Newspaper Page Text
The State Journal.
FRIDAY, MAY 28. 1875. CONVENTION OF 1875. SEVENTEENTH DAY. Monday, My 24, 18"0. Prayei by Rev. Mr. Parker. Journal of Saturday read and approved. Mr. Crews, of Franklin, presented the mem orial of citizens of Franklin for an amend ment of the Constitution so that the Governor and executive officer hold their respective ot flees for four years Instead of two. and tliut the General Assembly be elected once every four years Instead of every two years. Referred. Mr. Hale, of Carrol, presented a nienorlal from the citizens of Livingston county, memo riallzlng the Convention that no taxes shall be voted upon tax payers by persons who pay no taxes; that no bonds of Indebtedness shall be Issued in any city, township, or county, except when the same is Imposed by a two-thirds ma jority vote of the tax pavers. That tax payers shall have a vote on questions of taxation If mi nors and persons of full age in person, or by power of attorney without reference to sex. It Is held by the memorialists that any other mode of voting taxation I only another mode of con fiscation. Referred to Committee on Revenue and Tax ation. On motion of Mr. Mousey, of Newton, a committee of three was authorized to examine the correctness of the record of the proceedings of the Convention as copied from tho daily minutes. The President appointed Messrs. Massey, Norton, and Johnston IN COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE On the Bill of Rights. Hon. L. Gottschalk in the chair. Mr. 8hackeltord offered the following amend ment to the amendment of section 12 of the Bill oi Rights as reported : No person shall for a felony be proceeded against criminally otherwise than by indict ment, (except In cases arising In the land and naval forces, or In the militia, in actual service, in time of war, or public danger,) and all mis demeanors shall be Inquired into and presented by the gaand Jury of any county, but the Gen eral Assembly may provide, that when there is no grand jury in session, Information may be made In respect of any malfcanco in office, pet ty larceny or other misdemeanor, and the per son accused by be put on trial thereupon in the same manner as if an indictment bad been found, which was adopted. Mr, Shields offered the following amendment to the substitute as amended, striking out all after the word Indictment, and Inserting: In all other cases offenses shall be prosecuted cri minally by indictment or information as con current remedies; provided that in all eases arising from the land or naval forces, or in the militia In time of war or public danger. Amendment to substitute adopted. Mr. Adams, of Cooper, offered an amendment adding tho words and "both remedies shall ex 1st at the same." Amendment agreed to, and substliute as amended adopted. For sertlon 13. Mr. Adams, of Cooper, offer ed the following: That treason against the State can consist only In levying war against it, or In adhering to Its enemies, giving them aid and contort ; . that no person can be convicted ol treason, un less on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act. or on his own confession in open court; that no person can be attainted of treason or felony by the General lAssembly ; that no conviction can work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate; that the estates of such persons as may destroy their own lives shall descend or vest, as cases of natural death ; and when any person shall be killed by casualty, there shall be no forfeiture by reason thereof, which was adopted. Mr. Pipkin offered an amendment to the four teenth section which declares that no law be passed impairing the freedom of speech by ad ding the words "or the press." Not agreed to. Mr. Adams offered an amendment to insert in lieu of section 14, the following : That tho free communication of thought and opinion is one of the invaluable rights of man; and that every person may freely speak, write and print on any subject, being responsible for the abuse of that libetty; that in all criminal prosecutions for libel the truth.when published with good motives and for justifiable ends, shall be a sufficient defense. . Pending the consideration of die amendment, the convention took a recess till i o'clock. AFTERNOON SESSION. IN COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE. Mr. Alexander an amendmen offered t to the substitute pending on recess to strike out all after the word that and Insert; The free com uunicatlon of thought and opinion Is one of the Invaluable rights of man; and any person may freely speak and write and print on any subject, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty that in all trials tar lilutl. linth ;, 1 . ,v viuuiuui ana civil the truth thereof may be given In evi dence, and In all civil cases shall be a complete defence, and inall criminal cases when publish ed with goad motives and tor justifiable ends shall be a sufficient defence. Lost. Mr. Shield offered as an amendment to the substitute coppylng substantially the provision of the Pennsylvania' bill ot right concerning the liberty of speech or Its abuse. Lost. Tu .... 1. ........ or 1 l tr a .1 A DU BUUBLItUtU UU6IVU UJ Jttl. AUtUDS WAS lost. ' .Mr. Fyan offered a a substitute the provis ion of the Illinois constitution on the subject. Lost. Section 14 was adopted, as reported from the committee. For the ISth section Mr. Adams offered the following substitute i That tin .v l,iot ftn 1 . I I !-.. the obligation of contracts, or retrospective In its operation, oi making any Irrevocable grant of special privilege or immunities can be pas cu Dy me ueneral Assembly. Agreed to. Mr. Crews offered the following amendment to the substitute by adding: Nor can any law curative or confirmatory In its operation, or wnicn takes away or impairs any vested rights acquired under any existing laws and cre ates a new obligation or imposes a new duty or wnicn creates a new disability In respect to transactions or consult rations already past. Adjourned. EIGHTEENTH DAY. I ' TtE9lAT, May 25, 1875. Prayer by Rev. Mr. Barrett. Journal of yesterday read and approved. On motion of Mr. Holliday, of Caldwell, de- oaie in committee or the Whole was restricted to ten minutes to each member, except by unanimous consent of the committee. IN COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE. Hon. Louis Gottschalk in the chair. Tho question pending when the committee rose was taken up the same being the amend ment to the substitute lor section 15 or the re port offered by Mr. Crews, to prohibit curative or confirmatory legislation, etc. Mr. Hale moved to recommend the reference of the same to the Committee on Legislative Department. Mr. Crews explained that this language was necessary as an explanation of the purpose of prohibiting retrospective legislation, and cited that In the case or Stilus vs. Franklin county the Supreme Court or the State had held that a general law passed subsequent to the void ac tion or the county court or that coi.nty in the Issue of bonds for a MacAdamized road was curative or the inability or the county court to issue valid bonds. He wanted those additional words to restrain the legislature trom passing such laws. Mr. Adams held that the power of the locis- lature to exercise administrative functions onght not to be prohibited. It became absolute ly necessary on frequent occasions for the lezls- luture to exercise such functions. Some reli ance must be placed upon the wisdom of the legislature in determining the effect or laws and the wants of the people. Mr. Gantt explained that the obiect aimed at by tho amendment offered by Mr. Crews was provided for as fully as could bo by the Com mittee on Legislative Department. The motion to recommend the reference was lost. Ayes, 1U; noes, 31. Mr. Crews on leave withdrew his amend ment to the substitute. The substitute as amended for section 15 was agreed to, and adopted. IMPRISOXMENT FOlt DEPT. To section 16 that there shall be no imprison ment for debt, except non-payment or fines, etc., Mr. Shields offered an amendment strik ing out the last clause, "or when a debtor re ruses to deliver up his estate for the benefit or creditors, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law, or when there Is strong presumption or fraud," so that the clause will stand the same as iu the present Constitution. Mr. Adams offered as a substitute for the 10:h section and amendment, tho iol lowing: That there can not be in this State either sla very or involuntary servitude, except in pun ishment or crime, whercor the party shall have been duly convicted; nor can the person or a debtor be imprisoned for debt, after he shall have surrendered his property for the benefit of his creditors, in such manner as may be pre scribed by law. Mr. Wallace, of Lafayette, spoko warmly in opposition to an Intimation in the constitution of a return to the doctrine or imprisonment for debt It was antiquated, odious and barbar ous. ' ' Mr. Todd, or St. Louis, oflered an amend ment to I be amendment to the original propo sition of the report, striking out only the words "or where thero is strong presumption of fraud." Mr. Johnson, or St. Clair, made the point that imprisonment under the Constitutiou of the United States is prohibited, except upon conviction or crime. The committee took a recess until 2 o'clock. AFTERNOON SESSION. IN COMMITTER OF THE WHOLE. Committee called to order by lion. Louis Gottschalk, chairman. IMPRISONMENT FOR DEBT. The amendment offered by Mr. Shields was adopted. The substitute offered by Mr. Adams was re jected. Mr. Todd offered an amendment more speci fic in its language providing for the imprison ment or a debtor who refuses to make a disclos ure or his property for the benefit or his credit ors. Lost. Other amendments of like cflect were offered by Mr. Todd, Mr. Gantt, Mr. Spaunhorst. and Mr. Holliday, which were lost. Section 16 as ameuded by amendment of Mr. Shields was then adopted. EXEMPTIONS FROM TAXATION. Mr. Cotty offered a resolution recommend ing tho reference or section 17 to Committee on Revenue and Taxation. Adopted. The section relates to exemptions from taxa tion. ' Mr. Lay moved to strike out all or section 18, except the following: That the right of no citizen to keep and bear arms In defense of his home, person and prop erty, when unlawfully threatened, or iu aid of the civil power when thereto legally summon ed, shall be called Iu question; but nothing heroin corftalned, Is Intended to Justify the practice of wearing concealed weapons. Adop ted. Mr. Spaunhorst moved to strike out the words "when unlawfully thrcutened." Adopt ed. Section 18, as amended, adopted. The 10th section was amended so as to read as follows : That no person elected or appoint ed to any office or employment of trust or pro fit under the law of Missouri, or any ordinance of any municipality In this state, shall hold uch office without personally devoting his time ici lunnaaca oi me outlet to the same dc longing, i , , 3 v; t t y Tk at Ai m in iui section . providing tbat . no person can be eligible to any office ot trust or profit until he shall have accounted for and paid over all public money for which be may uo Bwuuniauie.was adopted without amend' ment. The 21st section was amended so a to read as follows: No person who shall hereafter be adjudged guilty or embezzling anv monev l.e longing to whomsoever, or or appropriating to nis own nso or that or another, anv monev choses in action or other nronertv received hv him In trust or confidence Irom another as distin guished rrom a debt or arising out or the casu alties of ordinary money trade or business nhnii be elegible to any office of trust or profit under ine laws of this State or the ordinances of any municipality thereof until he shall have made good any such dedication. ' , As amended tho section was adopted and the committee rose. NINETEENTH DAY. 1 May 20th, 1875. Mr. Holliday rose to a miestlon of nrk llere Tho reporter ot the Journal had misstated uim. His report Is this: , Mr. Todd oflived an amendment more- sue. cine In Its language providing for the Imprison ment or a debtor who refuses to make a dis closure or his property for the benefit br his creditors. Lost. Other amendments or like effect were offered by Mr. Todd. Mr. Gan't.Mr. Spaunhorst, and air. uouiday, wnleu were lost. He, Mr. Holliday, had offtrcd no such amend' ment. Mr. loud spoke also to a question or privilege. The scope and spirit or his proposi tions in tnis connection had been entirely mis apprehended. Mr. Gottschalk offered a resolution for a com mittee or seven to whom shall be referred all i,iiFw,iiiuun iu in sejierateiv sunmitted to a vote ol the people. Adopted. IN COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE ON THE RILL . OF lilC.UTS. Hon. H. J. Spaunhorst In the chair. The 22d section or the report was tuken up as follows: That no private property can be taken fir private use, with or without compensation, un less by the consent or the owner, end that whenever any attempt is made to ttfke private property for any use alleged to be public, the question whether tho contemplated use be real ly public, shall be a judicial question, and as such judicial question determined without re gard to any legislative assertion that the use is public. Mr. Norton offered an amendment to insert after the words "unless by the consent of the owner" the words "except for private ways as muy ue prescribed by law,"whieh was adopted. Mr. Allen oflered an amendent to insert alter the words private ways" In the amendment as amended the words " of necessity" which was adopted. The 22d section, as ameded, was adopted.. Mr. Roberts offered an amendment strikiue out section 23 and inserting in lieu of same "That private property cannot be taken, or damaged for the use, safety or convenience or me public without a just compensation: such compensation shall bo in money and must he for the value or tho property so taken and equal to the damage sustained, without bhv deduc tion for alleged benefits, and such compensation shall be ascertained by o jury as shall be pre scribed by law. That drains and ditches for sanitary and agricultural purposes by the own ers or occupants of lands, across the lands of others may be permitted on such terms and in such manner as may be prescribed by law: that municipal corporations may make local assess ments on adjacent lots for local improvements; but can only do so when such Improvements are a benefit to the adjacent lots and only te tho cxiemoi tne vmuo ot such benefits. When such Improvements are an injury to the adja cent lots, the lot holders shall be entitled to damages to be assessed by Jury. In all cases until the dumages or compensation shall be al lowed, shall be paid into court for the use ol the owner, or shall be tendered or paid to the owner,the proprietary rlahts or the owner shall not be diverted." Mr. Priest offered an amendment to the amendment by striking out all after the word that aud inserting: "That private property shall never be taken or damaged fcr public use without Just compensation made to the owner thereof in money, ascertained by a jury provid ed for by law, or by an agreement made bo tween the owner thcreor and the public desir ing tbe use of said property." Lost. Mr. Todd offered an amendment to the amendment striking out the word urv when ever it occur, and insert in lieu thereof "a board of commissioners." Lost. Mr. Todd offered an amendment striking out the word "by Jury" and inserting the words "by a special Jury to bo selected as provided bv law." Adopted. 5 Amendment to the report as amended, not agreed to. Pending the further consideration of section 23, tbe committee took a recess until 24 o'clock p. m. . ;v. ' BIOGRAPHICAL. Henry Boone ' " v " Is a natlvo or Fayette county, Virginia, (now West Virginia. ) He is a son or Samuel Boone, who was a cousin or tho pioneer Daniel Boone He was born Nov. 5, 1834. In 1857 ho coin menced the study or law, and had just com menced the practice when tbe "late unpleasant ncss" began. , Being '.'Southern" In all that the word meant at that time, be entered theConfijd. erate service as captain or a company or cavalry, and afterwards became colonel of bis regiment. He was a prisoner of war on Johnson's Island when the war closed, ne then went to Kansas, where he taught school for two year's durlug which time bo reviewed bis legal studies', and commenced and practiced law in Johnson county. In 1868 be married and settled In Do. Kalb county, Missouri.' He has a good legal practice, and Is also an extensive farmer. In politics be is thoroughly Democratic. tl.. ' .... MECKLENBURG. 1 ni , i . i i t i Tbe First Declaration The Ccn tenary ot May 20th, 1875. MECKLENBURG. Charlotte's Town, as It whs formerly called, wns but a village of a duzon bouses 100 years 1120. but it was the coun ty sent oi Mecklenburg, and there was lo cnted tbe Court-house. It was the capita, indeed, or a large territory, and Mecklen burg county stood pretty much in the same relation to North Carolina that An gusta' county did to Virginia when tho lat ter county not only embraced all of the territory that Is at present West Virginia, but the whole country back of it to the Mississippi. The retrion was chmflv set. tied by the hardy, bold and intelligent Scotch-Irish and their descendants a pie with whom liberty was an artiele of i 1 1 1 . . . man mm religion, it Happened, too, that as the royal Governors ol the province had established the sent of government in tho Eastern part 01 the State, at New beme, the East experienced some of the benelils ol government, while upon the were oniy visitea its hardships. J bus it was that the spirit of freedom tnroyo in the w est while it was stunted in the East, the latter section always furnish ing the forces to support the Governors In all emergencies, and particularly in their contests with tho people of the West. Bo sides, the people ot North Carolina were people most jealous or their rights and quick to resist oppression. Their history is remarkable for the continuous: st.nitrr) njiuuMi usurpation nna misused navor .. . , 1 . . ikmii inu very urst colonial liorernnr to tne last. In the beginningr of the Kvn. lutlonarv nerinrl tlm uium ,! ....,....... Y 1 ..".i f.ct iiuiu England was not allowed to be landed In the Slate, and the stiimD distributer mi seizea una lorccti 10 renounce his official unties. It was in the West ot North Carolina. . c . . . iuu, mm urst grew up organized resis- tcnoe to tne royal Government. The uegtiintors arose not only to resist the petty exactions ot illegal ices and taxes by the local officers, but to oppose the Biiuiiji tax ami oiner oppressions which nail aroused all the English colonies in America. They were flimlly broken and dispersed at the battle of Alamance bv rini...un,.H t' ., . . . - Ajmii, uui hoi until tney nad in flated heavier losscss than they suffered in the conflict. This battle was louclit on the 10th ot May. 1771, and well deserves to ranK as tno nrst battle of the Revolu tion, as it was fought lor the samo causes tnaiiuo revolutionary war itsult win nr. terwards waged by tho united colonies. TI1E COMMITTEE OF 8AFETT. ' A 1. J jnvr wie uisruunon Ot Uin en mm uie regulators by the battle ot Almance and the cruel executions that followed it mu pauiuis ui luecKienourg formed omraiuee 01 oatcty, consisting of two memoers irom eaeli militia A latrint Colonel Thomas Polk, was chosen chair man, wuu power to call the committee logeiner ior consultation and action when ever puone anaiis should require. The other members ol .the committee besides Colonel I'olk were Enhraim Brevard. -Inn lord. Richard Barrv. Abraham Ai... der, J. McKnilt Alexander. H7.nki.ih ai. exander, Adam Alexander, Charles Alox- uuci, uczukiuu tiames isaicn, John Tin ier, Henry Downs. Ezra AlevnniW y.an. cheus Wilson. Waightstill Avery, Benia- u,u xoituu, i.iuiiiietr iucuiure, iNeii Aior- risuu, sanies Harris, wm. Kennon, Wil ham Graham. John Onmrr iini,o,.i t... win, Fleuniken. David lieese.'Kichard Har- iis, or., ana pronabiy half a dozen others wiiuso names nave been lost. In the spring ot 1775 affairs were rauidlv an. proachmg a crisis all over the country Governor Martin (who had succeeded iryon) had suddenly dissolved the House . "s"nloy. na "sued a proclamation loibidding tho mooting of the Provincial Congress of the State fwhfoh mot theless). and tho battle of Lexington itself uuu oeeu rougut on the 19th of April, Hl though tho people of Mecklenburg had not y et heard of it. At this juncture Col- U ICIJ.01K issueua call for a meeting of ,ee 01 Sa,ety at Charlotte on the 19th of May. , . ( ma 19, 1775. " ' This call not only brought together al Charlotte nearly every member of the committee, but great numbers of people trom all directions, anxious to hear the latest news in those exciting times. The committee organiztd. with Abraham Al exander In the chair and John McKnitt Alexander and Ephraim Brevard secreta ries. 1 he task was Colonel Polk's to read and recite the news upon which consulta tion and action were desirable. While the committee were thus engaged, a cour ier arrived bringing the first news that had reached that region of the battle of Lexington. The people had meanwhile crowded until it was a inass-meetinr. and the excitement caused by the news from Lex ngton passed all bounds. Rot. Hez ekiah , James Balch Dr. Ephraim Brevard and Esquire William Kennon, a promi nent lawyer, addressed tho assemblage with stirring words, until the unanimous cry was for complete separation from Great Britain and for "Independence." Accordingly the three geutlemen just named were appointed a committee to draw resolutions propor for the ocoasion. Brevard Is accredited substantially with the authorship ot the resolutions which were subsequently presented and adopted, although they received some modified tions alter they came from his hands. It is sa d by some authorities that they were considered and discussed nearly all the "ight?.ltthei9th'ttndttU gree that the committee did not adopt them until the next day. the 20th. When put to the vote In committee, however, they were nnanl mously adopted, and Colonel Polk was appointed to read them to the waiting people Irom the steps of the Conrt.hn..0o8 And then, to-day 100 years ogo, was read the following Declaration nf t.i : dence ns it was again read May 20 100 ' v 4I1UCUUI year s nee then. Dv u. B.( senator mat- thew W. Ransom : THR KtRST DECLAKATION. - . Bcaolvcd, Thut whoever directly or In . directly abetted or in any, way, loini ov manner countenanced the, unchartered and , dangerous invasion ot oar rights, as claimed by Great Britain, is an enemy to this country, ta Amnrlna and to the inher ent and inalienable rights of man. f llcsolvcd, That we, the citizens ol Meek-., lenburg county, do hereby dissolve the political bonds .which have connected Us. to the mother country, and liereby ab solve ourselves from' all allegiance to the Itl'ttlall (irnvn ' Anrt olnvanll nntltimil Ann. nection, contract , or association with that nation, who have wantonly trampled on our rights and .liberties, and Inhumanly shed the blood 6 ' American patriots al Lexington V ".j 't , 7?eoDi,' That! we do hereby declare ourselves a lee and independent people; arc, and ol right ought to be, a sovereign and self-governing association, under the control ot . no power other than that et our God and the general government of the Congress; to the maintenance . of which independence we solemnly, pledge to each other our mutual co-operation, our lives, our lortunes and our, most sa cred honor. Resolved, That as we now acknowl- n " " viaw,uww I1UU UUIIMUI Ul 11 U KtW or legal officer, civil or military, within this country, we do hereby ordain and adopt as a rule ot life. all. o.t.cU nnd pvnrv PHira tha AviotanM n . .1 - , ot our lormer laws wherein, neverthe less, the crown ot Great Britain never can be considered as holding rights, privileg es, immunities or authority therein. Resolved, That it is further decreed that all, each and every military officer in this country is hereby reinstated in his lormer command and authority, he acting com- uiuiauiji 10 mese regulations ; and that every member present of this delegation shall henceforth be a civil officer, viz: a justice ot the peace, in the character ot a "committeeman." to issue nrnw and determine all matters of controversy, according to said adopted law. and to ore- serve peace, union and harmony in said country: and to use every exertion to spread the love ot country and fire tree dom throughout America, until a more general and oranlzed covernmnnt K oo. tiiblished in this province. Charlotte Cor. N. Y. World. TLo Empires of Peace. Beginning with Russia, t.lmt t,nUrr i, at this moment under arms 7an.onn f th active force ready tor the field, 120,000 men classed as garrison troops, 80,000 of the local forco, 506,000 of tho reserve. 227,000 men m depots, and, finally, 70,000 Cossacks nnivilluil In il,a .: !'... or a total of 1,463.000 men ready for the business of war at short notice. Upon the enforcement of the new law regulating obhgaiory service, the field forco could bo speedily enlarged t.n ami nnn . . , , , :o " - Ji""v iudii nut! there could be drawn a force ot 68.000 men Irom the special corps occupying the Caucassus, making the effective strength 1,700.000. This mar h edbv 1200.000 Cossacks, and from the Opoltchessi or Landwer may be drafted another million of men, givins an aggre gate of 2,900,000 available lor war pur- - poses, j-or this immense force the very best ot modern arms havo have been pro vided, including the Gatling gun and the latest improved Amnrinnn ....i.,.. the cavalry. Neyer belore was Russia so well prepared in all respects tor war. de fensive or offensive. The scaled Prussia military prepara tion is Known to all men. This is shown by official reports within n. fan, . , - NIVUOUUU men and halt a dozen batteries of field ar tillery, while tho recent Franco Gorman war gave positive evidence ot the extra ordinary moral and intellectual elements which animate that vast wnr machine, the Prussian army, and the skill of those who direct its operations. Recently ihe Prus sian artillery has been ceraplctely reor ganized, and the field artillery, separated irom that designed for siege and fortress service, has been distributed amonthe several army corps, at the rate ol two rncrimRnta mnh F ....... "V i.7ki Tk i " . fcwu "amnions end eight batteries, to the corps. Of these bat eries therare three completed the organization will consist of ; olrS? re2imelt8 with an ornament of 1,00 pieces, to be increased to 1,800 in war. The tort ot fortress and siege artil lery, at present, embrace twenty-nine bat talions ot t'nin with the needle-gun, and trained in infan try ns we I as in heavy artillery service Moanvvhi.e experiments upon a great scale have been made with tbe new field "uns adopted lor the artillery in 1873, and"that ' arm bag been thoroughly ,-.: l tested. Or its value asnartnlnul m Jliix m .crop8 bave bee rearmed with the new Mauser rifle, iu place ot the once famous needle gua : and all th ! any carry the captured ohassepot, short ened and otherwise modified Into an ex cellent light carbine... At the same time a Mauser carbine has been furnished tn number bf the Chasseur bat4lions for ex V .-j vi.j,vu me imperial armv nt nearly onn nnn i i ""PY nt All the fronMflq fnr tresses are being strengthened by e7e??Zg ZZZ de RaC tit " D,?teWOrtby tha 2 ob the tention as those facing France. Bv a re. s rZ d,e nr 'ntonance ot the Land stmm (old soldiers) lor seven vears nt peaue footing of 406.OOO men 5 ' " tt "Afilrilu a1 1 . IeoiUon Day. The membets of the Commiib.... t...... Uon. for this day are reouosted t omcaa Decoration Day. The members of the CommlttB. .... .... Hie offlthV,Ti0n "WW. May 20th, 1873. c. n. m. ' . - ' , '. ' Chairman..