steamer, on sled and particularly
on horreback. .
"South Of The Sura"
Phyllis Latimer and Pauline
Leonard are bound to Suva in the
Fiji Islands. f'n shipboard Pauline
decides to continue with a man. she
falls in love with?and not to loin
John Webster, the miardian to whom
she was poinp but bad never seen
Phvlli.s Is on her way to join her
husband who left for the Fljls after
her marriape three years before On |
reaching his plantation she finds him
drunk and degenerate, a prey to the
Insidious Influences of the tropics She |
aarees ro help him towards reponera
tton. but he continues his dissipations
with the natives and she flees to Suva,
where she uses the letters of Pauline j
L?onard to pose as the ward of John J
Webster, a successful plantation oei;.
er. Latimer incites the Islanders!
apalnst Webster, who repels the at- i
tack by dynamiting the lacnon. kill
ing a number of the native*.
Webster goes to Suva for authority
to have Latinier deported. While he
is away the latter sneaks In to burn
and destroy finds his wife, and takes
her bark to his island Failing t?
break her spirit, he turns her ovrr
to tlte natives who propose to hold
rannlballst lr rites to appease the
wrath of th? gods.
Phyllis hail taken money from |
Webster's safe to wire The real ward. I
Pauline, and Webster misunderstands j
her flight until (he real Pauline ar
rives Then he embarks for the Lati
mer Island In time to save Phyllis
front the cannibalistic fate in stor"
for her. Latimer is killed during the
rescue. Phyllis is now free to marry |
John whom she has- lenrtu-d to love.
Mary Miles Minter takes the pirt-of
Phyllis and John Powers that of ] .
-The l.ovo Vest" ! ,
The dauph'er of >1 hoarding house 1
keeper on flsiterfolk"? i?!and falls in .
love with a handsome stranger who 1 I
A A h :
n I \ -i .? ?? ? i i >;; V I \ i milr,'. Ill till- Is'.TM.) ?h"$
n.HTts h??r fiirmi'i' ,::utor, who <!o
|i:irrs for tho .? frto ohr.iii an c<!u
r-ji? !?iti on nion.'v nlitalnm) In his fath
er in s?-)lini: i rook !? diro in thn
<1 iMtn-'-r In i -loni iiini* I ho rojorfod
IrinT ri'inins. nnii m n halt In .viih a|
smuggler proves to the girl that he
renlly Is a man. Tito stranger also
proves lie is a fighter. but too girl
discovers that she was only "tla**led"
bv his attractiveness and that she does
not love him. !I?? explains his pres
mt'i' by the fact that he sought to
hide until a certain legal aftatr
Jean Scott. Richard Travers and ?
Robert Kenyon play the principal.^
Winsome Mary Wynn, a demure Ilt?.
tie lady of seventeen years, has won a
peace for herself in the film firmament. J
She had a small part In "A Bride of 4
The Oods." and one of the principal
roles in "The Man Who Smiled."
Mary Wynn is a highly attractive ij
blonde. Shp was born in San Fran- |
c-isco. bt:t has resided In Los Angela* ]
for the past six years, during wbldl ^
time she has earned an enviable f*P*< -'i
utation as a classic dar.cer, appear!!?-' ,'j
at many public functions.
EJIle Norwood ^
Kille Norwood makes an Ideal 8hth
lock Holmes in the film producfioaa gf ?' 1
the famous stories by Conan Doylw. ]
"The ;>vil"s Foot" is the current. ?g> j
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