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THE INDIANA STATE SENTINEL TUESDAY. JANUARY 5. 1875.
A CHRISTMAS HTMN.
J. BUCHA! A! BE A DE.
The air was ntlll o'er Bethlehem's plain.
Aa H the great Night held Its breath.
When life eternal came to reign
Over a world of Death.
The pagan at tala rxudnlRht board
Let fall his brimming eop of gold;
U Ml the presence ol bis Lord
Before bla birth wan told.
The temples trembled in their bae.
1 be Idols buddered as in pain ;
A prVeatbood in its power of place
Knelt to it sods in vain.
All nature felt a thrill divine
When boret that meteor on the night,
Which, pointing to the Savior's shrine,
Proclaimed the new born light
Light to the shepherds! and the star .
Onlded their silent midnight fold
LUbt to the wise men iromtfar,
Bearing their gifts of gold
Llght'to a realm of sin and grief
Ll&bt to a world in all Its need
The lUht of life a new belief
iUning o'er fallen creeds
L?fht on a tangled path of thorns,
Thongh luadins o a martyr's throne
A light to guide till Clirlht returns
In glory to Ills own.
There still It shines, while far abroad
The ChrLstmas choir sings now, an then,
" Olory, g ory unto Ori !
Peace and good will to men !
Unheard, thedew aronnd me fill.
And heavnly inlluenreslied;
And, silent od this earthly ball,
Celehilal footsteps tread.
.Night reigns In silence o'er the pol
And -preads her gem unheard;
Ut lessons penetrate trie soul.
Yet borrow not a word.
Nolselesithesiin emit It fire,
And pour hli golden streams ;
And silently the shades retire
Before hi miug beam.
Ob I grant my soul an ear to bear
Thy deep and silent voice;
To bend in lowly filial fear.
And in thy love rejoice.
NEWS AND GOSSIP.
In London 17 Infants are "accidentally
suffocated" in a week.
Two thousand dollars were recently paid
In London for a cup of coffee. It was a
painting by a distinguished arliat.
Got. Took, of Vermont, has decided to call
an extra session of the legislature to provide
means for rebuilding the State Reform
Dublki has established permanent classes
for drawing from the living model. Qual
ified students will be permitted to study in
these without charge.
Another veteran of 1S12 Is Capt. John
Griffin, of Culpeper county, Va., who, at the
age of 82, "can jump and crack his heels
twice before touching the ground."
Here is another watcb, quite a matoh for
Lafayette's. It was lound in the street in
Paris an enormous go'd watch, with this
Inscription: "This watch belonged to King
Louis XVI, and was given by him to the
Abbe Edgeworth in the vehicle on the way
to the guillotine."
By a calculation just made, writes a Wash
ington correspondent, it is ascertained that
23,500,000 gallons of Potomac water are used
every 24 hours in the District of Columbia.
This Is accounted tor by the lact that con
gressmen wash their dirty linen in the
waters of the Potomac.
The most successful tobacco raiser in
Grayson county, Ky., is a woman. One day
last spring she dug six pounds of ginseng
worth 1 a pound, killed two rattlesnakes,
and then went home and gave birth to
twins. She is reputed to be the best squir
rel hunter in the county.
One of the dressmaker's children had scar
let fever, and when she sent home the dress
ahe was mending two children in the fam
ily of the owner of the dress were taken and
both died; and that is one of the thousand
ways in which scarlet fever, measles, small
pox, etc, are constantly kept going.
The resolution in the House calling lor a
committee to take official notice of Kala-
kaua's presence at the capitol furnished
laughter. One of the clerks called the Illus
trious darkey "King Calico, of the High
wines;" and another denominated him
King Kill a Cow, of the Ilay weighs."
All the magnificent metaphors are sot
manufactured in the West. Here is one
about "Lohengrin" from a Boston paper:
"No one can study the score of this work,
and hanging over the rugged cliffs of har
mony peer down into the chasms of deep
thought which pervades the composition,
without being impressed with the im
. mensity of the grandest of modern operatic
Recent reports from Madrid announce that
the several parts of Murillo's painting of
St. Anthony of Padua have been dUcoveredf
but unfortunately in an irjured condition,
the head of the taint b ieg detached from
the remainder of tbe body, and the picture
having been thus even more seriously dam
aged than was expected. Till this discovery
was made a hope was entertained that tbe
known value of this beautiful work would
hav secured it from such desecration.
A petition has been introduced In the Vir
ginia legiilatuto from O. E. Cleveland and
others, asking the enactment of a law to re
strain a Judge from allowing "more than
legal fees without consent of the party inter
ested. The petition was suggested, it is
said, by a case in Nelson county, where a
lawyer bad agreed to attend to a certain esse
for a stipulated sum. The money resulting
from the proceedings coming into the law
yer's hand, be put in a claim for ten times
the amount of the agreement, and it was
The Colorado Democrat tells of the good
luck of two Missouri miners thus: The
beBt find of the season thus far is reported
by Mr. 8. W, Spease, of Kansas City, and
Luther Maddox. of Mexico, mo. These g?n
tlemen leit Denver lat October to go to
Baker's Park, On the way they were in
duced to prospect near Kosita, and in üye
days' work struck a silver lode of immense
richness. The vein on the lode strucV by
Mr. Spease is tbree feet eight inches in width.
and. as tbe shaft is sunk, tbe vein increases
In thickness and richness in tbe precious
A correspondent writing from Jackson,
31 iss., thus gives a specimen of the legal
ability of a colored justice of the peace,
named Gurdv. Tbe latter had seen the ad-
'verusemeut referring to tbe lost mule above
mentioned, and went with "'Squire Robert"'
and the usual negro witness to Duckworth's
to prave property in the animal and take it
bcne. JosLua Dobson bad a 'haltered"
dole raaning at large with Duckworth's,
and Garcfy sttiicg this aDimal drew a paper,
pen and ink from his pocket, nnd prepared
a writ ol povacssion as follows:
Tbe State ov v-Is:
Koborae Cownty 1 March
Uurdy liopken J 30, 1874.
Appurd befour the undersign Jutiss of
the l'eas3 and made oth that is bis visiLil
property arm you glv that Black mule wfcat
be bav griv (driven) op with your hers
holier. March 50 1. .31M 1371-0 urdy
Uopkio. Robert Green, J. P.
TIIK GRASSHOPPER PLAGUE.
THE PERILA OF THE WE8TERNSETTLERS THE
PEOPLE WITHOUT FOOD AND CLOmiu.
Ell Perkins bai written a letter to the
New Tork8un of the 26th Inst., from Lin
coln, Neb., concerning the grasshoppers in
that country, which Is a good piece of work
for a humorous lecturer. 1 have crossed the
great bread-producing region of the United
States four times within 30 days. 1 have
tried to find the boundaries of tbe great
crop-destroying drought ot last summer.
The drought in all instances destroyed the
corn crop before the grasshoppers or chinch
rava m A ThA invert were onlv supple
mentary in com Dieting the destruction of
m . . . 1 IV
every living lew, djobiu, wuuw
unripe grain, and fruit. The famine
or drought district I find to be more
extensive than is generally believed. It
does not embrace simply Kansas and Ne
braska. It embraces a corn, grain-growing,
8nd pork and beet producing country seven
times as large as New England, Tbe
drought and grasshopper plague destroyed
the corn crop almost totally. The region
of country devastated by the drought
and grasshoppers embraces the lower
nuarter of Dakota, a' fifth of
Iowa, all of Nebraska, Kansas,
Colorado, and the Indian Territory, the
bulk of Missouri, and parts of Illinois and
Arkansas. In Kansas and Nebraska the
coin crop was a total failure. Tbe drought
commenced in June and continued till Au
gust. The ground was parched, and it
cracked open in many places, leaving holes
half an inch wide and two feet deep. Grass
was dried to hay, and firwi raged
where cattle ought to bave grazed.
Wella and streams dried up, tbe
heat was intense, the corn silked
out in a sickly way, and then tassel and silk
dried up. loo. Tbe grasshoppers came in
Joly. "Ihey invariably came from the
West, from the mountains. A fearful
drought bad dried np every vestige of living
vegetation beyond Colorado, and the hra&s
hoppers were driven eastward into the coal
fields. They appeared first in Colorado,
then swarmed through Kansas and Mis
souri. Tbe last was
DYING IN INDIANA,
near Vincennes. The grashopper was like
the ordinary insect seen in New England,
from an inch to an inch and a half
in length. It was a ravenous eater. It
would tit four times its own weight in a
day. It seemed to be a little mill to grind up
food. The natives likened it to a sausage
machine. Its favorite diet was green corn.
When this was gone they 2te the leaves off
the trees, greon apples, and peaches, and
rather than go hungry they would devour
each other. If one died, a dozen
mourners would gather at the funeral
aud eat him up. Near Topeka, Kansas, I
talked with a farmer who planted a thou
sand acres of corn, bat did not gather an
ear. Last year he Bold corn for 17 cents, and
this year be was shipping it from Iowa at
$1 25. He sat on his balcony mourning the
utter destruction of his crop.
"How did they come the grassboppsra?"
"They came like a shower, sir," he re
plied. "They filled the air. They darkened
the sun. They covered tbe Btalk of corn un
til it was black. Then they ate every leaf,
ate the stalk down to tbe young ear, and
then ate the little ear, too."
"Cob and all, sir?"
"Yes, cob and all. "Why, don't you see
that thousand acres of corn out there now?"
he exclaimed, "standing like broken whip
"What else did they eat?" I asked.
"Why, they ate every learoffof the peach
trees, ate the young peaches, leaving the
stones, and there stood my trees leafless,
bearing a crop of peach stones. They ate
little cottonwood limbs an inch thick ; they
ate my beets, turnips and onions clear down
into the ground hollowed 'em out, leaving
the rind ate cigar stubs, sir, and"
A VERT TOCGH STORY.
"Hole up!" I aaid, "that's too mach,
'But it's the solemn truth, sir. Why, one
night I sat on the balcony with the engineer
of tbe Santa Fe road. The hoppers bad
piled up against the west side of tbe bouse
three feet thick. It was a crawling, stink
ing, nasty pile. The balcony was covered.
I threw down a quid of tobacco, and the
hoppers coveted it and ate it up in a
few minutes, and when I put my
foot on a pile of them, the rest sailed
in and ate the smashed ones up. Why,
when I went to build my fires this fall, the
stoves wouldn't draw, and, on examining to
learn the cause, I found the flues full of
hoppers. They tilled the air with a horrid
stench. They covered the pools and springs
with their poisonous green excrescence, and
made the cattle sick; they made the hens
and turkeys sick, and they fairly made me
sick. Why, I've seen them so thick on the
railroad that they'd stop a train grease the
track till the locomotive wheels would roll
over and over."
"What became of them?" I asked.
"They flew east. They always flew in the
day ti2e, and ate at night. They went
through my corn field in a day, and tbe
next day were a half mile to the east."
"And the trees?"
"Why, they all leaved out again, and
many of tbem blossomed over again, and
tried to bear fruit, and did bear it till the
frost came. In my trees you'd see dead
peach stones and pinkbloasoms all to
gether. Ob.it was a mournful sight, sir
dreadful!" and tbe farmer drew a long sigh.
THE IOWA "LYNCHING.
THE STATEMENT OP ANNIE HOWARD, THE VIC
TIM'S W IFK THE HCKNH IN THE CELL.
The Iowa papers give the following re
port of the inquiry into the lynching ol
Howard at Des Moines a short time ago :
Annie Howard sworn: I was in the south
west corner of the east room of tbe jail. Mr.
Howard bad just got up and fixed tbe fire ;
bis coming back to b?d awoke me, and I heard
somebodv coming into the hall. I heard a
scuffling of feet, and thought it was police
with drunken prisoners. We heard them
come Into the cell where the two girls were
confined; one of the girls asked: "What do
you want here? There is nobody but two
girls here." We were both raised up on our
elbows, listening to 6ee what the distur
bance was. Wben they unlocked our cell
door, I thought it was officers coming to take
him to the penitentiary. Tbe man who
unlocked tbe door did it quick, and seemed
to understand it.
Q. After getting in the room -did they
proceed directly to the bed?
A. Tbey did; there was a light in the
room lrom tbe stove so that they could see.
Q. What wa the first thing done?
A. As soon as I saw their faces were
blackened, I suspected what it was,
and threw myself over him. They fir.t
said, "Come out of here, we want
vou. vouson of b hi" I said, "O, my
God! Don't kill bim; you have sentenced,!
him for Hie; what more do you want7" lie
said, "Gentlemen, don't kill me; I am an
innocent man, and time will show you that I
am, if you will only wait." I began to
scream, and they took hold of me awd triad
to tear me loose from him; then tbe third
man catuo m with a rope. I saw they were
going to rut it over bis neck, and I tried to
prevent tbem by putting my body over
his head and neck. One of tbe men
told me to leave or he would kill me; he
beld a revolver U my temple. Charlie
told me to let go, that be would go with
them I then let go. One of the men took
me by the throat, to attfp my screaming.
He choked me for a time, and then quit, and
put bis band over my mouth, telling me to
hush up. I jerked bis hand from my mouth;
he then held, me by the arm, so that I could
not get to Howard. I stood between
the foot ot the bed and tbe stove, scream
ing, while this was gding on. Howard
begged them to let him speak to me, or
KISS MB ONCE,
and he would then go with them. One man
said, "Let him speak to ber if he wants to,"
but the others would not permit it. Howard
was sitting on the edge of the bed, and they
Jerked him upon his feet. They had a rope
around his neck and took him right out.
As be went out in tbe other cell he said,
"Good-bye, Annie. Yon know that I
die an innocent man." They- slammed
the door shut, alter be went out,
I would. know one ot the men if I should
ever see him. I think I bave seen him be
fore. I do not know his name. I saw tbe
same man in tbe court house yard yester
day, looking into the jail through the bars.
I would not dare to tell if I saw these men
before me now. I think that man was from
the country. He wore a dirty bottle-green
overcoat, and wore a skull cap. This man
was tbe first one in the cell. My husband's
name was Charles Henry Howard Nelson;
bis parents resided in Broooklyn, N. Y..
wben be was at home last. His father's
name was Admiral Nelson; he lived at 240
Adelphi street, Brooklyn, N. Y. Howard
had a wite before in New York, and has
two children there now. She died some
time ago. Howard has a lezacy coming
to him from New York worth about
10,000. When the report came out about
his being in Blalrstown, Howard asked
me where tbe place was; he had never been
there. I always thought that Howard
knew who did murder Johnson, and he told
me that he always thought it wi Jim War
ren and Eph. Warren. I thought there
were few men, and that my screaming
would bring assistance. The report that
Howard made a confession, and that be
cursed the judge the day be was sentenced,
are both totally fals9. I have a statement
be wrote that night before going to bed. I
will give it to the reporters.
A STRANGE ROBBERY.
A YOUNO MAN ROB HIS PATH ER OP fl 0,000
PROF. PRCK, OP COLUMBIA COLLEGE, NEW
YORK CITY, THE VICTIM.
The New York Times of the 28th Inst,
gives the following facts connected with a
strange case of domestic crime: Prof. Wil
liam G. Peck, of Columbia College, rushed
into the Twenty-first Precinct station bouse
at noon yesterday, and said that be
wanted to see Capt. McElwaine im
mediately, as he had just been
robbed of ?40,000. Prof. Peck was very
much agitated, and Informed Capt. McEl
waine that a chest dontalning family plate
worth 1,000, and cecrtiflcates of deposit and
other securities valued at f 10,000, bad been
carried out of his residence. No. 126 East
Thirty-fifth street.by two young men. Capt.
McElwaine proceeded to the professor's res
idence to work the case up, and obtained
the statement of a colored servant who
said that while sitting at the kitchen window
she saw Master Henry Peck, son of the pro
fessor, 19 years old, come in by the hall door,
accompanied by two youths of about the same
age. She heard them walking overhead in
the parlor, and then heard them apparently
go up stairs to young Peck's room. 6he
next heard the hall door open, and
saw tbe two young men carry a
chest down the stoop. She went
out, saw that they turned down Madison
avenue to Thirty-fourth stieet, and on look
ing up saw young Peck watching them from
the window of his room. On re-entering the
house she met young Peck in tbe hall-way
going out, and asked bim what chest it was
that Eis friends carried out. He told her to
mind ber business and he would mind
his. This excited the servant's suspicion,
and she watched him leave the bouse
add proceed in the same direction as tbe
two young men who carried the chest. She
informed another servant of the affair, and
the latter on going to the extension-room
or studio, behind the parlors, saw that the
plate-cheat had been stolen. The family
were at church, but the servants called Prof.
Peck and bis father-in-law. Prof. Davis, out
of the church, and informed them of tbe
affair. Capt. McElwaino ascertained that
young Peck was keeping company with a
dressmaker, and calling on tbe young lady,
obtained from her a picture of Master
Henry Peck. Seven officers were detailed
to search tbe city for bim, but shortly be
fore 6 o'clock be returned to his father's
house alone. Capt. McElwaine was
notified, but on arriving at the
house found that Prof. Davis and Prof.
Peck were not disposed to take any action
in the case or prosecute young
Peck. Tbe latter said he knew nothing
about the chest and denied everything.
While working on the case Capt. McElwaiue
obtained possession of a list of debts due by
young Peck. On this list, which amounted
in all to ?26S, James Oxley fissured for ?S5,
"Seddons Mouse" was credited with $5i,
while "Owney" Geoghegan, "Paddy the
Smasher," and other sporting and notorious
persons were similarly mentioned.
Why do not the woman emancipationists
come to Saxony, and see with their own
eyes what the capacities of their sex actually
are? Here women show more strength and
endurance than many of their husbands
and brothers do. They carry on their broad
backs, lor miles, heavier weights than I
should care to lend my shoulders to. Mas
sive are their legs as the banyan-root; their
hips are aa the bows of a three decker.
Backs have they like derricks ; rough hands
like pile drivers. They wear knee short
skirts, sleeves at elbows, h6ad kerchiefs. As
a rule they possess animal good nature and
vacant amiability. But at twenty or
twenty-five they are already growing old.
Growing old with them is a painful process,
not a graceful one. Thereservts of vitality
are dry. and the woman's face becomes
furrowed, even as the fields she cultivates.
Her eyes fade Into stolidity and unintel
ligence. Her mouth seldom smiles. Thirty
finds her hollow-cheeked, withered and
bony. At fifty should she live so long
she is In extreme old age. Meanwhile she
has been bearing children aa plentifully
as though that were her sole employment.
But such labors secure ber ecarcs a tem
porary immunity from other toil. I baveseen
ber straining up a long hill, weighed with
more burdens than one. Pleasanter is it to
consider her in the bay field, before youth
has dried up in her. Her plain costume
follows her figure closely enough to show to
the best advantage its heavy but not un
handsome contours. Seen from a distance,
her motions and postures bave often an
admirable grace. Her limbs observe
harmonious lines. In raking, stooping and
tossing tbe bay ber actions are supple aud
easy. As she labors in tbe sun, she keeps
up a good humored chatter with ber com
paaions. Her bare arm and legs are
bronzed by eumojpr exposure to heat and
dirt; and her vUage is of a color almost
Ethiopian. Bat an American Southerner
might tee in her more than the dark com
plexion to put bim io mind ol former days,
and institutions. Julian Hawthorn, Con
John H. Surratt, son of Mrs. Surratt,
hanged for supposed complicity in President
Lincoln's murder, is teaching school near
ASSOCIATION OF THE ONES WHO
TEACH THE YOUNO IDEA.
THE OPENING OP THE 21ST ANNUAL
THE OrEXINf EXERCISE GOV. HENDRICKS'
SPRECH EX PRKHIDENT SMART AND PRES
IDENT JONES' DITTO.
The Y. M. C. A. Hall was densely packed
Tuesday evening at the cpening ol the State
Teachers' Association. At half past seven
o'clock the Association was called to
order, and the Rev. Dr. DeLaMatyr
opened the exercises with prayer.
At the conclusion ot the Invocation Gover
nor Hendricks came forward and delivered
the address l elow. He legan by saying that
be waa expected to deliver an addrea ot wel
come, and that his conception of that Was
to welcome them to the hearts of tbe people
of Indiana. Alter speaking of tbe limit ol
ttme that bad been allowed him, be con
THE GOVERNOR'S ADDRESS.
Ladles and Gentlemen of tbe Indiana Teacher's
I hardly understand the duty which has
been assigned me this evening. I know it
is to welcome you, but whence and where?
Shall it be to the 6 tatet You are now a
part and power in the state. Shall it be to
this city? Some of you belong to it, con
tribute to Us greatness! Some of its most
conspicuous ornaments are the stately edi
fices in which you serve the people.
itut i Detleve it is right ana proper
ior me to welcome you to tne hearts ol
all the people of tbe state. And
I am glad to do tbat, for the feelings
ana sympathies of the people authorize it,
Therefore, on behalf of the people, I give
you a coram welcome.
And that is nearly all I could pot-ibly be
prepared to say on tLis occasion, liut the
gentleman whö wrote what duty bad been
assigned me, said I must speak tbree quar
ters of an hour. Did he mean so much no
more, no lebs? Then, indeed, my condition
is worse than bnylock's, whom .Portia al
lowed the penalty in the bond, but no in .rr
nor less of tbe division "of the twentieth
part of one poor temple." But I know
tbat I am more likely to enjoy
your forgiveness and favor if I stop far short
of the limit than If I go beyond; so I will
regard your comfort and my own necessity.
in this organization you represent-, as I sup
pose, the county and township institutes.
as well as the body of the teachers of the
state. The it-stitutes are becoming import
ant ana strong supports or our school sys
tem. Tbeydvfclop fraternity, and promote
proressionai pride - and excellence. Im
provement and advancement must
result irom me OHCuseion, com
parison and criticism pt the teachers
of their different modes of government, and
of imparting knowledge. This influence
goes beyond the teachers, and reaches tbe
patrons of the schools. In this state all the
people are the patrons of our common free
schools. And tbe cause of education is
strengthened wben they become interested
in the questions which relate to their man
agement and qualify their success. So I
think I may say tbat the tendency and influ
ence of the teachers' institutes, of
which this is tbe head, is to make
your profession stronger, more dignified,
honored and efficient, and also to promote
and advance the cause of popular education.
Much more cheerfully and gratefully will
the people give their children into your
charge and management when they know
that you possess tbe skill and art of govern
ing them so as to enforce obedience without
impsring tbe natriral force and vivacity of
spirit and character; and when they know,
also, that you will carefully and
intelligently consider the physical,
mental and moral qualities and peculiar
ities of each lit yonr entire treatment.
And I understand tbat it is tbe tendency ot
the institutes to 'establish and make more
distinct and positive the duty of tbe teacher
to carry the mind of the student back of
rules and results, to reasons, causes and
principles. When these are entirely under
stood tbe results are easily and accurately
traced, and the yules deduced. The rule in 1
a particular case: may be forgotten, but tbe
principle upon which it rests can not be for-
gotton, and if tbat be understood tbe party
is master of tbe subject. Of what value is it
to know a mathematical proposition
as a result, or by an effort
of tbe memory? In euch case the truth is
not known stall. I once knew a student
who memorized more than one-half of
Davis' Legendre. II was, as you appreciate,
an amaxlng effort of memory, but tbe un
fortunate and miserable party bad never
looked within tbe regions of mathematical
truth. His terrible labor was worth no
more than the firing of a kite.
Being thoroughly taught f ir back in the ele
ments and principles ot science, the student
holds the tes of truth in bis own hands.
He becomes a trained thinker, and is likely
to arrive at juet and proper conclusions,
even when nsw subjects are preserted. I
think the important work of tbe teacher is
the cultivation of correct habits of thought.
When the schools are left behind, immense
fields of unexplored knowledge lie before.
Into these ycu can not accompany him. But
relying upon hi training, be enters with
confidence and assigns to facts, es they
present themselves, their logical
relations. The Grecian athlete was
trained tbat his toot should be firm,
his eye steady, and his muscle strong,
but his instructor did not run the race witn
him, nor indicate the steps he should take.
Your work is wtll done when you lead yocr
scholar forfli to enter the contests of lite
with babits of dilligent and profound in
vestigation and reflection. In this respect
the State Normal School is a model as well
as an authority. I bave been able to visit
that institution but upon one occasion. I
observed at once that no subject was parsed
unless tte reasons and principles upon
which It rested were correctly
comprehended. I am confident it
will prove (a great help to our school sys
tem, and worthy the favor of the people.
Next in Importance to tbe lormation of
correct habits of thought, la the cultivation
of good taste; tbe appreciation or that which
is noble a-id (beautiful. I am not sure but
that throughout life we are as much influ
enced through our sensibilities and emotions
as through tbe sterner faculties of reason and
Judgment. Tbe capability of reaching these
qualitieig is of great practical value to every
one. May I not then say tbat it 1 of very
great importance, and material to tbe high
est success of the schools, tbat correct senti
ments and good taste be cultured and de
veloped. The institutes and other profes
sional associations among the teachers will
contribute to that desirable aud essential
The interest and pnde which ycu xbiblt
in your profesion are reasonable and com
mendable. Your profession is excelled by
none other in respect to its usefulness. You
take society by its tender hand. You guide
unsteady steps. You point out to tbe inex
perienced the safe ways. And under your
influence tbe good and tbe beautiful are cul
tivated and cherished. Like current money,
useful knowledge passes rapidly from per
son to person. Thereby your inllueuco is
repeated a thousand times.
Itut bevond that you now command the
influence aud honor of association. You
forma part of the InriUna common fechool
system, which will become as efficient as
anv lu tbe world.
The pupilsnow enrolled in tbe free schools
of the .täte number 489,041, and the teachers
employed during tbe last year were 12.655.
That is 12 regiments of officers and 4SU regi
m6Ltaff private soldiers; cot organized lor
sanguine contest, but to establish so
ciety and our institutions upon the
solid basis of educated judgment and culti
vated virtue. The system rests upon a per
manent endowment of t9,l 1,319 60, which
can not bo impaired, but la constantly and
rapidly increasing. It rsts also upon the
generOUS SUOnort Of A willlnc? anA mnarur.
, ous people. In addition to the interest from
iuj enaowmem mnd, tbepeoplecontributed
during the last year, by taxation, to the sup
port of the schools more than one and a half
To tbe people, so generous and free In the
cause of education, you owe It to strike a
blow at waste and extravagance whenever
they may come under your observation.
Economy is essential to the permanent favor
of the system with the people.
In this connection it is proper for
me to refer to the death of tbe
Hon. Milton B. Hopkins, which
took place during tbe past year. It was
conceded that he stood at tbe bead of the
cause of education In the state, and offi
cially be was at the head of our common
hnhrw! Kvit.m TTa a. i
j uonu juu earliest mua
, true friend. By his devotion he contributed
to the dignity of your profession. Capable,
earnest aud efficient he accomplished much
for tha first cause and highest interest of the
state. I was gratided that great
honor was shown to his memory.
You are here as representatives. You sreak
for 12,000 persons who are engaged as teach
ers. I may not ertdertake any comparison
between tbe influence whioh ihv overt
and tbat ol a like number engaged in an v
other profession or employment. Such a
comparison cannot he made. They influence
all o her pursuits. They are felt throughout
the entire frame-work of society. Church
and state, trade and commerce, agriculture
mm me mecuanic arts, are an modi bed and
influenced by the modest labors of those
whom you represent.
The taste for the Ho weis that ornament
tbe country home, good cbeer and skill in
the workshop, fidelity in tbe lawyer's office,
honor in tbe physician's call, devo
tion to the one great cause in the
pulpit, and integrity in office are guaranteed
u tuo immiiy circie ana in me common
schools, else they bave ro vigorous growth
in iuo juiure.
i am ciaa to neiinvn that nnr vmm-.r
schools are tree from tbe touch and influence
of party and of sect. And I am confident
tbat you and those whom you represent will
see to it tbat there shall be no departure
r A ana ...
irom mat policy, me schools belong to all
the people. Persons of all shades of politics.
and of all systems ol religious faith alike
contribute to their support. It
would not be right that anv
class should seek to impress
us ineorieB oi government, or tenets of re
ligion upon the minds of tbe children in th
common schools, and thus to control the
politics or the religion of a coming genera
tion. The training ehould seek to estab
Iish proper babits of thought, and the
right use of all the mental faculties,
Dut not to usurp tbe place os
iudzment uoon such onestions. Public
policy will Bot allow your prerogative to go
ku iar. jicerwise me usefulness ot tbe sys
tem would be impaired, and its permanence
endangered. I hope that this, your annual
meeting, will be attended by great enjoy
ment w yourselves and benent to the cause
THE ADDRESSES AND GENERAL BUS
INESS. THE EXERCT8E8 OF THE DAT PAPERS BY THE
PROFS. OTHER MATTERS TOO NUMEROUS
The association assembled Wednesday
morning as per adjournment. After 15 min
utes of devotional exercises', Prof. G. W.
Hoss was introduced, and read a paper on
"TtiA lViiA.ttnn.1 Tnn.s r 1 r I
Character." After a fow preliminary re
marks, be said, in substance, as follows:
Character Is what we are and reputation is
what people think we are. Considered nega
tively words are cot character. Gentleness
and purity may be in the words, wben se
verity, sensibility or malignity is In the
heart. Neither are good impulses character
Peter under a noble impulse declared him
self ready to die with bis master, yet in a
few hours denies him again. Surroundings
are not character. Many determine a man'a
character by his nationality, bv tbe office he
noias or me uue ne Dears. These though
outward signs leave in a degree untouched
that inner and finer essence called character.
Scholarship is not character. In a word
character is the man. There are tbree distinct
processes in tbe work of education. 1, in
forming; 2, training; 3, developing. The
first furnishes facts and principles for
guidance. The second applying tbe
products of the first, gives skill. The
third develops power. thus giving
character. Tbe first is' tributary to the
second and both to the third. Tbe third is
the crowning plury of the other two. The
laws under which character educates, are,
1st, like begets like. This law. holds in
physical nature, hence by analogy should
in mental and moral. Teachers, as surely as
lace answers face in the mirror, or form pro
duces form on the face of I he camera, so
surely is your character reproducing itse:l
in your pupils. Your courage is
producing courage, your patience, pa
tience; your candor, candor; your
veracity, veracity ; your magnani
mity, magnanimity, and also if the contra
ries ot these are found ihey are producing
their likes. A second law is we grow like
what we contemplate. It is a well known
law that natural scenery modifies character.
Men look and are modified by what they
see. Tbe pupil beholds with admiration
the noble traits in bis teach
er's character, and thus beholding
he is changed into the same. A
third law is tbat a teacher's character
becomes a pattern or model. A sequence
follows in conclusion. The need of closer
personal Intercourse between teacher and
pupil. History and experience sustain this.
Our present system of wholesaling in edu
cation, giving from forty to sixty pupils to a
teacher, thereby necessitating large classes
and haste, is not favorable to such develop
ment. Character development requires the
teacher to aid the pupil in forming
ideals. The ideal modifies and shapes
tbe real. Tbe real is what he lives,
the ideal is what he hopes and seeks. Tbe
teachers can and should do something to
Impress this iaeal in the minds cf his
pupils. Tnls should be done by a judicious
revelation of his own character by direct in
struction, portraying so nearly as may be
by words, tbe subtle essence of character
and tbe subtler essence of bis Idea). In
view of tbe delicate and potential influence
of character let each humbly, yet resolutely,
take as the measure and guide of character
the injunction of the Great Teacher, "Be ye
The discussion of tbe paper was participated
In by Prof. Bll, the Itev. Mr. Smitb, Mr.
McCrea and Arthur Brown. A recess was
then taken, after wb ich the paper bv Mr.
Charles Evans on "Public Libraries" was
begun, but bad to be discontinued before
its close, owing to its length and tbe hour
for the memorial exercises having arrived.
THE MtMOPIAL FXERCISE9,
in respect to the memory ot tbe Hon. Mil
ton B. Hopkins, late superintendent ot pub
lic instruction, were began by a prayer by
the Rev. Cyrus Nutt, in which be feelingly al
luded to the. death or tbe honored gentleman.
Prof. J. H. Smart spoke, alter the singing
of an am hem by the Choral Union, on be
half ot tbe State Board of Education: One
year ago, on the occasion of our twen
tieth anniversary, there was one amoDg
us one who, with . uplifted hand, and
bowed bead, pronounced a blessing upon
us. Since tbat time death ha taken him
lrom us, and on tbe 19th cf last August
frierds and relatives followed to their last
resting place the remains of tbe Hon. M B.
Hopkins. To one and all his death oomea
as an Irreparable loss. In bis private life Mr.
H. was a Christian gentleman, and always
had cheering words for thnee cast down and
In distress. His public life, tbongh brief,
was full of honor. It is generally conceded
that he bad a large influence among th
teachers of the state, and also among legis
lators, as is attested from the fact of bis be
ing instrumental In carrying through tha
county superintendent. His life should
teach us that purity of lire and devotion to
principle shall win for us fame more to ba
desired than the crown of kings.
After calling to order, a committee waa
appointed, consisting of one from each con
gressional district, to nominate officers.
After tbe reading of tbe order of exerdv
for to-day, the meetiog adjourned.
Continued on Fourth pge.
. SOUTHERN PRISON.
FULL ACCOUNT OK THlC WORK FOE TTJ
YEAR A BAD TEAR FOR THH WICKED
TWENTY-FOUR OF THEM DIR.
The amount expeadod in improvement
has been iüdlciouslv laid ont. and'arfda
match to thecomtort and durability cf tbe
prison. The officers ha- e not been changed
during ILe year, with the exception of tbe
clerk, R. J. Forsylb, who resigned, and was
succeoded by E. P. Gilpin.
He has spared no expense In perfecting
the discipline and comfort cf tbe hospital,
which was very illy arranged. The ward
formerly devoted to female kas been made
part oi the hospital. Strong cells bave been
built apart from the others for tbe ue of
Insane convicts. Steam pipta have been
placed in various parts of the building, les
sening tbe foel expense and add in to the
comfort of those rooms. Beside thee
gemral improvements, the grouuds
have been improved and some
of the floors raised. Tbe uniform i being
OHANOBD FROM THE STRIFE
to plain black. Some trouble bas been
cauaed by the failure of the Southwestern
Car Company to balance its accounts. Dys
entery has caused great distress during the
year, and out of nearly tvo hundred cases
twelve were fatal. Tbe warden pays a high
compliment to the efficiency ot Dr. Wm. H.
Sheets, the physician. The discipline ha
been very good with the exception of one se
rious attempt at an outbreak. Four of
the convicts, having been armed by friends
outside, made a rm-h wi.iletbe guard waa
opening the door, and got out into the street.
In the pursuit Gecree Chamberlain wu
killed by them, aud Webb Holmes and tha
warden narrowly escaped death. After be
ing captured they were confined in cell
until taken out to be tried on an indictment
The year has been one of unusually bard
labor. Twelve men died from dysentery,
six from typhoid fever, tbree from conges
tive chilis, one from phthisis, one from ep
ilepsy, one in attempting to escape, -in all 24
deaths. A large majority of the deaths are
of persons who bave lead dissipated lire.
The substitution of black clothing for tba
striped has had a beneflciil effect on tbe
nrisoners. A larcpr lihrnrv la nMriart Th
I - O UV
attendance on religious service has been
i . . . . .
unusuaiiy gooa,na tne morals ot the prison
in a more bealtbv condition than ever h.
Total receipts for year. f79.Wl 6S: dia-
bursements, 179.&43 25; balance, $88 Co; as
sets, X35,1 60. The total number of con
victs is 417, of which the farmers furnish 101;
laborers, 133; 19 of no occupation, and var
ious cambers representing nearly every
branch of industry.
Read and write
FORMER HABITS OF CONVICTS, AND NUMB EH
Intern perat . 1
Mnrlcr.K ,,,, ,, , , ,, .12
SOCIAL RELATION OF CONVICTS, AND NCMBR
In confinement. IVppmhcr IS. iura rwa
i-l nee received ..230
Discharged by expiration of Beotrnoe 127
Pardoned ,, , ,, -. 24
Transferred to the Reformatory-. 2
Sentence commuted 1-197
, Total In confinement.
What would poor Burts hare thought or
said if be could have foreseen that be
would, in 1874, be lectured upon In the City
of Sacramento, and In the Congregational
Church ot that city? Oae can not help
thinking of bit early appearance in
the kirk, seated upon the outty-stool of
repentance, gazea at as a hopeless repro
bate by the elders, and aa an un
commonly good-looking young fellow by
tbe pitiful lassies. What a life was his!
And what a solid, enduring fame! No
noetical cotemnorarv nearlv ao wnll MmAm.
bare J, certainly not one so warmlv en
shrined in the heart ot the Rngllsb-speäklng
race i Ana to crowc an, nair canonired, ao
to speak, in tbe Congregational Chureii of
Sacramento ! New York Tribune.
Two dwarfs, a husband and his wife, be
longing to tbe Aztec nation, are now on ex
hibition at Frascatl, Hue Vivi6nne, says tbe
American Register, of Paris. They are
scarcely more than three feet high, aged be
tween thirty and foity, of a dark son-em
browned complexion, and possess the char
acteristic features ol their rttce; a large Ro
man nose, prominent jaw and receding fore
bead; their hair is black and wcolly. Tbe
preence of this dimunitive couple at tha
Frascüti concert roorm proves a great at
traction, and large crowds fl ck each night
to see "Maximo and Barthola, the Aiteo
D. Appleton fc Co., of New York, baT
Issued "Personal Ramlnincences, Anec
dotes and Letters of Gan. Robert K. Lee."
Its author is the Rev. J. William Jon, D.
D., formerly chaplain of the array of North
ern Virginia, and of Washington College,
Virginia. The book is published b7
authority of the Lee Umily, and tha faculty
of Washington and L?e University.