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LARGEST SWORN CIRCULATION IN NORTHERN INDIANA.
fl FTER? IT7 THE WE VTHEU INDIANA: Snow to night and probaldy San d a y. LOWER MICHIGAN: Unsettled tonicht and Sun day; probably snow. Edition . AVERAGE DAILY NEWS-TIMES CIRCULATION FOR NOVEMBER WAS 15,998. READ THE 'WANTS' VOL. XXXI. NO. 353. SOUTH BEND, INDIANA, SATURDAY, DECEMBER 12, 1914 PRICE TWO CENTS i) 00 & n TnniEjr ttd MB NE WS-TIMES0 tO U 1L JO JED J AUSTRiRM 111 IS EHCQllNTEH IN STIFF RESISTING Offensive Continues South of Belgrade Turkish Gunboat Reported Sunk by Mine at Entrance of Dardanelles. FIVE SEPARATE BATTLES RAGING IN THE EAST Field Marshal von Hindenburg is Struggling Desperately to Maintain Offensive Against Russian Counter Assaults. PKULIN. Deo. 12 (By Wire less.) A dispatch from Vienna says that the Austrian offensive is proceeding to the south of Hel- grade. though the Servians arc offering strong resistance. The official r.erman news bu reaus announced today that Cant, flintier, corrunander of the Ger man artillery at Ithclms, had re ported that he was compelled to lire on the steeples of the cathe dral there because It was being used for military observations. CONSTANTlNOI'Li:, Dec. 12. (Via Rerlin and Amsterdam.) A Turkish gunboat was sunk when it struck a .submarine mine at the entrance to - the Darda nelles today. It is believed that the mine was placed there by a British ship. T).!)ON, Dec. 12. A dispatch frotti Valparaiso, Chile, to the Hvening News says the German i n is r Dresden is reported to have taken refuge in an Inlet on the PaLagonian coast. PirrilorMIAD, Dee. UV Five sep arate battles are raping in 'Poland and Gnliua where Field -Marshal von Hin denburg. who is now in supreme com mand of all the German and Austrian armies, is struggling desperately against the Russians' counter assaults to i maintain the offensive. I'.nnnnoiis losses are marking the German drive toward Warsaw, but the German field marshal holds his. pres ent plan of campaign to be of such vital importance that all regard for the cost in human life has been lost in the gigantic struggle which is now under way. For the time being Hanking opera tions have ceased and over the greater part of the long battle front it is now a tight for .strategic railways over which the troops and supplies can be moved. More Men" is Cry. "More men. more men," is Ihe cry which the Germans are constantly sounding in the ears of the Berlin government. Tho tivo zones of action are located on the line which now extends in the forr.i of a vast semicircle. The line, roughly speaking, is as follows: Southeast f Mlawa; in the Vistula alley north of bowicz; along the Pzura valley: southwest of Pietrokow and around Cracow, in Galicia. to which point the Germans are eonstant .v sending such reinforcements as they ran spare from the campaign in Fast Prussia, and northern Poland. The German efforts in Western Po land to roll back the Russians and re liee the ever growing pressure at Cracow, have been checked, the Rus sian general staff announces, and the Russians are pushing forward fresh troops to follow up their advantage. Stormy weather, which has brought added hardships to the soldiers has turned the roads into lanes of deep mud. making it almost impossible to moe troops and artillery with any degree of speed except in regions where the railway lines may be util ized. That is why the German army which advanced southward from Mlawa chose the route of the Mlawa-Nowy-Dwor railway. Ikittle Without KoMilt. The Russians admit that the battle which is in progress south of Cracow is still without result, but on the other hand they claim that the ad vance of three of the German armies that were moving in the direction of Warsaw from the north and the west has been definitely checked and the Germans will either have to stop to entrench or fall back. A degree of night fighting hitherto unknown in th. Russo-Austro-Germait held of op erations is developing along tunning south from the the lino Vistula Ihrnlich I.OWicZ. Lodz and west of Russians had Pietrokow. The-e the ..i"iTif:i!?f cf getting their heavy artillery to the front before the Ger mans could bring up their big guns and the Germans tried to oftset this advantage bv surprise attacks at night, which are still in progress. Trench life in Poland is working the inevitable result in outbreaks of pneumonia, rheumatism and typhoid fever. There are points along the itzura valley where troops have been living in WCt. mUUd iiemnes ioi weeks, where the men are caked with tho trlimy mire of their earthen houses. The only thing clean about them are the ritUs. SAYS VVIFEABUSED HIM William .lone-. Want Divorce After Fie Months Married. William C. Ji.ne has petitioned the fiperior court :.r a dirce from Garnet Jones with whom, he says, he has lived fro:i Julv It. 1 1 1 I . to Dec. 1t nl-. lb- de-l... res that during that perbd she r-.-d vile and abusive names toward him. that she often re fused to rook bis noals and that on different ccaMon.i she threatened to 4. CX. I CLUB WOMEN ORGANIZE 70 PLANT TREES ALONG THE LINCOLN HIGHWAY Representatives from the Progress, Thursday and Broadway clubs and the Coquillard I'arent-Teachers' club met Friday atternoon at the Progress club lor the purpose of organizing to tor ward the arrangements for planting trees along the Lincoln highway when the road is complete. in tnis tho local women are (((operating with the club women of all the otner states through which the highway extends. Preliminary plans were made for a Larue mass meeting to le held in Sutii Bend some time in January when a speaker will be procured to explain the purpose of the proposed planting. In the meantime the various clubs interested in the movement will spend some little time studying the varieties of trees suitable for the purpose, and methods of proper planting. - The otficers of the combined organ ization who were elected Friday are iis follows: Chairman, Mrs. L,. S. Fichenscher: vice chairman, Mrs. George Phillips; secretary. Mrs. Ryeli T. Miller; assistant secretary, Mrs. Frank M. Jackson; treasurer, Mrs. F. P. Nicely. CAMP ELECTS OFFICERS Annual Mcting of SpanUli War erans Held 1 riday Night. Vet- At the regular bi-monthly meeting of the Harvey (). Perkins camp No. United Spanish War Veterans, held Friday night at the headquarters in Lasalle hall the following otlicers were elected for the ensuing year: Commander, Flmer Rex; senior vice commander. Ward It. Garrett; junior vice commander, William Longneck er; officer of the day, Albert S. Meaden; ofliccr of the guard. Oral Mathewson, and trustee, John Suchy. A public installation of these otfi cers will be held on Jan. S at Li salle hall. The next meeting of the camp will bo held on Wednesday, Dec. 2 lb ENFORCE NEW SCHEDULE Gas iiiul lllcetric Co. Gets Killing From Commission. INDIANAPOLIS, Dec. 12. The public service commission has author ized the Northern Indiana Gas and Electric Co. to enforce the new sched ule of rates which lowers the old schedule to a three cent minimum for large quantities. It becomes effective Jan. 1 and applies to the Hammond and East Chicago district. . F. S. Walters, manager of the Northern Indiana Gas and Electric Co. stated at his offices Saturday that Alt nev, schedule of rates affects snly electric consumers in Hammond. AT GDSHEM BURNS EARLY SA Fire Originating in Basement Threatens Destruction of En tire Building and Equipment. Probable Loss $50,000. Special to The News-Times. GOSHEN. Ind.. Dec. 12 Fire of un known origin which broke out at 8:13 o'clock Saturday morning and which was still raging late in the forenoon threatened the destruction of the en tire plant of the Goshen News-Times Printing Co. and the Book Store of Grant 1 limes. Unless the blaze were controlled, which seemed impossible, the loss caused by the conflagration v.'ill total more than J30.00O partially covered by insurance. The building is a two story and basement brick structure owned by Mrs. George A. Riley. The book store which also carries a wall paper line, occupied th front of the main Moor and the basement. The newspaper of occupied the front of the main floor and on the entire second floor. The lire originated in the b;tsement in a large quantity of wall paper. The first intimation of the blaze came when employes noticed smoke arising from thf basement. When the tire department arrived the whole basement was in flames and the entire structure rilled with dense smoke making it impossible to direct streams of water on the blaze except through two sidewalk windows of the basement. This prevented any ma terial headway against the flames. The plant of the News-Times Co. is estimated to be worth J 40.000. The newspaper had moved into its pres ent quarters in 1109 and at that time installed considerable new equipment The insurance is $32,SS0. The stock of the book store is valued at from $10,000 to $12,000 with insurance of S7.20o. The building in isured for $7.50". H PLANT Fire in Shopping District Causes $400,000 Loss in Birmingham P.I RMINOII AM. Ala.. Dec. 12. A disastrous fire visited the down-town shopping district early this morning and before it was subdued $4 00,000 damage bad been done. The Steel Smith department store on Second av between llth and I'Oth sts.. was com pletely destroyed. The Alcazar the ater on the west side of the depart ment store was crushed by falling walls and damaged by water: the Harm Shoe Go., tm the east side of the Steel-Smith store, was heavily damagtd by water, while Pieztz de partment .-tore, the telephone build in u:, Saks" department store, Excelsior bindery an 1 several buildings suffer ed minor losses from incepient blaze; tatted by sparks. The fl&mts were discovered at 12:20 One of the German Cruisers Sunk by British r -y.r u f " if. V . The Gneisenau. one of the BRITISH SHDCKE BY LEAKAGE BE L SECRETS Three Attempts by German Submarines to Enter Ports Reveal Spy System and Lord Kitchener Gets Busy. LONDON. Dec. 12. Three attempts by German submarines to enter P.rit lsh ports within less than a month has convinced the admiralty otficers that the "spy system" which has betrayed to German military movements sup posed to be known only to high au thorities, has also succeeded In learn ing many naval secrets. The officials believe that the submarines would not have dared to attack ports guarded by mines unless their commanders knew the location of the mines. A thorough investigation is being conducted to ascertain the manner in which the mine maps came into pos session of the enemy. Deeper interest is added to this inquiry by news that on Wednesday morning German sub marines made two attacks on the Firth of Forth. A dispatch from Edin burgh reports that two of the, Ger man vessels were sunk, but no official announcement to this effect has been issued bv the admiralty. Haiti Shocks Officials. Naval headquarters maintain tho same silence In reference to the Firth of Forh episode as that in reference to the attack on Dover earlier in the week and on Yarmouth some time ago. This, submarine raid at Yarmouth was backed by a squadron of German warships, but practically nothing has been allowed to appear in the papers about It. It certainly gave the admir alty and war oflice a shock. When Lord Kitchener was told of the' raid at his residence almost before he was out of bed. he gave orders for every olhcial in the war office to re main indoors until he arrived. When the secretary did ;rive he had maps of the whole east coast brought before him and spent the morning studying them. No one was allowed to disturb him. Then he sent for Winston Churchill, first lord of the admiralty, and the two . -were closeted together for several hours. Immediately the mouth of every important river was mined, but other precautions of which the public knew were also made. A few nights, the iailroad3 of the Great Eastern system were also placed at the disposal of the government and in one night "O.OOO troops were transported from various camps to position which had been se lected for them. Further batches are to follow. New Guns in Position. A number of the new, big guns just completed at Woolwich and in Scot land have already been placed in posi tion at various points and masked so completely that the inhabitants are unaware of their existence in the neighborhood. The fact is that were a German force to land on any part of the cast coast of Britain it would have small chance of gaining more than a foothold. A thoroughly com prehensive scheme of defense has been worked out by Lord Kitchener. LOCAL UNION CHOOSES NEW OFFICERS FRIDAY Officers elected for the Stereotypers and Electrotypcrs anion. Local No. SI. are as follows: L. Milliard, president: G. Nicolay. vice president; A. Kooitz. corresponding secretary and scribe: F. Koenig. financial secretary; II. Mil ler, sergeant-at-arms. A. Koontz was selected as delegate to the convention df the Iabor Forward movement at Indianapolis Dec. 19. a. m. by John Prewer, an employe of the newspaper club, and had already gained much headway. Within an hour the four-story Steel-Smith store was a mass of smoking ruins. The tire was most spectacular. The store was full of inflammable stock for the Christmas trade -and huge pieces of inflammable material were carried for blocks by the wind. In this manner the Southern Pell tele phone building, a block away, was set oiufire as was Saks and other build ings, a short distance from the Steel Smith structure. The Steel-Smith Co. employed -."0 people, most of them salesgirls. The loss is partially covered by insur ance and it was announced this morn ing that the store will be immediately rebuilt. - and Scene of Naval Victory t ii "nil i ' f i iiifciufci i ii iHn three German cruiser? that were lost In DQfiD Keller and Department Heads Agree on Set of Regulations Give More Latitude to Local ities Proposing Improvement Several suggested amendments to present state paving laws will be pre sented at the next session of the In diana legislature, if plans set afoot by Mayor Keller. City Engineer Moore and other municipal authorities are successful. According to these men the present laws in certain instances are unfavorable to property holders as well as to the cities in which im provements have been started. In accordance with the wishes of Mayor Keller and other men in the city, the city engineer has drawn up a set of suggestions upon portions of the state laws, which after a consul tation between the heads of the vari ous departments of the city will prob ably be turned over to Charles Hag erty and George Y. Hepler, this coun ty's representatives, and G. R. Sum mers, senator, for presentation at the 1 9 1 " state assembly. The first portion chosen for criti cism was the section wherein is de scribed the materials from which pavements should be constructed. This section sets forth that all pavements in civic improvement shall be made of one of four sorts of surfaces brick, asphalt, bitulithic or creosoted wooden blocks, all of which shall be laid upon concrete surfaces. That fact that a concrete base is demanded in all cases excepted to by the men -interested in the proposed amendments, who claim that in. streets where the traffic is not heavy enough to warrant a concrete base, an injustice is born by the property own ers who are assessed for its cost of construction. They assert that the ideal law would be one where each and every city would be authorized to construct and improve streets in a manner suitable to local conditions. I'xcept to Hestiictions. Exception is taken to the law which states that no improvement shall be installed where the total assessment to the individual property holder will exceed 50 percent of the aggregate value of the property assessed for taxation. It is claimed that this sec tion prohibits the improvement in many cases of streets which are laid out in the newer portions of cities. It is declared that this section not only prevents the construction of pove ments but in many cases the construc tion of sidewalks and curbings as well. It is suggested that the section be amended so as to give local works boards the right to improve any street where it was decided that that improvement would be a public util ity and the cost would not exceed the benellt to the real estate. Where the resident property holders filo a peti tion for improvement, it is askcd that the boards in charge supervise that Improvement. Another amendment asked is one that will more clearly define the pow ers of a works board in cases where property holders petition for a cer tain kind of material for pavement of the kinds that are allowed by the law. It is claimed by the local men that the section in question allows the residents too much freelom, in that a good promoter would be able to cir culate a petition for his certain class of pavement regardless of its adapt ability for the street to be improved. Other Sections Critieied. Other sections of the state law which are criticised are the manner in which contractors receive pay for work done: the permission of grad ing without other improvement, and the manner in which monthly install ments on assessments are paid. In the latter section the law states that if a property holder pays his as sessment by the le-year installment plan he must pay the interest for the full 10 years regardless of when the full assessment is paid. I tis request ed that this section be changed so that if the full assessment is paid before the expiration of the 10-year period, interest will stop at the time of pay ment. , "These suggestions will be thor oughly discussed in meetings to be held in the near future." said Mayor Keller, "before they are turned over to representatives in this district for presentation at the next legislature." ELWOOD. Mrs. Anna Schroek asKs for $l.n.o alimcny and a divorce; because John S-hrtK k sticks to his obi job as a violin maker, while she thinks he could make more money at something else. MAY AMENDMENTS TO THE PAVING LAWS hC"iwi i iihwi the engagement with the British fleet off ic brazil ( MlpA'P? G E B3 Y 1 U tsji V V52SHAGtuN FALKLAND CMKriKOrr. CcJE?W ISLANDS GKEIStriAU A Locution of German fleet in Pacific off the coast of Chile. They .'ailed from this spot around Cape Horn, and at point (R) encountered the British fleet, which sunk the Scharnhorst, Gneisenau and Leipzig, and cap tured two colliers. The Dresden and Nurnberg escaped and are now being pursued. LATEST WAR BULLETINS LONDON, Dec. 12. The German cruiser Karlsruhe has been in battle with the British warship Glasgow off the coast of Brazil and!ivl thy sanguinary attacks of tim it j ii ji1" j'it j ; German have IIkcwIsc been r pul-t-.t has been damaged, but managed to escape, says a dispatch received ; (.u,ryW1(.r lth Krr:it joss. for tb. m. here today trom Rio Janiero. It oincial report or such a battle has been received, but the news also comes in a message from Buenos Aires, which says that "part of the Karlsruhe's stern was shot away by the Glasgow's six-inch guns." Attaches of the admiralty expressed full confidence today that the Karlsruhe, as well as the converted cruisers Prinz Eitel "Friederich and Kronprinz Wilhelm, would soon "be accounted for." CONSTANTINOPLE, Dec. 12. (Via Berlin and Amsterdam) It is officially announced that the Turkish fleet of Thursday bombard ed the Russian port of Batoum on the Black sea coast. One hundred Russians in the forts there were killed and a large number wounded. Batoum is a town of about 35,000 inhabitants and is strongly fortified. It was ceded to Russia by Turkey in 1878. TOKIO, Dec. 12. A wonderful anese today to Brir. Gen. Nathaniel W. Barnardiston, commander of the British forces which aided upon his arrival here. ROME, Dec. 12. Italv has demanded from Turkey an explana tion of stpru tnlrpn h' Dttomnn r, .... 1 1 British consul there. The Turks entered ihe. British Italian consulate for refuge. Despite the fact that the Italian flag niiur over 11. me 1 utks forced nH iu")v thA Rritkh nftlriil a 1 W Va U O U 1 1 U1J11 VMliV,llll. This action was a violation of eicrn oitice has pointed this out in KUMb. Dec. 12. ihe efforts . . . . . truce in the European war during This was announced at the Vatican says that "owing to the opposition iiujiimic j evi uilJlUiaj il,lVC LUJIIC U IiaLlglU. FRAT MEN VILL HOLD ANNUAL BANQUET SOON Fourth Annual Gathering oT Pan Hellenic Association to !e Some Time During Christmas Week. Arrangements are being made for the fourth annual banquet of the Pan Hellenic association of fcouth Bend, to be held some time during Christmas week. The association is composed of (Iretk letter fraternity men residing :n :-"outh Lend anil Mishawaka and there is a membership of 150. The following men have been appointed as a committee on arrangements: Dr. A. Ii. Mtiick. Harry Wheelock. Frank Hering, Clyde llaeake. Clarence of the English . . ' ; e -'7:1 7 :1 ' w.JLit x the Falkland Islands on Dec. S. is stated at the admiralty that no:n the region to th welcome was accorded bv Jap Japan in the capture of Tsin-Tao, ntnrink nt Ho.lpiln tn irrst thri ronsiilafe nnd the consul fl.i tn the entrance inio me puiuinrr ana car- Italy's neutrality and the Italian for its demand for an explanation. . of Pone Benedict XV. to obtain a! the Christmas season have failed. todav in a pubile document which of a certain power, efforts to stay nsmHBaBHMMBMMBMBMiHHMMi Ftoutlt, J. Klmer Peak. Frank Mayrs, jr.. ana neioeiv li. ojul-i. D. Warner. 11 IS expeciea 10 ie ;u ine udiiuri speakers of wide reputatior among trnlt., mon Thp l.nilM Wjtl probably be held either at the Oliver; hotel or at the Mishawaka hotel. Con trary to the plans of former years. there will probably be no ball in con nection with the affair this year. Last vear there was both the banquet and a dance and thes were held in the.ir.g undr American hall. The first gathering of the association was held at the Oliver hotel and the second at the Misha waka hotel. LONDON". A cigar prehented by tlie kaler to Lord lnfdale was old for J72.T.0 at auction In aid of the local Ked Crown ho-pltnl. A local tirm of butchers bought the weed. GERMANS LEAVE WESTERN OF YSER CANAL Abandon Positions in Fanders Which Are Then Taken by French Heavy Howitzer Battery is Destroyed. HAND-TO-HAND FIGHT IN WESTERN FLANDERS Grenadier and Coldstream Guards, Briton's Famous Regiments, Engaged in Ter rific Struggle. PARES, Dec. 1.'. The German troops in Flanders have been com pelled to evacuate the west bank of the Yscr canal and the allies he. ve cupitd tho positions abandoned by tbo IOC. Thl3 Was I'llieially anuoumt-d here th'.H afternoon, An oi;u ial s;ai meat lf-MlM'd by the ivar oMiee show . thill the I'mni h ftr tilb. ry continued to C Pluoni-Uat v It-- superiority m- li.at of the German. ! of tl(. G rn.aiL howttxer LatW rW h lias lt ni . omj.l 'e- I' drft'tlVd, ihe oiu. ial sia:.n.M;t The communique follov.s In lull: "Thy enemy has been eoii.pellcd b evacuate the western bank of the Ywer canal to the north "f t lie house of the ferryman. W e ate o. cuj;iii that :a!iU. "In tho region of Arras there nr. artillery contihtp. In the region of Nampcel our batteries huc sib-med the batteries of the enemy. "In the region of the AI"ne our heavy artillery has sibiuid the Ger man Held artillery. ne of their bat teries (if howitzers has been eompletr ".y destroyed. "To the northeast of Vaillex, in the region of Perthes, and in that of the forest of Grurie there bae la-en ar tillery duels nnd some Infantrj cn fcraKements which hac turned to .a: advantage. Artillery Le--- . llc. "J:i tho heights of the Mouse the enemy's urtilU-ry has been b ss active. On the contrary that of our troops ha.- destroyed at Deux-Nouds (to the wes! of Vigneulles) two of the enemy's bat teries, one of heavy caliber, the other Used for firing upon avlatots. "In the name region v h;t- Mown lip a block house. Pat Ween tbe MeUse and the Moselle there i- nothing to report. "In tho Vosge there are aitllbiy duclf. In the region of Sennes we havo Ptrengthencd the positions taken tho day before, "Rusla In the region of Mlawa, the violent attacks of the Gerinaivt hliVC been repulsed. The Russians have retaken the offensive against the columns of thu vm-my withdrawing in disorder. "In the region to the north of f tb vouth of 'ra ow thf Russian offensive continues sat'.-- factorlly, despite obstinate re:-;tanec. "Servlit The Krian armies have reached the Kolubaia riser. hio croMed that Ptrcuni l tw(en Va!.b o, which they have captured, and tb- confluent of the L1U. ''"o tb- north, they have occupied Laza reva t ;:. Th numbrr of prisoners tb:t they hao taken In the course of the atst bat tles ban reached thu neighborhood 18,000." lInni!-to-I!and Fight Inc. of Terri'e count'-r nttaks a re M ing made bv the- Germans :n YVe-e. I ' 1 . i T . 1 - ers to chec-k the efforts of the r.r.t:-a and rrtnrh to push forward or. the Rollers road from Ynres. Dining the past 4i hours there ha been jur; ous hand-to-hand f.gbting in whi-.-li some of the most :'amou bnu-!!.J.i ; troop is on the continent !.-'ur u. I Among them wer- The n-n;i'ii''r Tea tn gu-.iiiis. guards nr.d the co Id- whose v;i'ir traditional i-; the ..i.- nal of The P.ritish military b.istory. contest for tie:ich st of Ypres resulted in h'ay losses on ' dh sides and b tv,-M n I'm- lire ai h'.n- ' dreds of Corpses w ife:i on Thursday. I all along the im- b i !i lie- w h.-re t ri e ' At various T'oir.ts. in the northerr. sJ antral AtmentK-res and Arras , eessant and all towns a nd v;!!;u't - for miles arouroj ar- de-xted r lins. battered by shell--. Alonir the (nt'-r thr battb eonfin- ue.s to t!' clv.ra I I 1 1 I 4 - ' " f ,.J'' - via.. - . siege outs behind th.fr tn ru-hes mi t M J,p--insr artiII' rv "t f ilG' Artillery n. .nw-. i .on th e hei-'ht of the Mf ::-e on r o.- district nr.d in th-- "o-.-s activity is increasing, particularly or? ; the r 'a rt or The .iruiurv Wn'.'-J) ' : kent m nctioti atrainst trie 1 e T-- ' ' trenches most "f the time. The bittle f.f the Aisr.e. which .,..,,..,,. a, ;t. tb, v el oped ir.t- ie m:ir:-.y -frifoft which is rar.ng "V of three nations ban ; .1?0 td.lV. In that t ' HI f t r territory r: ue.k the allies and the Germans !m been shifted' but there has n--t 1 brak at any pr'nt. From Ith'irr.H it is report-! th.it both the French ar. 1 Oermrns ar employing sipping opraiicy s cy. .i large pcah- the FiT'pers aivis le- rtilb ry t'.r P.-t-.Mvn th' Argonr.f and the M- -:s r.d aro-md th frre.-t of I -a Pretr tr.a 'icrmir' struggling desperately to rrk' irro-jntl whieh v. ,s captured from them by the French. The French all th I !g c.ernan lel!rt "naiii-o v,ns" yinkn n nol- like a 'ailing to the ground id ode. e b!g sruco pa" v!irr. they ex.