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i ' - - - - y 3 r i' J o f!M.I Ill 1III1JI ,. aMMIHU,.UWfl i "THE BLESSINGS OF GOVERNMENT, LIKE THE DEWS OF HEAVEN, SHOULD BE SHOWERED ALIKE UPON THE RICH AND THE POOIi." Ja.-jkso:;. A Family IVewspapcr: devoted to Politics, Literature, Science, Agriculture, Foreign and Domestic News. Plymouth, Marshall County, Indiana, Wednesday, June 25, 1851, Volume 1, '.."..("iS 7T7I PLYMO TB n I .4 ; f t -'1 " - t 4 n ' 1 I J i t4 ' '' J n ! . 5 J 1 j I ft JEommunfcatfon. For M Plymouth niot. education No. 3. Mk. Editor: In my former article, the gen eral advantages of education were briefly adverted to. In the present article, I propose to bring up several things which lend to retard the prosperity of educa tion among us. As our school system now exists, the public fund is sufficient generally, to satisfy a considerable part of the teachers claim. That of fund, a permanent fund, should be raised suffi cient to satisfy the teachers claim entire ly. I have' no doubt. Then all children, whether rich or poor, would enjoy the means of instruction. Is it not reasona ble and right that they should. To de prive children of an education, because they are poor, or because their parents are poor, is a principle far more conjeni al to barbarism than to humanity. There is not only injustice, but danger in such a policy. Its evils will be flt in the future. As intelligence is intimately connected with our prosperity as a na tion; as the rising generation will soon engage in the active duties of life, and wield the helm of this Republic as this is the case, all should be educated. To evry child the means of instruction should be imparted. But to furnish a school fund alonewill not accomplish every thing. Something more is wanted. The cause of education may languish, even if schools are entire ly free. So bjing about that general dif fusion of knowledge, that state of mental improvement which should prevail among us the value of learning must be appre ciated, the cooperation of our citizens must be enlisted, and the influence of community in general must be thrown into this scale. Undoubtedly there is too rauci indif e re nee among us in the cause of educa tion. Some to be sure manifest a com mendable zeal but the majority of our citizens, perhaps, do not take so lively an interest in this matter as they should take; while many seem to take in it scarcely any interest at all. That want of interest, or in other words that negli gence which prevails in our midst in this respect, manifests itself in various ways. First in the erection of school houses. "Who that has examined this matter with any degree of attention, does not feel that our school houses as a general thing, are not what they should be? Sometimes they are too small for convenience or comfort. Sometimes they are not suffi ciently light. Sometimes the scholars suffer with cold while others near the fire are sweltering with heat. Sometimes the seats are only benches without backs, on which small children are compelled to sit, and painfully wear away their time, until the glad hour of dismission comes. No wonder under these circumstances that they dread the school house. No wonder that their progress is slow. To give the plan of a school house in all its minutia is not my purpose. An outline view of education, and the means to pro mote it, is my only design in these arti cles. But suffice it to say on this point that school houses should be so construc ted as to secure the scholars convenience, comfort, health and improvement. They should be large and commodious, suffi ciently light, propperly ventillated, and so arranged in every way, as to make them a place of comfort and pleasure. Com mon schools are, or should be the glory of our country; and parents should take as great an interest if not greater in a- dopting school houses to the wants of children as they do in arranging their reg ular places of abode for domestic comfort and convenience. Another serious difficulty in our schools is a want of uniformity in boofcs. Teach ers know something about this, by sad experience. It is unnecessary to show how the labors of teachers are increased, and the'prosperity of schools retarded, by this difficulty. All who know any thing about school operations will understand the matter. What books are to be used I will not take upon myself to determine. But by all means let us have uniformity. The right to dictate in this matter I do not claim, but the right to reccommend no one perhaps will deny me. Suppose then that we introduce into our schools, that catalogue of books recommended by the Teachers Institute held last fall at Laporte. Is not this selection good enough? Can we do better than to a dopt it? If we can do better will some friend give us the whys, and wherefores. If we cannot do better let us labor to bring about that plan recommended by the Institute. Another matter which demands a pas sing notice, is irregularity in attending school. This difficulty prevails in many places, to a serious extent. Some chil dren do not attend school more than two or three days in the week, and frequently not as much. At the close of the school it is found that they have been absent one half, or two thirds of the time. Now this, a3 all will perceive, must operate powerfully against the scholars improve ment. No teacher can succeed under these circumstances. Another mattpr, and the last one which I will notice, is the qualifications of teachers. To iustruct the rising genera tion is indeed a responsible employment. I know of no station that fpehsa greater field for usefulness. The selection then, of instructors for our youth, is a matter in which important interests are invol ved. Some seem to be governed in this matter by the consideration of dollars and cents. Their motto is: employ those who will teach the cheapest. This is a poor policy indeed to go by in selecting in structors for the rising generation The grtat question with us should be, is the teacher qualified for his station? Is his learning sufficient? Is he apt to teach? Is he industrious in his habits, and irre proachable in his character? Is he a per son of kind feelings, of control over his temper, of afable deportment, of chaste conversation, of mild but firm demeanor? In a word is he likely to exert a good in fluence upon the youth, the future sover eigns of our country, who are placed nn der his charge? I will conclude this article by express ing rny hope, that parents will take a lively interest in this matter, that they will furnish their children with books, that they will encourage them in the for mation of studious haMts, and afford them every fecility in their power for mental improvement. My next will be addressed to the youth. AN INDIANIAN. For the Plymouth Pibt. Mr. Editob: I see that my communication on Education, in the last weeks paper, was not punctuated as I intended. In numbers of places commas, and semi-col-ons are used when periods were designed, Readers of thePi'.ot will perhaps perceive how the communication should be punc tuated. I deem it proper to make this explanation and correction. AN INDIANIAN. THE MINER'S DUEL. A SKETCH OF CALirOENIA LIFE. I'have never witnessed a duel but once, and I pray heaven that it may be the last. The thoughts, even now, of the nffiir that I am about to relate, causes me to shudder with horror at the results of un bridled passions in the human breast. During my stay on Feather River, I had frequently taken notice of a couple of miners who appeared to live upon the best terms of frienship, although their color, and, as far I could judge their dis positions, were totally different. James Brown, a tall, raw boned white man, about thirty years of age, and Char ley Stewart, a stout muscular negro, had been together on the coast of California for nearly five years before the gold mines were discovered. They had followed the occupation of otter hunting, until think ing there was more money made it mines, they sold off their light boat in which they had been in the habit of cruising up and down the coast, and started for one of the rivers. Twice they had accumu lated enough to have supported them handsomely in the States, but the knights of the gambling table and bar-room had contrived to strip them of all they pos sessed, and then, with a few dollars they would manage to borrow, they would go back to the mines with sorrowful hearts and dig for more. Their last place of resort was Feather River, where they had arrived about a month before I came to the scene, of a c - tion. Passing bv their tent, one dav, 1 stepped in and inquired how they had made it on the new bar where they had been digging for a few days past. Not very well,' said Brown. 'I shall leave there and come down on your bar in a few days, unless we succeed better than we have done for the past week.' 1 laughed, and, as I turnt d to go, told them they had better stay where they were. Brown made no reply to my re mark and I had got some distance from them when Stewart called out to me to come back. I slowly retraced my steps. Well, Charley, what is it?' I. asked as the. fellow stood grinning at me. Nothing 'ticular, he exclaimed, 'only I want to know if you would like a good piece of deer's meat to morrow?' Certainly I would; but where is it to come from, Charley? that's the question,' I replied. Coming from that mountain; and Brown and me are just the. boys that will bring it and that too before to morrow night, if nothing happens. After wishing them success in their hunting expedition, I passed on to work, and in a short time was deeply engaged in calculating how much 'dust' there would probably be in the next washer. The next morning as I pissed Brown and Stewart's lent 1 found that they had gone on their proposed excursion, and as they were two of the best shots in the country I did not doubt but they would bring home some game. I finished my day's work, and after supper lighted my cigar and walked down to the store to hear the news and see w hat was going on in the shape of amuse ments. I found Brown and Stewart there, each with a glass of brandy in his hand, and busily engaged in telling about the day's tramp. 'Well, Brown, did you have any luck to day?' inquired a young man from New Orleans, who entered at the same time I did. 'Luck? no,' replied Brown sullenly, Just as I drew a bead on as fine a buck as you would tee in a day's walk, that d d black nigger hit my elbow, and the ball did not come within forty yards of him.' It would have been all the same if I hadn't hit your elbow,' replied Stewart, with a slight appearance of aner. What do you mean by that, you black devil?' asked Brown, rising from the box that he was seated on and walking up to Stewart. I mean what I say,' said Stewart, still keeping his seat. 'If you consider your self the best marksman in the country, you are greatly mistaken, for I know of one that can beat you. . Perhaps you mean yourself, inquired Brown, in a tone of contempt. I don't say who I mean but I never missed two otters in succession, as some body did, replied Stewart, finishing his glass of brandy. Take that for your d 1 insinua tion, said Brown, striking Stewart a vio lent blow in the fate, which sent him reel ing against someboxes in the corner. That's your game is it, yelled Stew art, as he gathered himself up, the blood streaming dowr. his face, 'there's two can play at that,' and he threw himself upon his opponent, when after struggling for a few moments both fell to the ground, the negro uppermost. 'Part them, part them, screamed a Mississippian, endeavoring to get near them. Touch them if you dare,' responded the loud voice of old Jones, the alcalde, who had come in but a few minutes be fore. O! that I should live to see a nigger strike a white man,' said Mississippi, purple with rage, You see it now and can't help yourself so let me advise you to keep quiet. If a white man strikes a nigger, the nigger has got a right to strike back, according to my idea of law,' said Jones cooly. The Mississippian ground his teeth with suppressed rage, but made no reply. This conversation took place while Brown and Stewart lay on the ground, writhing and twisting around each other lik two wild bears, biting and scratch ing and tearing out handfuls of hair from each other's heads; while blows and cur ses were pretty freely distributed between them. Neither appeared to gain much advantage, and as they worked their way out of the store, both rolled down a small hill in front of tbe tent, (thickly strewed with broken bottles and tumblers,) lock ed in each other's arms. This appeared to sober them, and they relaxed their grasp and paused to take breath. You have dared to strike me, you black scoundrel,' said Brown, his face badly cut, and his shirt hanging in rags about his shouldcts. You struck me first James, 6aid Stew art now perfectly cool. I know that I did, and don't think that I am going to let you off so easily. There is another way that this can be settled, and by 1 will have some of that black blood of yours before you are j twenty four hours older,' shrieked Brown 1 in a perfect fury of excitement. 'Any way that you please, Brown, on ly let me advise you not to use rifles for I am the best shot, and that you well know,' observed Stewart, cooly puting on anew shirt that Jones handed him. This remark only added fuel to the fire, and Brown made a demonstration as though he was going to renew the fight, but a number of friends interposed to keep them apart. You may think that you are great with the rifle, I suppose, so I will give you a chance to try it to morrow morn ing. I will see if I can't take some of the boasting out of you,' said Brown snceringly. You will find me a trump Brown, take me any way you please said Stew art. After some further words both parties were led away in different directions, and as I turned to go to the place that I called home, I was joined by a young man who was going the same war. There will be blood shed before to morrow night, out of this quarrel,' he ob served as he walked along. I hope not,' I replied, it is only a drunken frolic, and they will forget it before morning, or. as soon as they sober. , get You don't know Brown, if you think he forgets as easily as that. He is the most revengeful man on the river. Once offend him, and he will find a way to re pay you with interest.' I had now arrived at my tent, and af ter bidding- my companion good night, set myself down by some embers that were still faintly gleaming in the dark, and commenced filling my pipe prepara tory to asmoke. Everything around me was now quiet, except the loud mar muring of the river, which seemed to court slumber; but the exciting scene that I had just witnessed precluded the idea of sleep so I set there and thought of past events, and of the future how many thousand I should probably be worth before I rea'-hed home. Little did I then think of the scenes of peril that I should then witness before I reached my native hearth.' One by one the fires were extinguished, or burned out. before the different tents, yet still I smoked on. iNowand then a bat would wing its flight within a f?w inches of my head, and the prowling hyotcc would steal along within a few feet of me, an I then start olF at a brisk pace to some other locality, where no one was awake. Hon- long I remained in this state I do not know, and I was just thinking of re tiring to my hard bed, when I heard the sound of footsteps approaching. Who goes ' there?' I exclaimed in a ioud voice. Heave some chips on the fire, so that I can find my way up this confounded bank,' answered old Jones, in a gruff tone.' Picking up a few chips that lay beside mc I raked open the ashes and laid them on. The dry pitch pine instantly blazed up in a clear flame, when I discovered the powerful form of Jones within a few rods of me. He walked up and seated him self beside me, and then camly taking my pipe out of my hand commenced smoking, apparently with great relish. I thought you was in bed before this Jones.' I thought the same of you, but I have got some business to settle, and I don't think I shall see the bed to-night. The fact of it is, Brown and Stewart areto have a meeting to-morrow morning be fore sunrise. Steward has chosen me as his second; Mississippi is Brown's. All is arranged except one thing. You know there's not a surgeon to be had within any shorter distance than Long's Bar: and it will be too late to send in the morning to have him lure at sunrise; be sides, it is likely as not that he has gone to Sacramento City, and it is a good ten miles to the Bar, over mountains at that; I have read that at all duels there is a surgeon present, so I am determined toJ have one if possible. But is there no way to prevent them from murdering each other?' 1 asked. 'Noue in the world; Brown is determ ined to shoot Stewart if possible, and Steward supposes we shall consider him a coward unless he lights besides, Brown is a quarrelsome chap, and Stew art will be better off without him. He would have left him long ago but was a fraid of his bad temper. Stewart is the bestsbot by ail odds. But I must not talk here, all night with you. Will you act as suigeon for us to-morrow? that's what I came for.' What the duce do you suppose that I know about doctoring, Jones.' I asked quite amused at the idea. Why didn't jou cure yourself when you had the shakes' and dysentery?' he asked. Yes, but that is no reason why 1 should dress u wound.' I replied. Well, will you come and do your best if either of them are hurt?' Upon thinking over the subject fcr a few moments, I gave my consent, and Jnnp. nfier informing iri wl, t ?-..- lnlotmini: me w re th place of meeting was to be, took his de parture. I raked up my fire and went to bed whore after dreaming of battle, and gi ants, and murders, I woke just at iirst ; peep of day b?gan to show itself in the heavens, I wlnt to the box that contain- ed nay medicine.?, and taking some lint; and bandages, and a small bottle of bal-' for r.12. My native State is Miup. I sain, wended my way to the place off had a mother and sister tVr; six years a meeting. There Was already a large j go a widowed math r au I a young sis crowd on the spot, but the principals had ler. Th:u- both resiJj in the low.i of not made their appearance. They did not keep us waiting onz. however, in a few minutes Jones an 1 Stewart hove in sight coming down th? hill, and before they got half way down, Brown and his second appeared at th - . - top. Stewart looked calm and pleasant, 1. I ,-. nil., a , 1 - T. .... " . . i . kruj in cuuaui nauin u llii his numerous friends that crowded j th it 1 died of soma disease. Iii was the around him. Brown also received so:n- j day that I left her to stru dle alone, with notice, and as I stoo l close to him, 1 ; my sister to support, and 1 neveras much asked in a low tone, 'if he had not better j as once sending them a cent.' settle, it peaceable with Stewart?' j lie paused for a few minutes and th;n He looked at me. for a few moments, j continued: and then turned contemptuously away, j 'Look under th1? head of my b-d end I did not speak tohiin again, for just you will find a the-usan I dollars' worth then the seconds commenced pacing" oil ! of oust. Take it to her, but if she is not the ground, fifty yards being the distance ! alive rive it to my sister, and tell them agreed upon. Small stakes were driven j that the blessings of a bud sou aul a :uis in the ground, at that distance -.part, the ' crullc brother with it crowd fell back, and the two an en took j I did as he told me and laid the bsj their stations opposite to each other. I : on the bed. saw that Brown slightly trembled, while ' 'Take it he said, Lis voice growin Stewart was calm and collected. Their i very faiut, a::d see that you faithfully rifles were then loaded by their secouJs, ! fulfil the trust that I lave repined ui yo;i. and the signal agced on, -was to be the j If you fail ia doing what is xijht, third discharge of a revolver, fired in ! cur ' rapid succession. Jones now stepped In his cagertipcs Ii2 partly raise'd him forward and placed his rille, which he self on his elbow, but the c'fiort was too had loaded, in Stewart's hands. The j much, and cs he sank back, the blood Mississippian did the same by Brown. j rushed ia torrents from Iiis mouth, n osi 'Are you ready? said Jones in a loud and ears; he made throe or four iaplfcct voicc. Both bowed their heads, but nei-j ual ellorts to catch Iiis breath, and in a ther spoke. (few minutes h; was cold in the cmSracu Crack! crack' crak! went the revolver. ! of death. I straightened out his limbs. They threw their rifles into a position at ! covered his face with the blai.ket, aul the first discharge, and as the last report j then left, sick at hear: with the sa l spec broke the stillness of the morning air, j tacle that I ha 1 w itness: 1. I.i th af both rifles were fired simultaneously. 1 I ternoon, at duvh, we buried both Stewart leaned forward with breathless anxiety j and Brown in th same jrave. and noth for the result. Stewart gave a coavu!- i ing maiks the spot where these two vic sive start, dropped his riile, and f.-dl j thus of evil passions were buried, but a headlong to the ground. I then turned sm-Jl pine board, which I redely carvel to look for Brown, there seemed to be no out one day a.i 1 plattfd at their heads, change in his appearance, for the first! few seconds, and then he relaxed his hold Two years had nearly elapsed, brfore I from his rifle, and fell iuseiioible into 1 anived ho.ii--. an I after shaking hands Iiis second's arms. lie did not appear to j with a few fri-.-.i.!?, I oiarte i for the town be vronuded, but as tlfv bud him on the ground, I caught sight of a drop of blood. Instantly tearing open Iiis shirt I discov ered a small hole on the ri'it side, just above the hips, liiere was but a few drops ol bloo-i that came from the wound He informed in that rho was., and at.o while it had a dead leaden app-?aran-ee. that she was in rather poor ci.-cu'n ta:: I felt of his pulse, and found that it was e-7. retired to n ?t ar!y . ru.d passed, still quite strong. a U-.m.I -.-? uiht, revolving in my mini I shook my head as gravely as the most j !.r.v I u s t ) b.e.ik thö matt,-: to !:. r. learned doctor in the land could have ! Daylight however ca:.r? to my" r-divf, an I done, as I replied. j I arose au l tooh a walk-abou; the town. He can't live lon. he is bleeding h- i 1 :.;..uued of a va-lne: muu v.h.rc tin ternally.' Them's mv sentiments said Jones. Instantly sending a man to his tent ior a cuupic ui large mauKeis, ana aiioiu- f - i . r i .. ii i. . . . l . . . er for a lare jail of water, I pror ceded to pour a little wine down the wounded man's throat, and then wettinr. a band- age with some balsam, I bound it tight ly round his body. In a few minutes he opened his eyes, and tried to raise too his feet. Gently checking him, I advised that he should lay perfectly still. Do you think I am going to stay here,' he said in a feeble voice. 'IN'ot by a d d sight. Take me lo my tent,' I remonstrated, but it was of no avail. By that time the water and blankets had come and after bathing him around the head and shoulders with cool water, Ij spread tue DiaiiKets aown and then had lady entered. I arose and bowed, hn I him placed upon them. Choosing four tasked ifhe was the lady I was in search stout. men, each taking a corner of the i of. She replied that sh was. I corn blanket, we raised hint from the ground, j meneed the sad news that I had to tell, and walked slowly towards his lent, a- j graduallv breaking it lo her until I ar bouta quarter of a mile distant. He j rived at" her son's ? death. But let ?d era groanea wiieu we tirst started, but by a powerful effort he suppressed all evidence of feeling, and in the course of an hour we arrived. After depositing him on i i ... his bed, all took their leave but Jones his second, and myself. in mc iiiMiiiinw a person naci Dem despatched on Horseback for the doctor, at Long's Bar, but I knew that Ioni be- fore he could arrive, his spirit would no; longer animate his wounded bo ly. 1 After remaining some time with Brown, lieft him in charge of his second, and went to my tent. It was now a - bout nine o clock and throwing' mvself on my bed, endeavored to snatch a few I moments repose.. I was just sinking in- j to a slight doze, when the Mississippian! came in. . i 'Brown wants toffee vou forfomsthing j . i . , at once, he observed, j I put on my hat and walked down to j him. It was not more than two hours j sines I had left him, but already a fear- i ful change was taking place in his fea- J . i.r. l .t-r i. . ji u,r"' wuuc "l uraiMI"3 w quick j uni 9 a.i omni j uu n uiA, uus- ily fanning the poor fellow with his bat. j I tntert-d and seated mvself inside '. him, an J takins his hand I found that h' i. if.,. e was verT low. Ai'ier a few - : minutes, he uudosod his eyes, aril iUed thein on m. ve:v rutenti velv. 'Is a vt !;;: tl I can dj fr vou Ijrov. ::?' 1 Ik- rei.-iaia-d silent for a short tiai?, ana then said, in a low, fble vuico 'I am Jyinl i j jl tint I a:n y there is on-? thin '4 tint I u .1 it von lj do P- WiU id you see tu v:n tc-!l mv mother (t;trs inlerrunied him for a f w j minutes , but he at length resumed his j story,) that now 0:1 my death bed, I wish j that 1 hau Uke:i her udviee aui been a j bettor b)y. But do not l-.ll thui f the ; m tnnvr of my death, for it would ore a ;c .. ... 1. .1 . . rwt . ; nj I'nl JU'JilUrs li' all. X 1 1 li:?;! of V to ut'liwt the that had been entrusted to my car, rive in the. town a:i::'! lit 1 did not ar- and after surner. I in -uirc I of th htji.-f lord if the wid w IJrown was lill livin::. ' old la !v ilv. -l: nr. I he n..iii;ed out a !! white cottage, that ajp-.-ared tc uallv fall inj; into decav. I we , -- lit lo ill". I i . i . .i ... . t.i i uotct to z'i ürea ü last, aiM i.iea tarua 1 j on mi-ian. Ki.o.;i: i ;r.: at the door, t j young girl of about si teen evened it. i and 1 could .see the r-seiuhl j n-.e between uer an.i nrown at once, uui iicrs was a countenance of innocence ai.d purity. 1 am afrid that I stared at her rather long er than I should, for in a low, sweet voice, she ashed nie if I knocked. Iu stan'dv recovering mvself. I ino'M! -l if the wi Mow Brown lived there, fjhe answered in the affirmative, and invited mc in. I slipped into the ni ill hut neat parlor, while she went to call l.cr mother. I IT. . . Ina short time, a tall fine locking c myself the misery of writing that sec;: and th- cru-hiiü; of the find h-; tha' she had entertained of hi? still i.':iü; a live;ofhr-r tears and anguish at Iiis d-'ath As soon as I could, I took iry leave, leav ing th money with her daughter. Th j next day 1 called, but;:,- was conti? i to her bed and 1 II Vi i I.V . '.4V ..w .- afterwards for in a ft-w eh rt we was numbered with the dead. I h:j; from her daughter occasionally, she writes me (hat ?he is well and as h: ippy a:? can be expected. In a few dr.ys I hope, J to have the pleasure of seeing her on my visit to P , where she is now living in the family of an uncle. w. v.. 7. Lord Brougham, who was engaged in a law ,jit Xvith f0mc f15Ker-5ari jn whes , ... streams he had been fishin has been '- signally beaten, and his solicitor hes withdrawn the prosecution as Lcpeles. Exri-ATKrr. An Anothecarv orir inallv I carried his rac Urine alwil. in Ur . was a pot carrier; and from thence c; the v oid A - pot -h-CMrif f . j; 0 . TT"