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LARGEST SWORN CIRCULATION IN NORTHERN INDIANA
CONTENTS Editorial Conunont, School Department, the Theaters, And Other Features of General Intere3t. EZ3 VOL. XXXII., NO. 52. SOUTH BEND, INDIANA, SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 21, 1915. PRICE THREE CENTS A, MPLOYED TO WORK VACAN Hundreds of Acres Turned Over to Garden Committee for Support of Men and Families Impoverished by Depressed Industrial Conditions. feY ELINOR WOLF : SOUTH BEND NEWS TIMES. T LOT FARMS 0 o y P i A question, an answer, a i i t of advice and a. spirit of cooperation und, lo! a plan stands fully de veloped to mak fouth IJend a par dm city: Thus is the city to j-oIvp in a salutary mariner hor most depressing problem the problem of the un employed. Iainl enough to take care 1 all tin unem ployed men ami tlieir families in south I lend has already Iwen volunteered by real estate men. and a committee is rapidly drafting plans to put the men and tho idle land to work. Whether it is merely the intrinsic hopefulness of the .season the consciousness of budding life the sensing' of 'renewal, cannot be said, hut the fact re mains that thero is no problem, personal or social that looks so somber in spring a.s it docs in winter. Dlilicultics have a way of seeming more approach aide under the Influence of the spring sunshine (or else the sap of Inspiration runs more freely) and .solutions full-fledged, present themselves after we have sought for them long and vainly. fume such tiling has happened in .outh Bend in the past few days. Developing about an insipicnt plan of F. 15. Barnes, supervisor of municipal recreation, to encourage kitchen gardens and vacant lot gardening for the school children, the garden city plan has taken on larger and. more important proportions until, in a ipuiet, unassuming way is has developed into one of the biggest things that has been undertaken in the city. Mr. Barnes. John Bordner, county agriculture ex pert; Bruno Xehrling, landscape and garden expert and superintendent of the New Highland cemetery, with others interested in forwarding the movement met and formulated preliminary plans lor the eon duct of the gardens and through the social centers of the city the plan will be promulgated and the unem ployed furnished with an honorable and profitable way of relieving their condition. DOXATKI) LOTS MOUNT TO IIIW IKi:iS. Vernon Hastings lias volunteered 2o lots in va rious parts of the city; C. X. Fassett and C. L. Osturandcr havo contributed a tract 110x110 n Kuclid -park; J. A. "Werwinskl has offered 15 lots located In the most congested part of the city, and H. M. Kaufman bas offered the use of several hun dred lots lying In the west and southwest portions. Wickizer and Bondurant, Elliott and Elliott II. G. Miller, Happ and Taggart and other real estate, men have pronounced themselves heartily in sympathy with the plan and are willing to assist If additional Kround Is needed. Gus A. Klingler, county trustee, has furnished the means of procuring enough seed to fill, Jn large part if not entirely, that demand. He has written to Sen. Shively and Congressman Barnhart for a supply from the national department and he expects a favorable reply from them in a day or two. All now that scetrus necessary to make the plans fructify is a definite working basis and the garden ers. Cooperation will develop the former and a very little advertising, considering condition?, is expected to bring out the latter in numbers. The rough outline of the plan to utilize the lots has been worked cut somewhat as follows: The garden work will ho placed in charge of the "srarden department of the municipal recrea tion bureau' to te organised Tuesday afternoon nt ft .special meeting to he held in the oilier of JtccTcatlon Dirtvtor liarnes in the high sc1uh1 building. All real estate linns or individuals wishing; to aid by donating the use of lauds may reiort to Mr. Ilanics in Ids ofluv. spivifying; the si.e and location of the ground which they will place at his disposal. 3Ir. Ilanics will turn in a rviort to the garden department which will then classify the lots ac cording to districts. All worthy unemployed men may apply either to Mr. Ikornes or to the garden department for piots or land. llcfore the gardens are begun, before any one gardener begins to wxrk his land, a general Ilan for tlie gardens will Ik1; worked out and in struction giTcn, probably by means of Institutes beJd In Uie different sc1uh1 districts for the jrardeners of that district. vnxs is Ai:Lii m:vi:r.on:i. Being new, the plan is of course as yet indefinite on details hut considering the amount of successful work that has been done thus far and the time elapsing between now and the time for "breaking trround." all arrangements will be completed easily and thoroughly. The puriMM is in no way to t-oiirib t with the local market, Tlio gardens will lo largo enough, and planned in such a way as to provide adequately for the gardener and his family without giving him jmy (onMderable surplus to sell. The growing of potatoes for storage looking toward next winter will be en couraged, but nut to the exclusion -f the growing cf other vegetables. Jlr. Bordner suggests that half the plot Lc turned into potatoes and the remaining half into a variety of vegetables. Changes in these preliminary plans may prove feasible but they form, at least, a working basis which may be simplified or elaborated at will. The men who liave Immmi thrown out of em ployment in South Bend by industrial conditions are not charity seekers. Many of them have suf fered every deprivation. have sold their cloth ing and furniture in prefereiuv to asking for aid from charitable institutions. They art sclf-rc-sjHvting citizens, whom necessity and system are reducing to pauixTism. Knlightoncd charity workers give material aid only, as a last resort. Their mission is to help the needj MAYOR KELLER ENDORSES PLAN A committee to investigate possibilities and plans for placing vacant lots and grounds within tne city at the disposal of the unemployed during the. coming sum mer, will be appointed by Mayor Fred V. Keller, according to information given out at the city hall Saturday, by the ex ecutive. The mayor is heartily in favor of the movement "I would not, however, confine the gardening to city lots," says the mayor. "To my mind a'tract of 10 or 20 acres, with all the men at work on that, would I e of greater advantage. Several such tracts would care for the main portion of to help themselves, thus to avoid increasing pauper ism. This season the problem of the charity workers has been practically unsolvablc. The vacant lot garden plan offers the solution. livery dollar silent to forward the vacant lot garden plan will multiply itself through honest lalor from live to ten times, whereas of the dol lar pi ven to charity associations divides itself many times hefore. it reaches the charity ap plicant. Though employment for the unemployed is the principal, it is not the only benefit that will accrue to the city and iti environs if the plan succeeds. It will le of the utmost benefit from aesthetic. sinitary and moral points of iev. Clean-up days and city beautiful campaigns are familiar events In South Bend. The vacant lot par den plan which would turn every vacant lot espe cially those In the conpc?ted districts" over to men who would till thorn to win a livelihood, would pro vide a more systematic and permanent means of beautifying the city. WILL MKAX MOIti: HKALTIiri'L CITY. From the standpoint of sanitation, as Mr. lordn'r points out. even when a lot is apparently free tf rubbish and all disease breeding litter, there ft an ' -'.v. v .'.-' ' "'. - 'Sec--' v" " f i : ' ' J F i i J- ' ; -- 'X:,'"- - - s mw : mum mm mmmm-m-' :- . t t I .c v- ...-. . v ,. .iVK... iZK rm,f . : SH:. U t i? m- - , : Vk 'ft ! l:-mm. mk$$i?h&:s : PROSPERITY,-CONTENTMENT AND HEALTH LIE DORMANT IN IDLE CITY LOTS HERE IS A LAD WHO FOUND THEM THERE. the unemployed. Places that might not be available bv donation might be rented."- It is possible, according to the mayor, that another appropriation will be asked of the city council, to defray the ex penses. , Mayor Keller anticipates that to make the work thoroughly successful, an expert might be employed to superintend the work. A retired" fanner, with practical experience in gardening, it is believed would answer this purpose, and that his services might be obtained very reason ably. At the same time the executive would reserve for the individual as much insanitary condition existing' in the weeds and the surface soil which breeds dangerous germs. The gar dens not only would do away with all rubbish but it would improve the soils and substitute a health giving Indeed, life-giving garden for a neighbor hood festering spot. As to the moral side of the question, here is what R. P. Powell, founder of the work in Philadelphia,, has to say: "The incalculable benefit that fresh air arnl moderate exercise is to the physical and moral health of everyone is well known. Men liave coma to those pardens in the spring; who were poor vartly or wholly !eeaue of think. JJy the end of the sea son they have left us soler and industrious citizens. What made the change? Instead of hanging around they have found pleasant and profitable employment wherein they were their own master. Parents brin little ones along to help weed and pick vegetables. Through the healthf ulness of the work, which is in no sense toil, the pale, hollow-cheeked little ones be come ruddy, bright-eyed, laughing joys, filled with vicror and happiness before the season is over. 'The country week' becomes a 'season's outing while the playground becomes also a work shop." It is estimated that, there are 500 acres of land lying idle in isouth Bend. According to Mr. Bord er's computation, for the sake of furnishing some criu rion of the amount of money that might be m-ade on this land, loo huh-U of (totattKs and the esti mate is low could !e raised on every acre. Sell- ing at an average of a dollar basbel tliat woulA mean $o0,0Q0 for one season! While the plan i new in South Bend, except for the school gardens which flourished last year and several years previous in connection with several cf the public schools, It is by no means an experiment. It has been worked in Philadelphia for 17 years, and each year with increasing success from every point of view. And one of the interesting things about this plan is that it offers many points of view. Thero are few who do not remenYber "Pingree's potato patches" which were so ridiculed when Mayor ringree adopted the plan for Detroit, but which lmu- of the individual initiative as possible. He takes notice of the various ways in whkii such vacant grounds are being utilized in other cities, in some instances by munic ipal employment of the unemployed, and in others by farming out various small tracts and allowing the tenants to sort of work out their own salvation. He is not thoroughly settled, as yet, on the best course to pursue. "You may rest assured," says the mayor, "that the administration "will do all it can to advance the cause, which ap pears one of the most meritorious that has been suggested in solution of the local unemployed problem.'" proved the fruit of an idea which has lived to brine honor to the name of the man with whom it originated. Thero are few who have not heard something of Milwaukee's Garden association, but there nro many who have not watched the development of the movement in smaller towns and cities of the United States. AS IT WOUIvS IX OTHER PLACID. V Mr. Xehrlinp, superintendent of the Xew High land cemetery-, his seen it worked out in Peoria. Bloomington and Xormal, lib, and in some of the suburbs of Chicago, under the supervision, there, of Prof. Caldwell of Chicago university. "It is a splendid idea," said ilr Nehrling Satur day, "and it should bo done right. It will mean not only employment for the unemployed but will mean the beautifying and the cleaning up of the city. In Peoria there was scarcely a vacant lot that was not improved. There the Chamber of Commerce got back of it and employed a qualified gardener in charge of the supervision. Expert supervision is most desirable. This is not like so many schemes that effervesce and then evaporate. If it Is once started and started right it will be here to stay, be cause its effects will be so beneficial." Mr. Xehrling formerly supervised the work of teachers of gardening at Normal, 111., and the teachers in turn supervised the work of the school children in their pardens. The Philadelphia plan i teeming wiih -.ie-tio:i. It was started under circumstances identic:! I with those which urge it in South Rend; namely. mi ;:t i i.i I depression and the necessity for ablins s !i -i r io.t -ing men to keep their self-rcspct. The report of Sui. James I ! . li v t!,- Phili delphia Vacant Lot . association puMi-h -1 :a - :;:t f the year, is entitled "I2.00h From Mb- My Land." Quoting from the report: "The first purpose for which our work as organ ized was the opening of an opportunity during an in dustrial depression, for those in need to acquire ma terial supplies by their own efforts in cultivating tracts of city land whi:h were lying in was to. The material improvement in the lives of those to whom we assign gardens has continued to be our main purpose during the 17 years of our work in Phila delphia. "In judging the value of vacant lot garden work we should never overlook the fact that the results deix.mil upon the work of the ganlcninp families themselves. The opHrtunity. uiervls. . ion anil instruction which we offer to thec ioo ple cannot 1m of benolit to them unless thov put their minds ami bodies to work. .luM to the ex tent to which they do thi. they receive their re ward. I 'or thU reason our work U free from the paupcriin:r effect, of iiiom philanthropic efforts. Instead of pauperizing jj in-phe (lf respect, encourage sell-con.'t Y:;c ." ard lead to prater industry. ANOTHKii si in: to i in: orixuov. "There is another side to the v. .Mini lt work which entitles it to the i'.t oi aid- . u -nii.-ii all public spirited . citizens. Y h.r m.u'n in :h' times of clean-up movements and i a tifing campaigns. While our work was th.i i ;; u',. d, ii'-r has it been conducted with that as u aim. ; t tie results it has accomplished alons: thi-s line pea us in a position to claim a share of praise. The urea; economy on the one hand, and the permanepcx and thoroughness :' our clean-up work on the other, have made it. while not tin most essential by fa! the most practical of any that has been inaugurated. "It is greatly to be regretted that on .umt of the limited amount o; land loaned to is. and the limited funds at opr disposal, we w - : ,. , pell d to turn away hundreds of applicants. M n o; th-e had come to us with great hope, having l-aiiv d what an important factor gardens hae l'..:ue p, tbe lives of those who have had them. loe-..j. it is at least gratifying to know that there j mu Ii a a-t number who realize the benefit our vo:;. has for them, and who are willing to la!or h. id i; d loig under our direction to secure the alth. ue,ph and happiness which the idle lands oj o r , in. id o reward their earnest effort." Philadelphia's working plan is as f.d'a.-.. s: Tim vacant lots available for the use o; tbe a . .i t i n are divided into plots 71 by Him feet ... li ap plicant that gets his name in rarl enouu!: uiwn one plot. In taking it he agrees to Mn ioMo-viiig regulations: 1 lo cultivate his plot thotnuhlv i i.i ...;:: hout the sea-son, as directed by the superisui. 2 To keep an accurate .account o:- a:! the iime spent by himself and others in uHi w warden. 3 To keep an accurate aci-icnt ,,f rip- ,,i antity and value of all produce sobl, .u .... 4 Failure to comply with th se i a'.::., ns or to follow the instructions of the .- ,,. ..! ..,; -uu cause forfeiture Jf th- allotte;i ;iul. All land is loaned by the ral e-t. - p,. ;, .-. t;,.. agreement that it will b retain, d n n. --.j --n 10 days' notice. A report in 1101 gives thee i.uure.; i 'e: Lie work of the association, iu.eij"; number of persons affected, 5 S 1 ; value of produce, $o"."im. The num ber of acres increased from -7 in i r 7 to 1 m 1904. The number of gardens from b") to 7..';. The cost of the cultivation of the indiv.dual garde.. was reduced from 18. 23. to 0.10. PKOSI'KIUTY A .s. p.i IT.KIsM. The Milwaukee plan differs somewhat from this. The lots there are apportioned in somewhat the sane waj though the plots are smaller. La h person b -siring to take a garden pays to the garden associa tion 51 for tools and $1 fr membership in the ti soclation. Those dues practically cover th r.sm of purchasing tools for all and for plowing and w4i vating the land. Aecording to a rough estimate made ,, Mr. i: ner that would just about cover similar ;- - locally. Prosperity and contentment and bapj.ir.e-? are lying dormant in the city's idle lots while porriy and dissatisfaction and misery are stalking th- . -:ty streets in the prsjr.s of the unemployed. "Who would grudge the money who would re:i dare to say that it would not he a great thin- if by so simple an expedient as to turn the idle lots to use we could add to the fame f .suth r.end. the name of a "garden city." wherein prospirity has been substituted for pauperism?