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77 -7.- 7 7' 7 - o - -.( ; 7 f V' 3' v. i e uirecicü, : j r.-,.;- "i r
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Iv Prof. Garrett P. Scrviss.
Ni:VKR ha olviHed man. proud of
hl arhievement3 and confident in
continually developing potvor. re
ceived such a savage and unansworabl; ro-
mindcr of hif? absolute subjection to the
vacariea of naturnl forces aR that hich
came to us like an arrogant slap In :ho
face 1at Winter. The t-ainr ( ata m r)p!u-
Trill happen to again unless vo make
provisions agalnft it.
At the grRt Tl-5i. !n thj world's his
tory, when we needed to uce all our pow
ers and capacities at their maximum of
efficiency, we found ourselves held in th
merciless prrip of frct ships tied up.
railroads blocked, factories choked, hizh
tvhv made impassable, rivers and harbors
choked, reservoirs frozen, pipf-s and con
duits split by ice. cities buried in snow
bank, communications broken, fleets and
rmif-9 arrested, industries paralyzed, and
a whole nation shivcrjnp with cold and
threatened with hunser.
W'c fip.h t the cold by burning wood and
coal. But what will we do when the wood
and c0.1l are exhausted? Th situation
tliHt will then confront us is vividly and
brutnlly presented by the terrible lilenin:a
In vliioh the Fimnlo an ost of the distri
bution of coal ihrew our industries and
our home life, to say nothing of ouf na
tional affair?. If there Mere no roal
whatever to distribute, even an ordinary
Winter touM sufficn to rrduce us to :
runilar condition, and ther would he no
p?capp rrrni if at w end of a few w.'k1
a t present. It would be a complete
freeze-out every Winter except inside tlic
Just a.s he first burned up practicallv
Imp vvliole supply of wood, so now civilized
rean--th child of ttmperril Winter--is
burning up his whole supply of coal. An i
when that is one, he knows not where to
go for something to take its '.Law T.ut
lie niut t'.nd or invent that something, or
rle not only ''ill civilis lion perish, but
tliree-tiuarters of th human race will al-o
j eri:-h. since the trojdes ainiu hold ihem.
while unterupered Winter in the higher
zones would freeze out their entities
Two lines of solution are sucget eil :
first, the discover;, of new tonus of fuel,
or new meihods of producing thermal
energy, and. second, the - oii-er-. ation or
he.tt alrea.ly furni".:-d hy n.;t :r '. 1-t
take up- t ii laM '"irst To ;'ge-: bahM
that v. niig..! ( ontrr. e -omethin.z resetn
blin in i's operas i-u:. tlue.iga not in it
for:;', a si-au':e ;;ienr bottV by n '-aU'
of wi)ic'i the ,.iar a' of S:ii'.::ec:- co i'd
be ;,:ed u: and 1 vh-.i -.! ''re arui whvi
tii iii a :
to de.! only
;! ?n s have
rir.ruN .TC'-uf e-ne,j
,1 1 ;
a i-haT'iu for t"ie v..c-i tjnasinat iv typ
HiiIit be fertile. Suppose, for instatice.
that e att.iek problem in thi way:
When a a rder.tr w i-h- to j-turt hi pl. :v
br-fore the Wir.t. r rh ill has h ft 'lie air
o er.s the ground n w Inch they gro'.v -a it.;
a mantl--4 f glas--.
This ! s : fre.d;. :;e bright sun-hine.
r h '.c.7 ar:r. t !.e gro:
and at t.te ?a:;
tin.t preveutK Th escape o!
hea aves fre;:i t.;e wariro'.l gruM.d. The
result i? that he tr.ak. a reservoir of hea
which has vo:..o j-vimari'.y from t':.e ;n.
an i thus he defeats th sruv-ou whivh. b 't
for his ingenuity, v o :ld free; , bis yJ..in:.
So. In tlo Sprir.j; i-.e can urtiuViaUy lia-ten
r S71.U- i;e.i:. aru in ui .
he can p:u!o:i: its a over '
limited area. Within the? urra he is ma--
tor o' t!;e vit ;;:'!:on
V.vew in mit'AVinter
I t t n 1;
" oinsi:,,r j!i a r;;.e i u .
of -aus'ii::'' e:.t--r ;hn :i.
::z uh." w irivlov. - jr. i i:n
Nor take another ; p. g. lti.i by
well kno n
h'v:ce ttupri-on-. capturd thermal ras de.
rived rr- ru the :n, .- the eariu's atruo?
L- - - - - . .j. r.., .... ............ ... . t. . ., , , -'
u 3 v;-. J
Water Being Pumped Sixty Feet by th. Sun's
phere. largely because of the water vapor
which it contains, traps solar heat for the
whole planet. If there were no air sur
rounding the earth its surface at night
would be unendurably sold, and even by
day an icy temperature would prevail in
all shadows. The heat, even in full sun
shine, would be radiated away so rapidly
that it could not penetrate to any depth
in the soil. On the other hand, if the heat
capturing power of the atmosphere could
be doubled or tripled the terrors of the
severest Winter would be warded off.
Experiments show that the powr of the
atmosphere to trap heat is largely due to
the water vapor that it contains. It is
also due, to some extent, to the carbon
dioxide pas thaf is one of its minor con
stituent?. Carbon dioxide is a remarkable
heat retainer, but there Is only a very
tmall quantity of it in the air compared
with the vast bulk of the atmosphere. It
only amounts to about u-K'Oths of 1 per
cent. Itut there is this significant fact
about It. viz.. that its amount is variable,
to a slight degree at the present tr.ne.
'vhile there is evidence from past geo
logical history tht ence it was vastly
more abundant than it is now.
Xow. how much carbon dioxid-? must
the air gain in order that a perceptibl
dfect on the temperature may b pro
duced? Arrhei.'lus answer this question
for uq. H" says that if all the carbon
dioxide now in thrt air were removed the
a rnge temperature would fall nearly 33
degrees Fahrenheit. On the other hand,
if th- present amount were dubWl th
temperature would rie more than 7 de-
sr-es. and if it were quadrupled th ri?e
noihi amount to nearly 142 degree,
which would be far more than enough to
b.inih all the glacial suffering: that we
iad to endure last Winter. Kven the
Mualler amount uf insreae i7 degrees)
would probably surfke for that.
Hui. cranted all this, the question tili
remains: Is it conceivable that man
could successfully interfere with so vast
a concern of nature as the composition of
the air of the whole world? The answer
!: e?; it is more than conceivable: ".t is
nearly probable. In fact, we have reason
to believe that man fco mca-urably alten-d
th.- ...nstitution of the air by varying the
tel.rive amounts of some of its constituent--.
"l "'hot " h't.t lionr i.; rjnrthi
tii thi,i! in y'"Sfi'N. (:.. imr--air",j the
:;ounf of corh'.r. dio.iitlr.
It has been estimated that the burning
of e vil in recent years has annually fut
n';hed to the aniio-phero about iU'OIi
per . u.t of the amount of carbon dioxide
that v normally contain. Then, in 'O
ears the percentage o." carbon dioxide will
be doubled by the agency of man alone,
provided that' it all remains in the air.
Veg'atiou absorb a great deal, but gives
v. o-t of it nick acain in roundabout ways.
T!. -ca absorbs a great deal. b".t on'.y
eiicueh tc maintain an eauilibrium with
the air. so that the latter murt retain a
certain vroi'ortion of its gain.
If human agency now adds carbon diox
ide to the ..r at such a rate that the nuan-ti-y
will be doubled in 000 years, then, if
t'.u- annttul supply were increased sixfold,
the Joubhuv would be effected In 100 years,
cud if sixtyfold, in ten years. So here
we have a theoretical means of effecting
'he needed rhar.re of climate: if shows
how it eou'd be do.e. and how nature has
evid-r.tlv do!W it in the past, hut it i a
method t'.ia worUs too slowly. We cannot.
wi'lb.'dt a f-mdatnentiil discove-x to ai ! u.
supply carben dioxli'e fa er.o :gh to c-fV -tiwdy
aid the preseut genera' ioi.. nor ti.v
new nor the r.xt.
To be surt. if we
to pour into the air
aV otk" i to. eth
Time- as '---u
gas as we now do
ordir.g t j th" calc'.tU'icus. double the at
mospkerie pet cent age and bnni: about a
new climatic ituation in a single year,
r. tT. even if th coal u.ines could withstand
the drain, It would not be practicable to
THE SOUTH BEND
in? V t
. - v - s.. - . -
do the work. If we could find some other
source of carbon dioxide than coal, then it
might become another question. We know
of one such source, of gigantic capabilities,
viz.. gaseous emanations from the interior
of the earth, particularly from vohanos.
A Vesuvius or an Etna, or a Cotopaxi in
full blast, might supply in a day as much
carbon dioxide as all the coal Qr?s on
earth can supply in a year.
So far we have been considering the
problem on a world-wide scale. Suppose,
now. that xve put it upon a narrower, and
what may be regarded as an approach tc
a more practical ba?is. Instead of trying
to turn the whole atmcsphere info a more
effective hothouse over for the earth than
if now i?. might we not conserve heat
energy, of v.haterr origin, in reservoirs
of limited extent, from which it could be
release d when anil vhejp wanted. r. tor
instance, inside houses. ?ho??. stores. fr.-orie.-.
etc.. lotting the cutslriV air take
are of it-elf. as we are forced to do at
Imagine attached to every dwelling house
and every other inhabited structure a
chamber, or an annx. to contain heat,
just as we have iceboxes and cold air
apartments to contain "stored cold" Tins
is the thermos bottle idea. The conserva
tion of heat is easy enough, although to
keep 11 for month- WOllbl require im
provements iii t'np triirtui'p of thp r.on
fonducting walls- but such improvement
could unnuestionably be ejected. The
frrcaf difficulty would lie to obtain the
hat at a sufficiently high, temperature and
in suiTicient quality, and to concentrate it
in manageable forms.
Tlcat is riue to molecular agitation, or
vibration. Tf the vibration is communicat
ed to o'her bodies, or substances, their
temperature is raised at the expense of
the heated body, which becomes colder.
::ntil it ha.s sunk to the general level of
he -urroundinf ' emperat ure. Now. we
get a heat-siorage hint from what happens
in the Fall of the year. The soil, during
the hot days of duly and August, become.
pepetrated to a considerable depth by the
heat vibrations, originally derived from
the sun. and this heat is temporarily sfored
in he ground, but the storage is inipe.iect.
something like putting water in a pail
whose bottom is perforated with pinholes.
During September. October and even part
of November, the stored up heat gradualh
e-capes. and being ni'htsed through the
air postpone the arrival of the first frosts
Suppose some way could be devised to
ontrol the leasee of Slimmer heat froirj
ihe .'roup..4. ?) that the a:nounr stored in
t' u acre-.- wouM np d'vprt'd to the inte
rior of a chamber 4rtxb fc in basal ara.
ami Celhere j to the Pvirg apart ments by a
s?rt.m o pipf-s of non-conducting mare
rial. i:oh a-s abeste-j. This suppose th
air of the distributing chamber to be first
warmed by the heat from The ground and
i'' that hea represented h9 radiation from
ten a res of surface, of course som
wa would have to be found to conlucf
if to the chamber without sensible loss.
I have no data -bowing how many heat
units may be stored in an acre cf ground
during the hotted part of the Summer, but
the amount must be large.
There ar many other conceivable wr.y
in which, if only the r.ece.-
y solnr hrat.
be constructed, no: only
even hea derived frn:
a 4 ills, iii
sources. oo iM bi
use in ok! . .".f
Wk " :
p -e P.OUki b
'P'Ct - sf i'" : :;:v
t'jc.'d -vi-:! ":r
intr er d
s a great
-( n ot v- h " ' e .
'er;- al'.d . evol
at. ! en
as withes our nou .urna-.e-
nature's Male. r.-- ri.ilf S're;i:v.
A varian on this cla-a of s ige-"-' to:;1
is one cr.ee ptit forth by the Kr-i:ch astron
omer. (Emilie FUmmari v.. for diggins
heat, a' it we-.-. ou.
Cr, .sht. i:-
fll ; e'
w v . 1
1 ' -' i
.... '- - ' " r"
. -.- - , , r : ....
A Sun Motor Plant in TTVrwit WVi'V.
Our Luminary and Uses It to Drive
erate electricity. Similar Mechanism, It Is Suggested,
Could Store the Excess Heat in the Shape of Electricitj'
and Release It in Winter in the Form of Heat.
l he possibilities
Help Out Our Dwindling
Professor Garrett P
eanh It is. known that, owins; to the In
creasing pressure, the temperature of the
earth's cru3t increases on an average one
degree for every 50 ta 100 feet, of descent.
Put the average at one degree to T5 ?eet,
and we se? that at a depth of ten miles the
temperature should be about 700 degrees,
or more than three times that of boiling
water; and at twenty miles 1.400 degree?,
and so on. The quantity of heat in the
earth's interior is almost incalculable.
Ie?j.jrs. much of it does not lie at such
great depths, for in volcanic regions molten
rock often actually emerges on the sur
face. M. Flammarion's idea was to reach
this great store of heat by digging a great
haft, or a series of shafts, pay ten or
twenty miles deep a Job for engineers of
the Jules Verne of the Martian pattern!
Water heated by the earth's internal heat
could then be piped to the surface and
turned into the hot-water pipes now used
in our houses.
In Central Italy there are a large num
ber of small x-olennic vents called "fuma
roles." The steam from these has been
used to charge dvnamos. which now sup
ply electric power for lighting and trac
tion purposes over two square miles.
Hut now, taking up the second line of
volution for the problem before suguestd.
v. e come to a truly revolutionary idea,
which may turn our to be a sign-pot of the
predestined way that civilization is to
tread toward its final summit of achievement.
Still Another Way to Supplement Coal for Winter Heating Would Be to Tap the
Internal Volcanic Forces of Earth. This Has Actually Been Done in Italy. The
Diagram Shows How Steam Generated in Subterranean Pockets Is Carried Up
Through Pipes and Harnessed to Engines Turning Dynamos. The Photograph
f - J. 3
I" - ' ' . -'
'at rit.ta;.-. r.'.htr nBrvfl.
( . ;'; 'vyr',.' , . Centres of Vol-
''fTrV',:-iWsjv'i'' ...... canic Activity in
W.-. 7' t; ? . , v vV v.i; .
.v Ut 4 -: ; : rrfy:; Park Whose En- ceAj. .-.rvj
fS::-V-f-V ';.:J;:,;V- . ,- ergy. If It Could f
.--.r -.-,..... . 7" v 7" 7 . -!H;7-, ' .. -a . ... . V' ' I 4 1 ' .
- : : ' ' v. -(- . . ': : ; -Vir;-v'?. "j ;V-.-v ' '-t'r- 4 Meat and 1'ower '' '' ' i
for the Whole ,a-I .:J',r A
V-;:7--7'.v:: : v .. .V&-. -i hti'"-'A 'AX
- AAA A :f'A: 'AAZ
:,fi!f- i-'r. ' Ttx
tt-wX.m . ;'"-,;c'.tV;;'' t,:, '.i 11 1 L fi I urn ' ' " hl e r " :' J ,
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-miHH.v i;i:m;. m:i-i
v '7 -V :
r"-.Ilf - U i. c
an Engine and Gen-
i if V -
We confiont the eresd enigma of intra
atomic energy. We have to do with 'hat
energy as it manifest? itself in the form of
heat. A radioactive body, such as radium
bromide, while it throws off it radiations,
keeps itself at a temperature several degrees-
above that of the surrounding air.
It draws the heat energy thus expended
from no outside source, and it keps up the
expenditure at the rate of at least K0
gTam-calories from every gram of the sub
stance. A jrram 1? a b.ttle more than the
twenty-eighth part of an ounce, and a gram
calorie is the amount of heat required to
raise the temperature of one gram of water
one degree centigrade. This heat, says
Professor Rutherford, is derived from the
internal energy of the Tadium atom.
The atom W supposed to be a complex
system consisting; of electrically charged
parts in very rapid motion, and in conse
quence contains a largo store of latent
energy, which can only be manifested when
the atom breaks up. For some reason tb-
atomic system becomes unstable, and an
alpha particle escapes, carrying with it its
energy of motion. The greater portion .f
the alpha particles are stopped in the nms ,
of radium itself, and their energy of mo
tion is manifested in the form of heat.
Then, because the v.olent expulsion of a
part of the atom results in electrical dis
turbance, and at the same time the resid
ual parts of the atom rearrange themseUes.
more energy ii emitted, which is Imi
manifested as heat in the mass of radium.
Centres of Vol
canic Activity in
Park Whose En-
;r:'!c; A A:ASf ;i :?A iJuJ
i.nii:i: is. ois
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