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THE bOUTH BEND NEWS-TIMES
.fOVI.Y i: TMMi. J.WHRY s. r.i 9 AGRICULTUREInformation for Farm"sd 'chardists fe TOCK-RA ISINgW I I i POULTRY KEEPING AS A Opportunity for a Cash income at All Seasons of the Year Start With Standard-Bred Stock, Maintain Vitality by Careful Selection. By Irof. James II. .Morinan. Former Fxpert of the United States Department of Agriculture. Few- farmers take the interest in poultry keeping that they should take. Thl is a great mistake. The prospects of profits from this branch of livestock keeping are excellent. In 1910 there were 6,261.002 farms in the United .States. Fowls were raised on 5,85.03- of these farms. The number of fowls kept on farms were 293.S80.190. The pro duction of eg??, however, was re ported for only 4,833.759 farms, and the number of fowls kept on these r.irrrs is Riven as 273,205,924. The egs produced numbered 1,457,385,-77- dozen, Since the males were reported In the number of fowls, the estimated average production of eggs per fowl of farm. Hocks in this country was placed at about sax dozen, or 72 eggs per fowl, a year. The average price received for the rggs was 19.3 cents per dozen. The total income from the sale and uso of eggs on farms was about J 1.1 5 jer hen a year. If the cost of feed should b-j estimated and deducted from this income It would show a ery small balance of profit for the farmer or his wife. The figures are equally startling when the value of the fowls them jelves Is considered. In 1909 the total number of fowls raised was 4 S8, 468, 000. and their value was $202,506,000. This would give an nvorage valu to farm fowls of 4 0 cents each, which would indicate tither a very small type of fowl or an exceedingly low price. Since the wholesale price that year ranged from 13 to IS cents a pound for juultry, it would show that the av-f-rage farm fowl is not a very prom ising product for profit. Census ptatistics have been brought together to show what was "!eing done by farmers in the line of poultry keeping. Ltut the pro gressive farmer is becoming alive to the situation. Free farm range is :tn economic ?d vantage over the contlned rouun- yard. It is much heaper to ta - poultry on farms than under city or suburban condi tions. From many years of ex perience in raisin, r poultry, it is my belief that poultry keeping offers an opportunity to farmers for a steady ash income at a!J seasons of the v;sr. When m.'.ny other lines of v.urk are at a standstill on the farm poultry keeping offers a means of pnwitable labor. especially during th winter season. I wish, there lote. to gie a brief chapter out of iiv own experience in raifing poultry tor egs and meat. Selecting a Maud. nd lretl. Uxperts in our agricultural ex I t riment stations maintain that the ordinary farmard fowl is not the most profitable type of fowl to keep. In-it'inl they recommend some standard breed. Leghorn. I'h mouth Hocks and others bae many advantages over the mongrel fowl which belongs to The average farm 'lock. Among these advantages are: (1). better results in breeding: more opportunities lor selling hatching eggs at a high er price than eggs for table use; .".). uniformity in color, size and shape of egi-'s. and (4), a better ap l'f;ir.incf of the f'ock generally. The most iv.-vortant ;ulantt?i;e of : standard 1 recti is the opportunity lor improvement. The farmer not only has a good tbi k of fowls from which to make ; selection, lut )e an always find some other farmer or poultry keeper with the same Meed of fowls, with which he can . xchange males or females for reedmg purposes. One of the first bjeets in successful breeditig tf poultry is t maintain the vitality of the fbv'.i. This. i thine by in fusing new blood into the flocks. In 1906 1 had a few pullets which 1 egan to lay earlier than others. I 1 ean b putting these earl layers by thenis' Ives. y keeping a record of the ( pv laid by these pullets tlur ir. the winter. 1 found that some tf the pullets were better layers than the older fowls. Tliis v as not the only feature. I'reedir.c from e..tly layers mated Aith tl.e best nu les was found to produce pullets which laid more t ens than the parent fowl. This led me to take more interest in the poult. , ide of f.irm work. The ieul. was a l.irfco increase in egg j i otluction in winter. With higher prices for eci? at that season, the flock was kept at a prof.t instead of .it a lo-. .is bad frequently been the i3v for stc:al months of the , ea r. Ileoords of e?g production from my tujck has t fen kept since 1907. l'esid-v's the pleasure of keeping ac ouuts. there is considerable satis faction in knowing that the t!ock l.a Keen proritaMe. and that there has It en a steady increase in profits .-i- a result of imprt inc the dock by cartful breeding. KOMlItN in llgg lrtHllHlltl. l"tr th sake of comparison, let i take the rim productbn of a I'tck t-f ' " fo. !.- in l'.o.; tmh num i er of t-f;'s l.iiii tiiat ear was .'Vj?6. From then on there was a steady in- SIDE LINE FOR FARMERS Ml iiiillii! I ! ! ' I i f I .Ä S?f COO SINGLE COMB WHITE LEGHORNS "White Leghorn hens easily lead all other breeds as layers, and this is one of the reasons why 90 per cent of all egg farms are stocked with this variety. They are small, active hens, producing equally well in confinement and on range. The eggs run high in fertility and enormous hatches of hustling chicks are turned out with regularity from the incubators on the big commer cial poultry plants. The chicks are hardy and active, growing and feathering rapidly during the first eight weeks. They are very popu lar at this age ;or small broilers, and It is the practice on large com mercial plants to market the greater crease up to 1914, in which year the egg production was S.014. For the 10 months, ending Oct. 31. 1916, the number of eggs laid by the same sized Hock was 7,877. I5y systematic breeding there was a steady increase in the egg yield. For the first four years after 1907, the average number of eggs laid was 5,429, or an average annual in crease of nearly 37 per cent. During the years 1914 to 1916, inclusive, the increase in eggs over 1907 was more than 100 per cent, with practically the same number of fowls. Care in breeding, therefore, has its effects In more prolific laying. Hrcctllng I-argcr Fowl. The weight of the fowls can also be increased. Census reports show that the size of the average farm ! fowl is small. To increase the weight of fowls by careful breed ing is to lay the foundation for more profitable poultry keeping. A few simple principles of selection in breeding are as follows: Vigor and health in both males and females are necessary in suc cessful breeding. Next, the form of the breeders should be considered. For increasing the size of the chick, birds with long bodies, good width between the thighs, and long breast bones should be chosen. These traits are transmitted, which is the basis for larger hens with a greater proportion of meat. In 10 years have been able to increase the size of my fowls' nearly 50 per cent. From the standpoint of meat pro duction, tills increase in weight is very important. All kinds of meat, including poultry, are very high in price. The minimum estimate of poultry production is about 900, udO.000 fowls a vear. On the basis of an increase in weight of 1 1-4 pounds pre iow i. mis wouiu mean an annual increase of 1,125,000,000 pounds. On the l.asis of 2o cents a pound this increase in weight would mean about $225.000.000 a year in the pockets of farmers and poultry raisers. Making lrofit. It must be remembered that tiie producing power of a flock of farm I ooaltrv is not limited to ckks and i meat alone. The value of poultry United States department of agri manure must not be overlooked. It ; culture in the district of Columbia contains three essential plant food ; and Ha environs. This insect, which elements in about the right propor-' in its adult form is a brownish moth tlon of nitrogen. phosphoric acid and in its larval stage a small white and potash. Hut this is merely an I and pink caterpillar, attacks both incidental source of income in poul- j the tender shoots and fruit, ausing try keeping. The meat side of poultry raising, as shown above, is a big factor. Af ter their usefulness in egg produc tion is over, hens can be soJ for table use. Cockerels tan ;?o be made to yield a handsome profit. In hatching chicks to maintain the number of fowls desired for laying purposes, about half the number are usually cockerels. If hatching begins early, the cockerels can be fitted for i. broiler trade. These bring a high price and good profits, loiter cock erels can be fitted for a roaster trade. The best cockerels should be selected for breeding on the farm, or for sale as standard-bred birds. The dual-purpose breeds that is, lowls which are good layers and make good table birds are espe cially adapted to the making of profits on farms. In raising fowls for either egjrs or meat, the farmer has an advantage over the commercial poultry raiscr. The wide range fowls have on farr.M for many months of the year," whicl enables the fowls to gather naturat food at practically no cost, gives the f irmer a big advantage over his competitors in the poultry field. The , farmer can produce egi:s and table fowls much cheaper than can poul try keepers who have to purchase all feeding stuffs. These advantages the farmer .should realize, especially as both eggs and poultry are now high in price and are Ukelv to remain , S, Ji STATE Willi i Mm' W'lll Villi 1 . 1 i ' ' I ' 41 .i id ; W T it Vnt Vi'M i Hi I Hi1 in HI portion of the cockerels at this age, turning the pullets out on range. Single Comb "White leghorns are large producers of good-sized white eggs, ery desirable in New York and other markets where the de mand for eggs is strong and prices highest. Excepting In a small minor- ity the hens do not sit. The eggs, therefore, must be hatched and the chicks reared by other breeds or by artificial means, and the commercial egg farms are usually equipped with mammoth incubators, Capable of hatching from 1,000 to 30.000 eggs each, and large brooder houses where many thousands of chicks are reared at one time. so. Let me show the profits I have made from a small Hock during the past two years. Income Expenditures 1914 $346.31 126.28 1915 J36S.3S 14 6.0 3 $222.35 Profits $220.03 The Scrct of Success. The secret of success in making poultry profitable is to maintain the health and vigor of the fowls. If I were asked to state briefly the first principles of poultry success on farms, I would give these points (1) The election of a standard utility breed of fowls. (2) The selection of the best layers only for breeding purposes. (3) Good houses and proper care, especially In winter. (4) The selection of the largest and healthiest fowls for breeding. - 0 far as I can see there is no reason why the farmer could not easily carry out these rules. They need not interfere with other farm cork. It is not always advisable to leave the care of the poultry en tirely to the women on farms. They have other duties to perform. If our farmers will give a little more attention to the busy hen, they will find that she adds very materially to their income from year to year. ;U. S. AgHCUltUral EXpeftS DiS cover Small Insect That Causes Big Losses. An insect destructive to the peach and kindred fruits, believed to be new in the United States, has been discovered by entomologists of the serious losses. Ifecause of the habits of the worm, the usual control measures such as spraying with certain arsenates will probably not be effective. The smooth young shoots, owing to their rapid growth, are protected by the poison soiution for only a very' short time after the spray is applied, and hence it is almost impossible to poi son them. The entomologists of the department who hve been investi gating the pest will continue to study it in the hope of developing control measures. What the Inoct I. The insect, known to science as Iispeyresia rr.cicta. is believed to have been in:roduced from Japan. So far as the department's entomo logists know, it has not been found in America other than in the district of Columbia and in the adjoining territory in Maryland nJ Virginia. The specialists are desirous of knowing if the insect has attacked peach, plum, or cherry trees else where in the United States. The presence of the insect can best b determined in most cases by the nature of its Injury to peach trees. It bores into practically every tender twig and causes new shoots to push out from lateral buds. These I are attacked in turn, the abnormal stimulation of lateral growth pro ducing a much branched and bushy Dlant, A copious How of gum from iii in n i.i in; Iii H; III MiJIIlii ill ! Ii t li'ilHl hl II III l; i : 1 i I I 1 1 : i . II. I 1 1 !i Wl l fl l ii !" i i r ' , m t rv : i ; i i 1 . i i . i . I ! ' 'Z3V I VI l! hW i f M Ml 7, 5 in HEMY F MEN COOPERATE Joint Work of Food and Drug Officials Accomplishes Much Good. The work accomplished by the cooperative efforts of the officials charged with the enforcement of the federal food and drugs act and the oificials who enforce state laws reg ulating commerce in similar pro ducts is outlined in the annual re port of. the chief of the bureau of chemistry, U. S. department of agri culture, which has just been pub lished. The report states that such cooperation has been more effective than ever before owing to the man ner in which the office of state co operative food and drug control has conducted its work. This office was established in 1914 for the purpose of making food and drug law en forcement more effective by facili tating the systematic exchange of in formation regarding law violations and methods of detecting them be tween federal and state oificials and among officials of the various states. In the absence of some quick meth od of distributing such information it might be possible for a manufac turer to dispose of his adulterated products in other states for some time after detection. The cooperative work, however, has accomplished much more than the exchange of information. Federal and state officials have united their efforts in improving the food supply in (V.Tinite localities and for the cor rection of specific abuses in the pro duction and si e of particular pro ducts. For instance, the federal and state officials cooperated in the sani tary control of the milk supply of small cities near state boundaries in the states of Illinois. Iowa, Missouri, Kansas. Nebraska, and in New Eng land. These cities received part of their milk supply from the state in which they were located and part from neighboring states. The part of the supply that came from other states could l.est be handled under the federal law, for that law applies to all foods and drugs shipped into interstate commerce; that is, ship ped from one state to another. Thus all parties responsible for the ship ment of adulterated milk could be teached whether they resided in t In state where the milk was sold or not. Without the cooperation of the fed eral officials it would not be possible for the state officials to reach effec tively the offenders residing in other states. "It is proposed to repeat this work year after year." the re port states, "extending it each year to new territory." Similar coopera tive work has been done on the con trol of the shipment of decomposed eggs so effectively that this trat tic has been broken up. Food and drug officials found that, owing to high prices prevailing for certain synthetic drugs used exten sively by physicians In . the treat ment of various diseases, there were being put on the market cheap imi tations whitdi were sold under the name and label of the genuine med icines but which on examination were found to have little or none of the therapeutic effects of the gen uine articles. Though a number of shipments were seized, and a num ber of individuals successfully pros ecuted under the federal food and drugs act, and lndicements returned under the postal laws, the traffic could not he wholly suppressed by federal action, nor all the offenders reached. The situation was laid be- lore the state and municipal officials who instituted many prosecutions and seizures, with the result that the joint action of tho federal, state, and municipal oificials hroke up this fraudulent trattie. As tho result of joint action be tween the federal and state officials, or intlependent action based upon the exchange of information re garding law violations, much work was done during the year to clear the channels of commerce from de composed canned goods, decomposed fish and poultry, poluted or watered oysters, watered scallops. liquors containing wood alcohol, misbrand ed cottonseed meal. misbranded stock feeds, and a large number of other adulterated or misbranded foods and drugs. The work of the office of state co operaMve food and drug control has brought about greater uniformity in the twig ends often follows the at tack of the caterpillars. Injury to lYuit. In attacking fruit the young cater pillars generally eat through the skin at or near the point of attach ment of the fruit stem. The larva, as it grows, makes its way to the pit, where it feeds on the f'.esh, which soon becomes much discolor ed and more or less slimy. Iarvae entering at the side of the fruit are more likely to eat out pockets or cavities in the flesh. The full-grown caterpillar spins a whitish silk cocoon in which to pu pate. Moths emerge in the spring for egg laying by the time the shoots are well out. The bureau of entomology. United States department of agriculture, es pecially requests owners of peach or other fruit trees to report the presence of this new pest in their orchard. Specimens of twics may be mailed wrapped in paper, or. pre ferably, in a suitable box. Choosing Poultry for Table WASHINGTON, Jan. 6. The Im portance of age, sex. exercise, food and care as influencing tenderness and flavor in poultry is pointed out by home economics specialists of the United States department of agri culture in a professional paper. Bulletin 4C7, Just published. There is much less difference, the bulletin states, in the digestibility or healthfulness of the meat of differ ent kinds of fowls than Is common ly supposed. Nearly all the nutri ents and energy of poultry, as of other meats, it is pointed out, are utilized by the healthy normal body. In all kinds of poultry table quality 'depends primarily on tender ness and llavor, and these, in turn, are influenced by age. sex, exercise, food, and care. Freshness Is also an important factor, but this is not merely a question of how long a bird has been dead, but rather of how far developed are the chemical and bacteriological changes which, when they are carried too far, cause what we call spoiling or decompo sition in the meat. The micro organisms which cause dangerous changes are likely to be introduced by careless and dirty handling, and for this reason cleanliness should be insisted on. The changes take place most rapidly in the presence of warmth and moisture. Hence cleanliness, cold, and dryness are at the bottom of all the methods of caring for poultry on the farm, in the warehouse, at the market, and in the home. The methods of cooking poultry are, in general, the same as those for other kinds of meat. The tougher the bird, the more cooking will be needed to make it tender and easily digested, and the larger it I j, the more heat will he required to cook it thoroughly. Canned and potted poultry are prepared in much the .same way as freshly" cook ed dishes, then sterilized and sealed, and when properly put up do not differ essentially in food value from similar fresh foods. CIcncral Considerations. In regard to the general consider ations to be observed in choosing poultry, the bulletin calls attention to the fact that while the relative cost of different kinds of poultry de pends primarily on the price, the proportion of edible to inedible ma terial and the thoroughness with which the edible portions can be utilized should also be kept in mind. Well-srown birds with good sized masses of moderately fat llesh are more economical than eith er young or over-fattened one. At ordinary retail prices, full-grown chicken is the only poultry which compares in real economy with the cheaper cuts of beef and pork, but young chicken, medium-sized tur key, goose, and guinea fowl are oft en as economical as the more ex pensive grades of other meats. Use of Coll storage Poultry. In discussing the use of cold stor age fowls, the bulletin says: "The way in which frozen birds are thawed makes a great difference in the length of time they keep in condition. It used to be customary to thaw them by soaking in cold water, but this has been proved undesirable not only because the water is very likely not to be clean, but also because soaked birds 'go off in quality very rapidly. Soak ing in hot water, as is sometimes done in market for a 'rush order,' is even worse. A much better way is to keep the birds for 4 hours at ordinary ice-box temperature (45 to 50 degrees F. As has been al ready stated, the sooner the birds are used after thawing, the better, and whenever possible should be bought stiff and thawed at home. This means buying poultry a day the administration of the federal and of the various state food and drug laws. In the opinion of the food and drug officials, uniform ami cooperative action makes it easier for thf; honest producers and dis tributors to comply with all the pro visions of the different laws relating to their products, and makes it harder for dishonest manufacturers, who purposely try to evade the laws, to escape detection. BRIEF ITEMS Two thousand bluebill and 300 white-winged scoter ducks were found to destroy S.00O oysters a day in a single bay near Olympia, Wash. Successful methods for the control of the foot-rot of sweet potatoes, a serious and destructive disease in several states, have been developed by the specialists of the department. In 1901 the .actual cash road and bridge expenditure in the Ucitel States averaged slichtly less than ?2S per mile of rural roads. In 1915 the cash road and bridge expendi ture had increased to an average of $101 per mile of road. Practically no injury to alfalfa from summer heat has been record ed in dry climates, but high temper atures combined with much moisture in the atmosphere are so injurious that it is difficult to groK the crop successfully under thei-e conditions. In order to make a cheap filter, take a large flower-pot and stop the hole in the bottom of it by placing a piece of sponge in it Cover with a few inches of powdered charcoal, fill with water, and let it stand over a pail or tub supported by two or three sticks laid across. The water filtering through the charcoal will be freed from all impurities and will be fit for family use. The char coal should be changed every three months and the sponge everal times a year. before it Is needed, but it is the surest way of having it properly thawed. In warm weather it should be put in the refrigerator to thaw, but in cobl weather a moderately cool room will do as well. If it is impossible to do the thawing at home, the marketman should not be allowed to do it until as hort time before delivery. "Although frozen poultry is hard- IT t r I I l K t'l n li-Vlr.n w- . 1 , . ; - 1 j OVO Ii IMI I'll 11 are in the market, it undoubtedly has the advantage 01 furnishing chickens turkeys, and other birds when the natural supply is lacking and thu. increasing the variety of the meat list." How to IUvopnlo (lood Poultry . The following statement of the methods by which good table poul try can be recognized by the pur chaser is made in the bulletin: "In a freshly killed bird the feet feel moift. soft, and limber, and if it wa,s dri'ed with the head on. the eyes look bright and full. As it be comes stale the eyes shrink and the feet dry and harden, when too stale, I. e., when decomposition is well un der way, the body turns dark and greenish or becomes slimy. The flesh should be neither flabby nor stiff, but should clve evenly and gently when pressed by the fin ire r. It is very difficult to distinguish between good sold storage and freshly killed poultry. "One of the commonest ways of testing the age of dressed poultry is to take the end of the breastbone farthest from the head between thumb .nd finger and attempt to bend it to one side. In a very young bird, say a 'broiler chicken or a green goose, it will be easily bent, like the cartilage in the human ear; in a bird a year or so old it will be brittle. 1 nd in an old bird, tough and hard to bend or break. Un fortunately there are sometimes tricky dealers who break the end of the breastbone before showing the bird, and thus render the test worthless. If the feet are left on the carcass, they furnish a mark of age. In a young bird they are soft and smooth, becoming hard and rough as the bird grows older. The claws are short and sharp in a young bird, growing longer and blunter with age and use. .purs generally occur on male chickens. On male broilers and tender roasting chick ens they are small; on older, hish-er-flavored ones they are prominent but flexible; on cocks they are long and attached to the bones of the legs; on capons they seldom develop until the second year of age. How to Judge Turkeys. "Turkeys up to a year old are said to have black feet, which grow pink up to three years old and then gradually turn gray and dull. "The age of pigeons can some times be told by the color of the breast, which becomes more and more purplish as the bird grows older. Red feet are also said to be a sign of age in a pigeon. "In ducks and geese the flexi bility of the windpipe is a mark of youth. It can be easily squeezed and moved when the bird is young, but later grows rigid and fixed. If the tips of tbe quills at the end of the wing are sharply pointed the bird is probably young; the blunter they are, the older the bird. "When caponizing has been prop erly done the head is small for the size of the body, the comb and wat tles are pale and withered, the body plumper, rounder, and larger than in an ordinary fowj, and the spur abortive. If the operation was in complete, the head will be Tike that of an ordinary bird and the body less rounded. Such birds, known technically as 'slip capons,' arc much inferior to true capons." TRY MODERN RECIPES Many people cling to old methods of doing things. In Farm and Fire side, a writer says: "We have formed the habit, also of attaching undue importance to certain methods and recipes which have come down from our ancestors. Some of these, it is true, cannot easily be improved upon. But with t'mo meat becoming more and more a luxury there should be no hap hazard methods used in killing and curing. The process is simple, and there is a scientific reason for every step all the way from the fatted ani mal to the frying pan. "Just because a hog is butchered on a farm makes the meat no bet ter than if the .animal were killed anywhere else, and if careless meth ods of handling are practiced the meat may actually be of inferior quality. This side of the matter was once put to me by a man whose observa tions were wide and whose palate was particular. 'If I must constant ly eat th2 quality of meat found on the tables of some of my neighbors, he said, 'then I prefer to buy meat for home use from the packers. He went on to describe oversaltintr, strong flavors, and other qualities he had noticed but which the people w ho used the meat had become ac customed to. and who apparently consider their products of good qual ity. 'How can anyone hope to satis fy customers with that class of meat?' h-2 asked in conclusion." NOTICK TO Tili: TUHLIC. I. the undersigned, will not be re sponsible for any debts contracted by my v.dfe, Minnie Marckle, who left my home without cause, Janu ary 4 th. 1917. MR. JOHN J. MAHCKL.K. Adv. Sil N. Allen St. The bureau of soils of the depart ment list year mapped in detail the various foils of J4. 7 49. 440 acres in 75 areas in 32 states. linn UNTY AGEITS Extension Flan of Improving Agriculture is Working Out Well. As a result of the realization that j improved methods may be brought to the attention of the farmer mere effectively by personal contact and demonstration than in any other way, the county agricultural agent work was begun in the north rn and western states in 1911 by the United States department of agri culture, the state agricultural col leges, and county agencies, in co operation. (routh of tho Work. During this year only five county agents were operating in the north ern and western states, but by July 1, 1910, the number had increased to 41'., the work having been taken up in every one of the northern ami western states. While the general nature of the activities of the agents is the same throughout the territory, the provisions under whitdi the states assist in the work vary con siderably. In some states the co operation of organized groups of farmers in the counties is a prere quisite to contribution of state funds 1. ml in many instances these farmers I contribute diret tly a substantial part 01 the necessary expense money. F.vcn where the existence of such organizations is not required, many have sprung up and are play ing important parts in the success of the county agent work. Money for tarrying on the county agent act'vites is contributed by the federal government through the United States department of agri culture and the agricultural exten sion act fund; by the states, usually through the agricultural colleges; by county supervisors; by local farmers; and by public-spirited in dividuals and organizations in both county and city. The average total annua! budget for the work of each county agent is about $3,000. Tho County Agent Ulan of Work. Tbe work of the county agents varies with the needs of their com munities, but in general is address ed to the improvement of .agricul tural method.', practices, and condi tions wherever possible through demonstrations, talks, and publica tions, ;nd through calling attention to good methods already practiced by the best farmers of the commun ity. The needs of the county usual ly are discussed by the agents with state extension-work leaders, coun ty officials, ami leading farmer, and a project program adopted. Farmers are then found who are willing to cooperate in the demon stration of certain improved meth ods and, when results of tho dem onstrations are apparent, field meet ings are held in order that the farmers may see the results and de termine their value. The agent also assists the fanners to organize co operative associations; conducts courses in agriculture; holds meet ing?, often illustrated by lantern slides of local agricultural subjects; writes timely agricultural articles which are published in the local county press; and carrits on other similar activ ities. l ilting the Work to Ivocnl Needs. How the activities of the agents vary with their environment i shown by the work with corn. In the far north and northwest this work has been chiefly in securing varieties Jhat will mature in the short growing season. In the corn belt principal att nthm has been given to the testing of .-cd and the standardization of varieties. In New York and New Fnvland emphasis has been placed on the growing of more satisfactory silage varieties. In Illinois activities have centered in some sections on the inlro'Iuctiun of alfalfa, and in one county having an agent in 911 there- H how a greater acreage of alfalfa than tiler's was in the whole state in l'.'lt. Prac tically throughout the po: thv. e st the agents have striven 1 bring about the more gener al ti e.itiuent of oat seed to prevent smut. In some counties where demonstrations have been carried on f-,r thru.' ye,.rs th practice has become alnio.-t univer sal. The avei tg" iii'TtM.-" in yield, due to the treatment, on all demou ftations has la-en s.v bu-he-ls, an I has been obtained at a cot of 1 s than 10 cents. Impro iiiir law stK-k Operations. The county agents have be'-n In ftrumntal in ' rir.-:ng about the in troduction of livestock in p-tiun where grain farming had been ex clusively or largely practiced, and In all sections of the northwest have done much toward the standardiza tion of breeds. (me saving they have iffected frequently in e attlo raising is the exchange, of sires by differe-nt ce.mmunities. This h.ts, to a large ext'-nt. displaced the old plan of selling ;.ne animals for re-f after several years ejf service to pre vent inbrevdin-. Many head of live stock alse have been saved through tho advice given by the agents to the owners of tliea-ed animals an I through the dir 't treatment of th-3 animals by the agents. Nearly ?.u 0C"" hogs have n treated in thi way for cholera and many head of cattle were sied by the work of the agents in preventing the spread of foot and mouth d:sea-'. Soil-Iniproicmont Work. In their work as regards soils the agents have made plans whehhi.e resulted in the draining f 147'." acr-s of land and the irrigation f nearly ÖO.oyC acres. Fanners hoc If JG VALUE Lee n shown how to e !Tc t cor;d-r-able savings and to secure a product better adapted to their ned.- by the home mixing of commercial fertil izers, how t develop local supplies of lime'i'ne and lime and Use them to the . st advantage, and how t obtain best results from green manuring. Tiie county agents in 191. assist ed ll,rv; farmers ia analjzing their farm business and in determining the factors limiting income. In the operative pure hae of farm sup plies and ooperative marketing of form products the atrents in 191.". promoted the organization of 9': farmers' exchanges and 16 4 other pun basing and markt ting .associa tions which did a combined busi ness of more than S.r.OO.fo'o and effected a saving to the farmers of more than JT.'-.OOO. In general, the work of the coun ty agents in the noithern and west ern states during the fuur years c-f its existen-e has be. 11 highly con structive. Its intluence has been felt in increased crop it bis. the intro tluction of new crops, and help in the control of insect posts and plant diseases. It has introduced improved live sto k, inaugurated better feeI ing and breeding methods, induced better sanitation, and aided in the control and eradication of animal diseases. It 'has taught the farmer better methods of conserving- the fertility of his farm through ade quate drainage, proper fertilization, and the utilization of humus-forming materials. Its tendency is toward standardization of farming in crops, live stock, and methods. It has as sisted him in marketing his prod ucts and the purchasing of his sup plies. It has developed better sys tems of farm management, assisted In securing farm laborers, and as sured t the farmer a more ade quate return for his investment and labor. It has helped to make life in the country more satisfying through the installation of home conveniences to lighten the burden of the farm wemen, through inter esting the young people in who?e some rural activities, and through the creation of a genuine commun ity spirit of self-help, self-improvement and self-assertion. 1 mmmm OVERPRODUCTION ! 1 Henry N. Pope Sees Danger in Abnormal Increase in Acreage. FOKT WORTH, Tex.. Jan. 0. Henry N. Pope, president of the As sociation of State Farmers" Union presidents, has issued a communi cation directing uttentm: -d mem bers of the union to abnormal con ditions of the 1916 wheat and cot ton crops, Mr. Pore's communica tion says: "Cotton and wheat are our export crops and both face abnormal con entions, apart from the world war, which it is well for our farmers to consider. "At the beginning of 1916 we had a surplus of approximately 160,01:0,- 000 bushels of wheat In the gran aries and elevators of the United s-'tates. This surplus added to our 1910 production of 607,000. OoO bushels gives us over 100,000,000 1 ushels above domestic consump tion this ye.tr. While it is likely that we will begin our 1917 harvest with empty "granaries, w must not forget that the waning nations have increased their combined v heat area f-in'o the beginning of the war almost 10 per eent and this year's production, taken an a whole, is 2 per cent of norma! al though it is 7 2 per eent below that e.f last y.-ar which was an abnormal ear. "The wheat farmers of this coun try, taken as a whole, haw h.id a i ad year a -5 the- following statistics taken frr-m the Crop Reporter is sued by the federal agricultural de partment show: The lfl wheat crop will I r:n:r the fanners iri th I'mt.-d States at bast J2O000.000 b-s than th 1" 1 crop and Jl'JO. t. rinjfi i-vs th;Ti the lf14 crop. In 191T, e harvest, d " '-' 0 arrs f wheat vi'-bling 1 .0 1 1 . ". " ,'"'" bu-fhed- for which the farmer r-ceivei i9.:0. .';-. "'jc!. In 191'i our arre.ag was red';-.-d to r. 7 1 . r r . yielding 07. 0 ' . C ' ' bush' Is and to date 7-" per cent of the crop h.ts been soJ eff the- farms at an averare of $1.1 "v I e-r bushel. "The speculators may have made f ibulo-.s sum 'Ut of v. h it this vear. but not the farmer. The cot ton farmer has fared better th ;. ear than e.rdinarilj'. We have had an unpre' e-de-nted onditboi ef two short ( rops fiming together. P.oth this vear and Iait year were l!.0"r.-""D-bab- c:ops. whib the ii-.eragr f T P-Id for the past five' years, is ; 4 it i'.) ' , i and in 1 1 I ue produced i.r: or- 1'V Th wor! ! war has caused no notice-able 'ecrase in cotton acreage m for- ign land,. The vk-m f fore-ign eotton has for the past r'.ve year been r:rr,:r.t' around b ,. .im ales pe-r annum. whs: it th t v f th farm e rs to a !. r.a!e-: supply the nation's larder, o er-produ- tion would visit upon tiie nation. .-.n unwarranted calamity and the fimi'-rs should j.ive th- c-u::try .fr..-m such a pre d; anient. Th-. re is mo re pov e rty in .-ix-cer.t t otton and . i nt w heat than in any i-.ndit.on that can h -.im;s.d. Th- great. -t peri! which confronts Air.eri- an agriou : re t- '.. i- a'; r.orn.al i'- '" .' in acre age and aLuo: mal of cro;-s."