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T17 KHT1NG QUALITIES A " T -i.--- rr-r- i i t' " V -:7 TV I 1 V MO! OF X ' -'- ' "' ' t . ' - U . '. - - - . - . 1 I :.-r vc, ; - . ." V-V.-; -'-rr.:' '"' -v J V. r'f 'vrtV- 1 I 7. 'i By Richard Conovcr. HOUI.D you ask Inlitios m the sol- dier of Frarvoe, look toward th? frcnt donwl tomb of the InraJMes in Paris and find th answer t h e r NapoJcon Konapart. To the loftimt heirhts of railitary rhioTcmcnt the it Corsoran Ird his Gallic hosts dur ing two and twenty world stirring jear. To the lotift rxHits and then beyond, the Man of Destiny led them. Up into the Tcry ckrads, nearer to the fnin 33tre tf glory and renown than man hd evrr roocntd !efoxr, the fixating PrcD-ch pokier followed. Iatriotkally CGKi&nmted, with a snw for death and A delixicss dash ever ready for the des perate occasion, he flnn himself into the heil of batik, passionately happy be caos5 erf the chance to distinguish hiai neh tmder the eye of his decaLrod leader. Nobody had ever made a French sol dier as nxoch before. Nody, ccr LainJy, has made him do as nraeh since. But the dcixt.is in him, ever ready to be brought otiL Hbrtory warrm, hor-rrvr- that the Dhtcr of France to insure TOT . , 4U Tictory must Itrst parutte of the rami- meat cf true dedieation. A laxy nibble of the bread of devotion or a trifling sip of th froth of rant from tlie chaliep of , sacrifice is iasuffkrient stimurna. ArtaJv- i of nnuy a Prrii defeat proves it. Property stirred, the fighter of Franco is rn-rincible. Napoleon PiSei Allies, From 1733 to ISIS the Fremii soldier mot the UshlixK? man of e-very other nation and vs NnpoleotHed to vic tory. During ail that period he wa Hcidom, if erer, cootronU'd by the troops a one country. Forercr it was nllies. allies, and more altes. He did all lirs fihtinfr aaray from hi.s oAn soil, carrying the battle to the enoniy. ivever waiting for him Bciraparte didn't know how to fight that way. In ttw lVuiitsular catwpaiins the FTcrjch nr.uNhjJs of the jibweitt Kmperor sirfTered deft at the bain! of Wclliurtoc's Knplisb. Sp.inish and Portnguew troops. It Lhry fought tcrrifjcaiiy and had thcur share of vic tory. And are these twenty -two years of ' fftcrrj all the praiseworthy lihtin of J which the French Fc4dier can boa.t? : y&r from it. lie has a fiplrtins: history . tltat for neope of TreW and ranee of ortertvtions orer theivxfrli is siond only to that of Fn;hixL And not evn snond in the nsitter of fiitrnar. St-oond mi eiy ; la rrhtins: th..t does not n'tain the fruits of Irtttle, which, ttfter all, is morv of a diomafist'H job aad not the province of a Foklicr. rhihr the fhrht XMcbrtd (ru..idc of history undertaken to rtii th Holy Sev-aK'hre in Jenthnn from the ;inti ChristLtn. the Frrorh s:4iior did hi.- full phare of fichlrr-s and then su.:' t spare. In the First Crnnode. Husrh. the brother of Kin; Philip I. of Fran v. led a larpe amry of his countrymen into Oenajitinople, from whirh rallying pomt they advar.ci"d mi Ni and Antiot h and finally to.k Jerusalem in ompmy uith their allis. It was Frerv-h S4!.!''ers who i-r-tetl axl cuardetl th" little kin im D'nrriMi tL holy t.'-ju. In 1147 Ixnis VII. of Framv lil 1...xi) soi.liers arrows K:rop nnd laid su-r t. Iu!n; cn. Philip Aumrt. nz of France, in con!arty with Kiehard the Li Heartcil if F.ncUnd. raptureil Acre in tl Third Crus-id 11 SO. Th. i rmt of FlarK.Vrs leil another French .irrny in tle ; Fmrth Onx.s;ide, l'JiyJ. d;iri:ir which ' fntantinoi'.e -aa; rnptrril a feat , irfSkntal of the main pnrp-- and with ont (nj.-nd alK whatever. . Fn n- h valor has a very decided dating potr.t from the battle of mines. f s. ii i ri, v . : tlie French King, attacked an immerse- I ly stip'rior fort e of l.Wl" English, 1 KlemKh ate! (lerman :n.oVs an l won n carvplete victory. 'Iie Tiefs f Tenders j and Bonl-.gno wen- fcrfc iteri to the j French crown md a five year truce was : bot:ght of rui'eip by the p lyrr.ent of in irks. Louis IV. of France, or &dt ljxt, led the Seventh and F.ighfh j 1 i 4 Th Great Ccnie, ! Crnsades with enthusiastic French rhlier? in the years and TJ70 by way of Kjcypt and l;nis. He died in the latter country, the last duunpion of the attempt to guin. and guard the lioly Sepulchre. Flemings Vanquished. FVurinc: the rei?n of Oharlt-M VI. of - . . v rane e a jrreat victory wa.s gauwd over tbe ricrnin-s at the battle of K.se- beojue, loSl. This was a knichts' vic- tory. the Flemiujrs being trampled under ii0of hJ thousands. To this day the praises of the de voted French maiden Jeanne d'Arc are snrm,'. She donned armor and led the FreiK'h soldiers of her day to the success ful .viege of Orleans, May, 1-121), and the capture of Troyes, beating the hhifrlish j conclusively at both placid. In 1 I'm the ! l'rvucli soldier won another victory over j the Kn-lwh on the field of (Vi.stJlIou. , i : v .. l.' i:i. I ,r:'7 -7 '.'7;v;7 .' 7 ,.77.74 V7-- r-, v ; v - v " . vVrjfi. . . ; , ' ' : r- -. ' -- v :(r'-;r:-w,v::,v'r 'tf ' ' - v 1 r :. . . . 1 . - '. ' .- ' : v,7 V..-'. Wt' ,, -r- . - . . , . . :;,. - ; 7--": 'it-7'77v-.:-:v-' it nig Y'uw x.iau po..--j Frauct. tiroUirh the lead-rship of the stou in Fraixe. t celebrated Maurice, Count of Saxony. In the reizn of Francis I. of 1-Vance j afterward Marshal Saxe. May 11, l7io. aitother brilliant fihtiue epoch of the j uo jf,fmted an Ih'iglisli and Hanoverian Fnuieh tidier was reached. It was th ; urujy under the luke of Ctimlrla nd at day of the immortal Chevalier Kayard. j Footenay, aixl as fruits of the victory the beau ideal of the courtly battler of , Tournay. i I bent. 15rusv. ( )udcnarde and the time, whose every action was with- j other cities of Flanders were surrrn u; f-ar and alove r'iroach. At the dered to him. Saxe then captured aft r battl' of Marij:nano, l.ir, the French sive Brussels, Antwerp and Nawrr. army, after harrng bi'n led over the and, defeating1 the Austrians at lUicccmx. Alps thromrh narrow, ctramois hunter ! near Liep made himself the master of paths, clashed witJi an army of Swiss an 0f Helium then under the dominion in the pay of Italy. The Swiss were ' of Austria. Franco then declaretl war c ompelled to retreat with a los;s of 10,000. Bayard waa knighted by Francis I. on the battlefield for bravery. A French army cained a der'ijsrTe victory over the (lerman imirLallsts at (VrisoTles. April 14. l.M 1. The battle of Ivry. January 11. l.i'.. tetivi,cn Henrv of Navarre and his League enemies made Henry : King of France. The fight was all be- i tween FTeTMhmen, but it was a notable j example of valiant battling around the ; white pinme that has been so often sung, Two great French war captains made t tb'ir country famous during the minority j of Ix.nis XIV. Ono was the young Duke d'Erghirn, afterward famoi;- as the Prince of ('or.de. lie defeat'sl a force of Austrian and Spaniards at Rocroi. May 1V1.'; a Bavarian army at Norilingcn, H'b". and in HVp;. aidel by a Dutch fleet, captured Dunkirk. An other one of his note-worthy victories was gained over the Arclwluke I-opold at Lens August Lf. 1!4. Marshal Ttirenr.e. the other great French com mander of the period, wax oiptaUy stje- ossful, winning several minor victories in Flambrs during ltl." and after capt- uring Treves inflicting a severe defeat upon tne tierman imienalists near Augsburg, hnrlevl lii.- liVNl. It was Condc who marshal's baton into the enemy' tranche so that he might re- clover if swortl in hand. During tlie reign of Ixnis XIV. the French soldier also achieved brilliant victories nnler Marshal Errxemburg and took Alsace-Irra inc. At Flcurus. j(:ro n irf0 ho pfatl an English, . and Ierm-an army under the JVince of Wakdeck. Another victory -ns gainel over the same ab"ws beaded by King William of Eng'and ir. irsoa at sjteiukrrk, in HainauP. Julv 24, CG2. Enxer.tburg defeatcil William again at the Ktle of Necrvrinden. July 2l, lttM, and never did the FrciK-h soldier fijcht harder for hLs victory. During the Wr 0f the Spanish Snccessiou, beginning in j Tbe Batilc of Auslcrtxz. V'-77--7.t7:;t: V --r-ni V T ?77 t 1 - w 1' Marsha! Soult, Duke of Dahnatia. the latter part of the seventeenth cent ury and lasting until 1714, the French soldier fought and fought and fought apiinst th' ?rat Marlboroujrh. always returning for another try for victory after each sttnrinpr defeat at the hauls of the famous Knirlish commander. 1U niember, it require! Freix-h vakr to make P.ritish victory notewortliy. TIil- W:ir of the Atistrian Sn-cvsi.n 4,rolI.,,Jt illltlilioI rial lustre to the arms .f on Holland, and Saxe led his French sol diers cr,-er the Dutch frontier and capt ured the whole lin of fortress-s on the Scheldt, from Antwerp to the sea, in less than a month. Then lie turned on the English and Hanoverian forces tinder Cumberland, and at the battle of Law- field drove them behind the Mouse. In 171S he captnred Maestricht. During the famous Seven Vears War the French soldier faced Frederick the lireat at Rossbacli, Novonihcr .'I. 1 T- 7. aud althougti lightJnc: nard, went down to a defeat that caused his victor to lo acchrmed the greatest captain of his age. Napoleon's Finished Fighters. For two years before Napolexn lc came the dominating military figure the fighting raau of France had been serv ing a war appnntieethip. He came to the great conqueror a finished workman in the new oattlinc art. All he necdec' was the h ader. On September '20. 17l2. raw troops of France cannonaded a seasned army of PrrLssiaus and A us- 1 triaus at Vahny into ignominious r- treat. D;rmrriez won Hnoth'-r victory t over the Austrians at Jemaimes. No- veruber G. 1?.2. 'Htis was tbe sagne i Dunrourier and the same arnrr cTnccm- ing which tle general said that "they marched out like madmen and returned , like fools" in earlier encounters. Fnn Spteoiber, 17X, fonr French generals led the French snKlitv to hard fighting and victor. durin- the r mainder of the vear. Hoiuhanl drove the English from Dunkirk: Jourdan of aterloi and Atisterlitz that of ' Nap-leon gave the signa. to his im rrushei the Austrians at Wattignies; Ieipzig. At Manriaro the soldier of ' patient coTncaanders and armj. Soult's Iloche and Piehegru defeated the allii ruder Brunswick and Wurmscr at "Worth and WcLs'nK?rg. In Morean defeated the Duke of York at i xi rro i r. g and l pro. Jocnkui made liinisdf famor.s by his great vietory at Flcurus. causing the Duke of York to retreat iato Brabant. Pichcjm sei 'ed a ,i7777;7 - t ::7 V77tK; Joadtim Mural. Afterward King ii Naples. Antwerp, made a forced inarch over the ice and captured the Dutch fleet in the Texel. Thus boMly facing a foreign army at each of her frontiers, and beat ing them one after the other. France came to the year 17D3, the year of the wonderful Italian campaign and the rise of the star of Bonaparte. Years of Achievement. Henceforth every French soldier felt that hr "carried a marshal's baton in his knapsack." Napoleon insisted that he did. and promotions from the ranks to generalship solely on mem m jiuhi seemed to prove it. Vive, ten and fif- teen years of manellous achievement io Uowed. The fighter of France proved that his great leader and emperor was rizht when he said : "Impossible is the adjective of fools." The list of aceora- pKshnKMit is too long to detail. Sucvesa in one remarkable battle wa repeated in another (uiickjy following. The French soldier performed prodisics of alor in thern all. Four principal battles of Napoleon's career illustrate in an epochal way what his armies did for him. These battles an1 Marengo, June 14, 1HX), by which he gained the indisputable first place of power in France: Austerlitz, Ueeember PA hy which he comiHed Europe to ar-knowledg his ascendency: Leipzig, ' October 1M!. 1SRJ, by whkh Russia, Prussia and Austria were able to dash ! Napoleon from his Ivuropean pedestal, and Waterloo, June IS, 1S1.", by which the great Emperor lost the confidence of France and con?eiuentlv his control. Marengo is the antithesis of the battle I ranee wluppvl Austria. At Auster- litz he whipiH-d Austria acd Russia com- buned. At lipzig he vros -whipped by Russia, Prussia and Austria allied. At Waterloo he was whipped by a cons- bined array of English. Crercrori, Prus- Sian. I laioverian and I'.elgian trooos. When beaten he was always ontnura- v , -. w ; 1 M ;77l A 77l " 7 7 j ;'7;rM - t - " .... 7 '7'V7 7 'Zri:hj v' 7" 7" 7,:v.7 l-7i -'7 'Si The Crcat Turerme. bereti. These battles are aside from his unparalleled sufferings during the. awful retreat from Moscow in 1S1. The battle of AusterHtz has been termel the most complete victory on land during the whole of the Revolu tionary or Napoleonic wars. So what the French soldier did tlere may be proorty considered the apex of his effectiveness as a fighter. It caused the death of the great English states man, William Pitt, who said when he hearl the news: "Roll up the map of Europe; it will not be wantM thesse ten j tionary France was responsil.de for a years.' In this one battle Russia and j callousness to death. Childhood had Austria were reduced to the condition ! witnessed beheadings and gore until of humble suppliants. Tliereaftcr when- boys and girls aked to be taken to ever the mighty Emperor led his sol- executions as an amusement similar to dicrs to battle and wished to instill en- going to a circrs. Roys who became thus! asm he would say: "Sec. the sun Napoleonic solders later In-, a me aceus of Austerlitz shines on tis. We cannot tomed to the siglit of fathers and mrth fail." This because ou the morning of ers and relatives sci,:: 1 at supp-r and the battle the sun broke through the 1 executed within forty-eight hours. Death clouds and mists, and Bonaparte prophe- J had sua tela d souie one in every house si ed that it was an augury of victory for ! hold. So certain wa it to com' that the French. Napoleon's Slrategj' Won. At Austerlitz the Frcach soldier dem- on.lraUnlthathehad advan.. - edtoamili - tary profkiency never before equalled. The battle was one in which the superior tratey of Napoleon won, but his opera- tion were sx delicately tiEied that tlvo slightest delay or failure in the sudden advance and seiwrre of tho plateau of Praizen would have been fatal. Tiic linjTor's troops at thi; period of French fighting history were a consum mate blend of enthusiasan, comprehen sion, patience, confidence and dash. Forgetting the importance of the plateau, the allies delmfrdfj planned to one their forces to cnt Napo'eon off from Vienna by torning his rigtt. Tlie resrt of the Emperor's array wa: ia quarters near the capitaL They attempted this move in the full eifft of the lmperor, WDo floated over their ftjJ foohWrnesrs nc; e vralchcd their cltnrns marching aer, his front to take up position. xalK)pon had one small cavalry corps rrtirr iK:rposery as though intimidated , at tj,0 approach of the eiKiny's armies. ' nie humblctt French soldier was soon awaJ.e 0f the mktake bcins made by the j Kntsriaivs, and when Xapolem visited the . bivouacs that night he was every- -where huzzaed. One grizzle-d grenadier is reported to have stepped forward from ' his fire to Bonaparte's horse and said: j "I premise thee that to-morrcrw -we will bring thee the colors and the cannon of the Russian army to fete the anniversary or tny coroiration. J he story is voncneu j j for as indicating the survival of tlie Revo lu tionary republican spirit in the army despite the trappings of empire. ; twenty-seven wh-en & began his rr.ejnor For tbxit matter NarvdeWs soldiers i able Italian campaign. Ho-he. a cor- I considerel his titles and honors as secondary, matter of cours? appendages ' to his ability and renown -S a war cap- . tain I Iu the morning when fae fo- hfted ; divion rushed up the heights of Prr.t7en, driving the LrtanticiiatiE Kurisians down th- slopes. Ttiat settled ' the battle. Iiyideatailr there was a terrific band to hand eivrmnter later between canlry, in which the Rusi:in liors r-n.-i r,U were nit to 'iNe. Tlinn , Mud,s of Russians fled over the pond of V V', , - j - ' t - , W ' -V 7-:7'- - - r'A'7 7 f Napolcco. Telnitz. NapokKm ordered his artillery to play on the ice. which broke beneath the soldiers. This detail of the victory was a massacre. The Russians and Austrians lost 27. dead and wounded and the French S.fl. The triumph llaccxl Napoleon and the French soldier at the zenith of their glory. France's FiVHtinr; Men. Several chjiracteristlc of the fighting man of France stand out during thee wonderful two and twenty year.--. The chief of these may be called the almost fanatical consecration to the task of beating in battle every king or com mander of a king or soldier of a kimr that came before him. No MoluTi" dan was ever more reckh-ss of life or willing to sacrifice that life to prin ciple. The guillotine period of Revoln- children heard it joke, about. The pall ; of death immimiicc Imng over them, t Tlac-y wore tausrht that the kincs and armiis lnenacing Frar.ce were re;on- t siblf. fur rlo uU;((tini. Tl,ev bev-ame thp rpdotibtable soMiers of I-;,:r-p.-. j for thf.v fcuellt for v,,irs tll f,lJV,. Jin i arn..incl, ;n their views. It is related that Fredcrkk William of Prussia, in an cn:af -lihr.t near Frankfort in 1701. saw a younr French grenadier holding a slope alone a.nn-t a scor? of enemies. II" had hi:a taken alive, and when he wa" brought bef..re him said : 'Yor. are a brave lad, and it is a pity you fiiit for a bad cause." "(MU.en William." rep!i"d the young soklier, "we shonid n-ver :igree .-n that point. We'd better change the subj'--t." Thus the stronc anti-kif:z belief made the Frenh soldier invincili'e. He be- Hvel b wh ordained to uplift the worH. This bf,!iff had the forte of a ! religion with him, the same as "hri-tian- ity ov'ivame Rme and Mohammedanism Ktrhdued great pepies of Asia and Africa.' Beiuse of this a bw of 7.'.C!" men was raised quickly to fa-e tlie tations bittcring at th1 frontier- of ' FrarK"e. All v.ore ine--u!atea with the revolutionary prirK-ipb and feit thrm sflvs a;ostles ready for sacrifice of s If. Tbcy had a hardihood and herot.-m that condd nes-er e shaken and v.hi'-h never faiWl them in the direct misfortune. Their leaders lie!-d to i:;ake the ! French soldier irresistible. All were j yxznz men, and men who a'hieved th ir j rank hj dee,js ou the field and not ' through influence. N.apoiw-vn was but j poral in 17S0, was a general of division i and coranrinder of an army at twenty five. The extreme youth of these b-d- j ers rntnrally brought v.ith it tl aei T71- ! Panimmt of youth, a da-h. an impetu- osity and an unusual w-.:y of fighting which bewildered the o'der generals of the allies. Mass Formation. Many of the viep.ri.-s of the French soldier cf the -period w-re gained throe.h an attack crj!parable in eh-n.cnt-; to l . l a i i j or mass srste.n '.v in vogue. The ut; r n-ncn uni jwra-ncnt. Ate coiunsn 7 ' J' ' ..ysx- 7-- ' - . r .. ',V ' " ;- n- r7V V'7 rAs:T;7) j tr.ps were formed in b-tttali'Mi in ! nn.n and hurled at the enemy' lii.e. Nine time's out of tor; the enemy had I give way. P:it much was linked on i! one charge, llie Frem-h ntlnivi.tsrn w is at the boiling point when the attack orderetl. It w:js like his nature to h.ij en m:ise. shouting his human liatteriiu nm on to vietery. When the niichly catapult of the Fn-neh soldier landed on ! t!l" enemy's van cxpenc-nr-e showed th.it something had to give way. The ycung I'reiich genera b- altered ;he fight im.' sj te:n (if formation, anl until Wellington had ohoob-d F.urop'an trps not to te f right eii"cL-"Tre!and .-t thi' ac'.vance f --r mass's of glistening b lyoiiets they won their battl" by it. Between 17'.' and lvO nearly 7h).(.i trp-i out of H.r . M selit to hat tie p-rished on tbe field. Nothing daunted, the French sol dier fought terrifically fifteen years longer. Another striking characteristic of tb Frcmh soldier was his idolatrous loy alty to NaiKjlo.171. This dc-otion was iiK-oriiirehcnible even t the groat Eni- pror. bo made? use of it so often. Men were proud to bo cut to pie-es under h;s eye. His marshals shared in the -worship, although they had fought wjrh hrn when h.- did not sj-cin anything but ordi nary clay like themselves. On thf retnat from Moscow- it is r lateil in a large number of memoirs and nc-ounts that t!:' thousands din ahng the snowy road roused up to gi a ding "Vive I'Eaipereir .' loung so i i t ! ;. n ' tbi;ir'at bi-m a god. Hi r marshal. Desaix. at Manin'o insisted that a final trial be mad" bruise "J atn ready to die fr-r you." And so he del die. Vl.rn Naj-b;n waxed impatient at a critical point in a battle becau.s- his plan halted be had only to ay some thing -a f' -astir ah ut "wavering dela tion" and his solders ri"d with sham--and mortification and begged to be or dert d to their dnath. No French Decadence. While th Frem-h s.dier attained ti" fT'i'.v riin;: .wint of his glory in the .Vi pi'n;e ra. the year him-e tiien hue found hi ri valiantly figiiting -a hen his cctmtry '-::i!eI him t arm-. In tb Crimean War. forty years ai'tr Water loo, he re,-j uitted bim.- If admiral 1 v. I :i Le 1 V ttiek on Se-in-toTo!, S.'e::. r h. sr-i:-l Mi! p '. rt o: t j . Briti.di v,,;. bit tie program:: , 1. dier was frcej to retir b-fr b Nn''I perform his are !, taking the R-da.n. In Algiers tho I'r-T.i!i ! I i - r h battled often and u'l in th eonfli-t ei3veri::r ri-:ir!v lialf a e;it :r n- 'i-ary to the -st.ih!h:nent Frery h d :n:ni 'i in Afri'-a He fouglit I.ari in India U for" England was a to e; j; h her b-.M l"yor.d ri a i y in the Fsr East. Ttioe aekr:o'A !elgej td ::.. versant with the fjgl tirg spirit cr.;; -of Frati'-e ar,d tie I ( It g -l it v o! tne t v. rr..f; h a I'A a dn;ed thr. t t) 'ir::u;i triurupii . was c i,eevj-e pro. '. 17 and 1S71 ! r:r. tn scpe- ri'-rity r )'t n h d-Mdn e. 'F.ey r-iain-tain t);at t'r e !,-! idi- r i;rprg nntei nitli republi'-ar. p.ineipb-. aro.ut up cniy a hti: de-i-tt d liglit. He :d n. t rise to battling h peror re 'i v ti hari't for .in en; a sr;.jier and fr a n'is" that bad its origin in the differ ences of cjpV:.-;.' ; rather thnn abridg ments c; i !ern,.n::il rig:;t or lilertl Fv?i in hi- huuiili itin def.-.nt an I w ithoi;t c.o:..;H t. nt ie;:der t!ie Frencli soldier in t! Krai Pnu iaa War f:gr;t Dtter tlun is generally cr.-dited. t -l.roii....gieal detail di-l-e thi . fact r-AhUhv;.: - ;7 '1 :t ,7- - v. k 'v,v1':. 7.v , , r'