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The Leon reporter. (Leon, Iowa) 1887-1930, December 06, 1900, Image 8

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Meanwhile foreign activity made itself
felt In all quarter:?, ni alone on the
coast, but along the great .river arteries
and in the remoter districts, carrying
new ideas and introducing new associa
tions among a primitive people which had
pursued for centuries a national policy
of isolation.
Annual Address to the National
Considerable Portion of the Document Is De
voted to Chinese Affairs.
Che president's annual message to
congress is in part as follows:
^Washington, Dec. 3—
Congress Is Urged ta Pass the Ship Subsidy Measure and
the Army Bill and Attention Is Called to the Ne
cessity of a Cable to Hawaii—
of Revenue Asked.
President McKln-
*y message to Congress contains 18,000
words." It is in part as follows:
T.° Senate and House of Represen
tatives: At the outgoing of the old and
I?e *n°0,m'ng of the new century you be
gin the last-session of the fifty-sixth cdn
fress_ with evidences on every hand of
^dividual and national prosperity and
•run, proof of the growing strength and
tacreasing power for good of republican
WBtltuUons. Your countrymen will join
K*th. you in felicitation that American
liberty Is more firmly established than
•ver before, and that love for it and the
fetermlnatlon to preserve It are more
enlversal than at any former period of
kur history.
The republic was never so strong, be
cause never so strongly intrenched in the
People as now. The Consti-
-{utlon, with few amendments, exists as
the hands of its authors. The ad
•ltions which have been made to it pro
i®:rSer freedom and more extended
mizenship. Popular government has
•emonstrated In its 124 years of trial
oere its stability and security, and its
tplciency as the best instrument of na
tional development and the best safe
tuard to human rights.
..When the sixth congress assembled In
November, 1&.0, the population! of the
S?!i£d States was 5,308,483. It is now 7G.
04,799. Then we had sixteen states. Now
ere have forty-five. Then our territory
consisted of 909,030 square miles. It is
JrW 3,846,595 square miles. Education, re
llgior and morality have kept pace with
our advancement In other directions, and
while extending its power the govern
ment has adhered to its foundation prin
ciples and abated none of them in dealing
With our new peoples* and possessions. A
nation so preserved and blessed gives
reverent thanks to God and invokes His
guidance and the continuance of His care
u.ad favor.
The and
Horrors of the 1'ekin Slego
tho Timely Kuhcuc.
In our foreign intercourse the dominant
Question has been the treatment of the
Chinese problem. Apart from this our
relations with the powers have been
The recent troubles in China spring
from the anti-foreign ugitalion which for
the past three years has gained strength
in the northern jprovlnces. Their origin
.lies deep in the character of the Chinese
races and in the flhidltions of their cpv
.ernment. TliuTq^Bng rebellion
"WTeifjn iT^"
and settlement disturbed alike tho homo
geneity and the seclusion of China.
The telegraph and railway spreading
over their land, the Fleaim-m plying- on
their waterways, the merchant and the
missionary penetrating, year by year
farther to the interior, became ta the
Chinese mind types of an alien invasion,
changing the course of their national life
and fraught with vague forebodings of
disaster to their beliefs and their self
For several years before the present
troubles all the resources of foreign di
plomacy, backed by moral demonstra
tions of the physical force of fleets and
arms, have been needed to secure due re
spect lor the treaty rights of foreigners
and to obtain satisfaction from the re
sponsible authorities for the sporadic out
rages upon the persons and property of
Unoffending sojourners, which from time
to time occurred at widely separated
points in the northern provinces, as in
tho case of the outbreaks in Sze-Chuen
and Shantung.
Posting of anti-foreign placards became
a daily occurrence, which the repeated
reprobation of the imperial power failed
to check or punish. These inflammatory
appeals to the ignorance and supersti
tion of the masses, mendacious and ab
surd in their accusations and deeply hos
tile in their spirit, could not but work
cumulative harm. They aimed at no par
ticular class of foreigners: they were
Impartial in attacking everything for
An outbreak in Shantung, in which Ger
man missionaries were slain, was the too
natural result of these malevolent teach
ings. The posting of seditious placards,
exhorting to the utter destruction of for
eigners and of every foreign thing, con
tinued unrebuked. Hostile demonstra
tions toward the stranger gained strength
by organization.
The sect commonly styled the Boxers
developed greatly in the provinces north
Of the Yang-Tse, and with the collusion
it many notable officials, including some
In the Immediate councils of the throne
Itself, became alarmingly aggressive. No
foreigner's life, outside of the protected
treaty ports, was safe. No foreign in
terest was secure from spoliation.
'-The diplomatic-representatives of the
•powers in Peking strove ii vain to check
this movement. Protest was followed by
demand and demand by renewed protest,
to be met with perfunctory edicts from
(the palace and evasive and futile assur
ances from the tsung-li-yamen. The cir­
fit the Boxer influence narrowed about
Peking.' and' while nominally stigmatized
as seditious, it was felt that its spirit
aervaded the capital itself, that the im
perial forces were imbued with its doc
trines, and that the immediate counselors
of the empress dowager were in full sym
pathy with the anti-foreign movement.
The increasing gravity of the conditions
In China and the imminence of peril to
our own diversified interests in the etn-
lre, as well as to those of all the other
governments, were soon appreci
ated by this government, causing it pro
found solicitude. The United States from
tbe earliest days of foreign intercourse
with China had followed a policy of
peace, omitting no occasion to testify
(food Will, to further the extension of
TawfuT'trade, to respect the sovereignty
of its government, and to Issue by all
legitimate and kindly but earnest means
the fullest measure of protection for the
llves and property of our law-abiding clt
(sens and for the exercise of their benefl
xent callings among the.Chinese people.
Mindful of this, .It was felt to be ap
propriate that our purposes shotild be
pronounced in favor of such course as
would hasten united action of the powers
ft Pekln to promote the administrative
reforms so greatly needed for strength
ening the imperial government and main
taining tbe integrity of China, in which
We believed the whole western world to
he alike concerned. To these ends I caused
to be addressed to the several powers
occupying territory and maintaining
ilfeheres of Influence in China the circular
proposals of 1899, inviting from them dec
larations of their intentions and views
If 'M desirability of the adoption-of
measures Insuring the benefits of equality
Of treatment of all foreign trade through
out China.
-With gratifying unanimity the re
alises coincided in this common policy,
ibling me to see in the successful ter
tatlon of these negotiations proof of
friendly spirit whlcfc animates the
powers Interested vi the untram-
Jevelopment of comhrace and in
die Chinese empiiHj^£ source
aeflt to the jrhol^^^tpgrcial
nc& ,,
gratification to announce as a completed
engagement to the interested powers on
March 20, 1900, I hopefully discerned a po
tential factor for the abatement of the
distrust of foreign purposes which for a
year past had appeared to Inspire the
policy of the imperial government, and
for the effective exertion by it of power
and authority to quell the critical anti
foreign movement in the northern prov
inces most immediately influenced by the
Manchu sentiment.
Seeking to testify confidence in the will
ingness and ability of the imperial ad
ministration to redress the wrongs and
prevent the evils we suffered and feared,
the marine guard, which had been sent to
Pe-kin in the autumn of 1899 for the pro
tection of the legation, was withdrawn at
tho earliest practical moment, and all
pending questions were remitted, as far
as wc were concerned, to the ordinary re
sorts of diplomatic intercourse.
The Chinese government proved, how
ever. unable to check the rising strength
of the Boxers and appeared to be a prey
to internal dissensions, in the unequal
contest the anti-foreign Influences soon
gained the ascendancy under the leader
ship of Prince Tuan. Organized armies
of Boxers, with which the imperial forces
affiliated, held the country between Pekln
and the coast, penetrated into Manchuria
up to the Russian border, and through
their emissaries threatened a like rising
throughout northern China.
Attacks upon foreigners, destruction of
their property and slaughter of native
converts were reported from all sides.
The tsung-ll-yamen, already permeated
with hostile sympathies, could make no
effective response to the appeals of the
legations. At this critical juncture, in
the early spring of this year, a proposal
was made by the other iowers that a
combined fleet should be assembled in
Chinese water as a moral demonstration
under cover of which to exact of the
Chinese government respect for foreign
treaty rights and tho suppression of the
The United States, while not participat
ing in the joint demonstration, promptly
.sent from the Philippines all ships that
could be spared for service on the Chi
nese coast. A small force of marines
was landed at Taku and sent to Pekln
for the protection of the American lega
tion. Other powers took similar action,
until some -100 men were assembled in the
capital as legation guards.
Still the peril increased. The legations
reported the development of the seditious
movement in Pekln and the need of In
creased provision for defense against It.
While preparations were in progress for
a larger expedition to strengthen the le
gation guards and keep the railway open
an attempt of the foreign ships to make
a landing at. Taku was met by a Are
from the Chinese forts. The forts were
sii hereupon shelled by the foreign vessels,
American admiral taking no part in
the attack, on the ground that we were
not at war with China and that a hostile
demonstration might consolidate the anti
foreign element and strengthen the Box
ers to oppose the relieving column.
Two days later the Taku forts were
captured after a sanguinary conflict.
Severance of communication with Pekin
followed, and a combined force of addi
tional guards, which was advancing to
Pekin by the Pei-Ho, was checked at
Lang Fang. The isolation of the lega
tions was complete.
The siege and the relief of the legations
has passed into undying history. In all
the stirring chapter which records the
heroism of the devoted band, clinging to
hope in the face of despair, and the un-.
daunted spirit that led their relievers
through battle and suffering to the goal,
it Is a memory of which my countrymen
may be justly proud that the honor of
our flag was maintained alike in the siege
and the rescue, and that stout American
hearts have again set high, in fervent
emulation with true men of other race
and language, the indomitable courage
that ever strives for the cause of right
and justice.
By June 19 the legations were' cut off.
An identical note from the famen or
dered each minister to leave Pekin, under
a promised escort, within twenty-four
hours. To gain time they replied, asking
prolongation of the time, which was aft
erward granted, and requesting an inter
view with the tsung-li-yamen on the fol
lowing day. No reply being received, on
the morning of the 20th the German min
ister. Baron von Ketteler, set out for the
yamen to obtain a response, and on the
way was murdered.
An attempt by the legation guard to re
cover his body was foiled by tho Chinese.
Armed forces turned out against the lega
tions. Their quarters were surrounded
and attacked. The mission compounds
were abandoned, their Inmates taking
refuge in the British legation, where all
the other legations and guards gathered
for more effective defense. Four hundred
persons were crowded into its narrow
compass. Two thousand native converts
were assembled in a near by palace under
protection of the foreigners. Lines of de
fense were strngthened, trenches dug,
barricades raised and preparations made
to stand a siege, which at once began.
"From June 20 until July 17," writes
Minister Conger, "there was scarcely an
hour during which there was not firing
upon some part of our lines and into
some of the legations, varying from a
single shot to a general and continuous
attack along the whole line." Artillery
was placed around the legations and on
the overlooking palace walls, and thou
sands of 3-lnch shot and shell were fired,
destroying some buildings and damag
ing all. So thickly did the balls rain that,
when the ammunition of the besieged ran
low, five quarts of Chinese bullets were
gathered in an hour in one compound and
Attempts were made to burn the lega
tions by setting neighboring houses on
fire, but the flames were successfully
fought off, although the Austrian, Bel
gian, Italian and Dutch legations were
then and subsequently burned,
America's attitude has been unvaried
and was first broadly defined by a circu
lar to the powers of July 3 last, this
country's policy as then defined being "to
seek a solution which may bring about
permanent safety and peace to China,
preserve Chinese territorial and admin
istrative entity, protect all rights guar
anteed to friendly powers by treaty and
international law and safeguard for the
world the principle of equal and Impar
tial trade with all parts of the Chinese
empire." Of course. In addition to this
broad and geherous view of the rights
,and interests of all nations, there has
since befen added'- the question, of repara
tion for injuries received the past sum
mer and the Indemnity for the expenses
necessarily incurred in connection with
the reliof of the legations. On this poiiit
the president says: "We forego no jot
of our undoubted right to exact exem
plary and deterrent punishment of the
responsible authors of the criminal acts
whereby we and other nations have suf
fered grievous injury."
While the hope is expressed that a
complete settlement of all the questions
involved may be reached, it is admitted
that the question of indemnity is one of
"grave concern," as measured in money
alone, a sufficient recompense may be
beyond the power of China to pay. The
president is disposed to think, however,
that due compensation may be made by
increased guaranties for foreign rights
and immunities and "by the opening of
China to the equal commerce of all the
Allowing thefeUiina qliestion aud situ
re aswttemcjjtf la r«-
-K• ?-u
spect to the relations of the United States
to other countries of the world, which,
on the whole, are satisfactory. There
seems to be some friction over the treat
ment of Americans in Austria in regard
to military service, but it is stated rep
resentations have been made whenever
the course adopted has appeared unduly
It is with satisfaction that I am able
to announce the formal notification at
The .Hague, on Sept. 4, of the deposit of
ratifications of the convention for the
pacific settlement of international dis
putes by sixteen powers, namely, the
United States. Austria, Belgium, Den
mark, England, France, Germany, Italy,
Persia, Portugal, Roumanla, Russia,
Slam, Spain, Sweden and Norway and
the Netherlands. Japan also has since
ratified the convention.
The administrative council of the per
manent court of arbitration has been or
ganized and has adopted rules of order
and a constitution for the international
arbitration bureau.
In accordance with article XXIII. of the
convention, providing for the appointment
•by each signatory power of persons of
known competency in questions of inter
national law as arbitrators, I have ap
pointed as members of this court Benja
min Harrison of Indiana, ex-president of
tho United States: Melville W. Fuller of
Illinois, chief justice of the United States
John W. Griggs of New Jersey, attorney
general of the United States, and George
Gray of Delaware, a judge of the Cir
cuit Court of the United States.
Progress lielng Made In the Effort to
Construct Croat Waterway.
The all-important matter of an inter
oceanic canal has assumed a new phase.
Adhering to its refusal to reopen the
question of the forfeiture of the contract
of the Maritime Canal Company, which
was terminated for alleged non-execution
in October, 1S99, the government of Nica
ragua has since supplemented that action
by declaring the so-styled Eyre-Cragin
option void lor non-payment of the stip
ulated advance. Protests in relation to
these acts have been filed in the State
Department and are under consideration.
Deeming itself relieved from existing en
gagements, the Nicaraguan government
shows a disposition to deal freely with
the canal question either in the way of
negotiations with the United States or
by taking measures to promote the wat
Overtures for a convention to effect tho
building of a canal under the auspices of
the United States are under consideration.
In the meantime the views of the con
gress upon the general subject, in tho
light of the report of the commission
appointed to examine the comparative
merits of the various transisthmian ship
canal projects, may be awaited.
I commend to the early attention of
the senate the convention with Great
Britain to facilitate the cor-jtruction of
such a canal and to remove any objec
tion which might arise out of the con
vention commonly tailed the Clayton
Bulwer treaty.
The long standing contention with Por
tugal growing out of the seizure of tho
Delagoa Bay Railway has been at last
determined by a favorable award of the
tribunal of arbitration at Berne, to which
it was submitted. The amount of the
award, which was deposited in London
awaiting arrangements by the govern
ments of the United States and Great
Britain for its disposal, has recently been
paid over to the two governments.
A lately signed convention of extradi
tion with Peru as amended by the senate
has been ratified by the Peruvian con
Another illustration of the policy of this
government to refer international dis
putes to impartial arbitration is seen in
the agreement reached with Russia to
submit the claims on behalf of the
American sealing vessels seized in Bering
Sea to determination by T. M. C. Asser,
a distinguished statesman and jurist of
the Netherlands.
Thanks are due to the imperial Russian
government for kindly aid rendered by
ts authorities in eastern Siberia to
American missionaries fleeing from Man
Satisfactory progress has been made to
ward the conclusion of a general treaty
of friendship and intercourse with Spain,
in replacement, of the old treaty, which
passed Into abeyance by reason of the
late war. A new convention of extradi
tion is approaching completion, and 1
should bo much pleased were a commer
cial arrangement to follow. I feel that
we should not suffer to'pass any oppor
tunity to reaffirm the cordial' ties that
existed between us and Spain from the
time of our earliest independence and to
enhance the mutual bnetits of that com
mercial intercourse, which is natural be
tween the two countries.
By the terms of the treaty of peace the
line bounding the ceded Philippine group
in the southwest failed to include several
small islands lying west of the Sulus,
which have always been recognized as
under Spanish control. The occupation
of Sibutu and Cagayan Sulu by our nav
al forces elicited a claim on the. part of
Spain, the essential equity of which
could not be gainsaid.
In order to cure the defect of the
treaty by removing all possible ground of
future misunderstanding respecting the
interpretation of its third article, I di
rected the negotiation of a supplemen
tary treaty, which will be forthwith laid
before the senate, whereby Spain quits
all title and claim of title to the islands
.named, as well as to any and all islands
belonging to the Philippine archipelago
lying outside the lines described in said
third article, and agrees that all such
islands shall be comprehended in the
cession of the archipelago as fully as if
they had been expressly included within
those lines. In consideration of tills
cession the United States is to pay to
Spain the sum of $100,000.
A bill is now pending to effect the rec
ommendation made in my last annual
message that appropriate legislation be
had to carry into execution article 7 of
the treaty of peace with Spain, by which
the United States assumed the payment
of certain claims for inf^mnity of its
citizens against Spain. I ask that action
be taken to fulfill this obligation.
The King of Sweden and Norway has
accepted the joint invitation of the Unit
ed States, Germany and Great Britain to
arbitrate claims growing out of losses
sustained In the Samoan Islands in the
course of military operations made nec
essary by the disturbances in 1899.
It Is gratifying to be able to state that
the surplus revenues for the fiscal year
ended June 30, 1900, were $79,527,000.18. For
the six preceding years we had only de
ficits^ the aggregate of which from 1891
to 3S99 inclusive amounted to $233,0i2.
991.14. The receipts for the year from all
sources, exclusive of postal revenues, ag
gregated $567,240,851.89, and expenditures
for all purposes, except for the adminis
tration of the postal department, aggre
gated $487,713,791.71. The receipts from
customs were $233,164,871.16, an increase
over the preceding year of $27,036,389.41.
The receipts from internal revenue were
$295,327,926.76, an increase of $21,890,765.25
over 1899. The receipts from miscellane
ous sources were $28,748,053.97, as against
$36,394,976.92 for the previous year.
I recommend that the congress at its
present session reduce the internal rev
enue taxes imposed to' meet the expenses
of the war with Spain in the sum of thir,
ty millions of dollars. This reduction
should be secured by the remission of
those taxes which experience has shown
to be the most burdensome to the indus
tries of the people.
I specially urge that there by included
in whatever reduction Is made tho legacy
tax, bequests for public uses of a liter
ary, educational or charitable character.
American vessels during the past three
years have carried about 9 per cent of our
exports and imports. Foreign ships
should carry the least, not the greatest
part of American trade. The remarkable
growth of our steel industries, the prog
ress of shipbuilding for the domestic
trade, and our steadily maintained ex
penditures for the navy have created an
opportunity to place the United States
in the first rank of commercial maritime
In my last annual message to the con
gress I called attention to the necessity
for early action to remedy such evils as
might be found to exist in connection
with combinations of capital organized
into trusts, and again Invite attention to
my discussion of the subject at that time.
The whole question is so-far-reachlng
that I am sure no part of it will be light
ly considered, but every phase-of it will
have the studied deliberation of the con
gress, resulting Jn wise and judicious ac
tion. Restraint upon such combinations
as are injurious, and which are within
federal Jurisdiction should be promptly
applied by the congress.
Tbs BabelUon Almost at an End
In my last annual message I dwelt at
some length upon the condition of affairs
in the Philippines. While seeking to im
press upon yob that the grave responsi
bility oX tbe fipture government of those
islands rests with the congress of the
United States, I abstained from recom
mending at that time a specific and finai
form of government for the territory ac
tually held by the United States forces,
and in which as long as Insurrection
continues the military arm must neces
sarily be supremo. I s'.ated my purpose,
until the congress shall have made
known the formal expression of its will,
to use the authority bested in me by the
Constitution and the statutes to uphold
the sovereignty of tho United States in
those distant Islands as in all other places
where our flag rightfully floats, placing,'
to that end, at the disposal of tho army
and navy all the means which the liber
ality of the congress and the people have
provided. No contrary expression of the
will of the congress having been made, I
have steadfastly pursued the purpose so
declared, employing the civil arm as well
toward the accomplishment of pacifica
tion and tho Institution of local govern
ments within the lines of authority and
The articles of. capitulation of the ,city
of Manila on Aug. 13, 1898, concluded with
these words:
"This city, its inhabitants Its churches
and religious worship, its educational es
tablishments, and its private property of
all descriptions are placed under the spe
cial safeguard of the faith and honor of
the American army."
I believe that this pledge has been faith
fully kept. As high and sacred an obli
gation rests upon the government of the
United States to give protection for prop
erty and life, civil and religious freedom,
and wise, firm and unselfish guidance in
the paths of peace and prosperity to all
the people of the Philippine islands. I
charge this commission to labor for the
full performance of this obligation, which
concerns the honor and conscience of
their country, in tho firm hope that
through their labors all the inhabitants
of the Philippine islands may come to
look back with gratitude to the day when
God gave Victory to American arms at
Manila and set their land under the sov
ereignty and the protection of the people
of the United States.
Progress in the hoped-for direction has
been favorable. Our forces have suc
cessfully controlled tho greater part of
tho Islands, overcoming the organized
forces of the Insurgents and carrying or
der and administrative regularity to all
quarters. What opposition remains Is,
for the most part, scattered, obeying no
concerted plan of strategic action, ope
rating only by the methods common to
tho traditions of guerrilla warfare, which,
while ineffective to alter the general con
trol now established, aro still sufficient
to beget insecurity among the popula
tions that have felt the good results of
our control and thus uelay the confer
ment upon them of tho fuller measures
of local self-government, of education and
of Industrial and agricultural develop
ment which we stand ready to give to
By the spring of this year the effective
opposition of tho dissatisfied Tagalas to
the authority,of tho United States was
virtually ended thus opening the door for
the extension of a stable administration
over much of the territory of the archi
pelago. Desiring to bring this about, I
appointed in March last a civil commis
sion composed of William II. Taft of
Ohio, Professor Dean C. Worcester of
Michigan, Luke E. Wright of Tennessee.
Henry C. Ide of Vermont and Professor
Bernard Moses of California.
Colncidentally with the entrance of the
commission upon its labors 1 caused to
be issued by Gen. MacArthur, the mill
Jfy sovernor of the-Philippines, on June
J, 1800, a proclamation ofi amnesty in
generous terms, of which, many of the
Insurgents took advantage, among them
a number of important leaders.
This commission, composed of eminent
citizen* representing the diverse geo
graphical and political interests of the
country, and bringing to their task the
ripe fruits of long and intelligent service
in educational, administrative and judi
cial careers, mado great progress from
the outset. As early as Aug. 21, 1900, it
submitted a preliminary report, which
will be laid before the congress, and from
which it appears that already the good
effects of returning order are felt -that
business, interrupted byhostili'ies, is im
proving as peace extends: that 'a larger
area is under sugar cultivation than ever
before: that the customs revenues are
greater than at any time dur'ng the Span
ish rule that economy and efficiency in
the military administration have creat
ed a surplus fund of $6,000,000, available
for needed public Improvements: that a
stringent civjl service law is in prepara
tion: that railroad communications -are
expanding, opening up rich districts, and
that a comprehensive scheme of educa
tion is being organized.
It Is evident that the most enlightened
thought of the Philippine islands fully
appreciates the Importance of these prin
ciples and rules, and they will Inevitably
within a Short time command universal
assent. Upon every division and branch
of the government of the Philippines
therefore must bo imposed three inviol
able rules:
"That no person shall be deprived of
life, liberty or property without due proc
ess of law: that private property shall
not be taken for public use without just
compensation: that in all criminal prose
cutions the accused shall enjoy tho right
to a speedy and public trial, to be in
formed of the nature and cause of the
accusation, to be confronted with the wit
nesses against him, to have compulsory
process for obtaining witnesses In his
favor and to have the assistance of coun
sel for his defense that excessive ball
shall not be required, nor excessive fines
Imposed, nor cruel and unusual punish
ment inflicted that no person shall be
put twice In jeopardy for the same of
fense, or be compelled in any criminal
case to be a witness against himself: that
the right to be secure against unreason
able searches and seizures shall not be
violated: that neither slavery nor invol
untary servitude shall exist except as a
punishment for crime that no bill of at
tainer or ex-post facto law shall be pass
ed that no law shall be passed abridging
the freedom of speech or of the press or
tho rights of the people to peaceably as
semble and petition the government for
a redress of grievances that no law shall
be made respecting an establishment of
religion or prohibiting the free exercise
thereof, and that the free exerclss and
enjoyment of religious profession and
worship without discrimination or pref
erence shall forever be allowed."
It will be tho duty of the commission
to malto a thorough investigation into the
titles to the large tracts of land held or
claimed by individuals or by religious or
ders into the justice of the claims and
complaints made against such landhold
ers by the people of the Island or any
part of the people, and to seek by wise
and peaceable measures a Just settle
ment of the controversies and redress of
wrongs which have caused strife and
bloodshed in the past. In the perform
ance of this duty the commission Is en
joined to see that no Injustice Is done:
to have regard for substantial rights and
equity, disregarding technicalities so far
as substantial right- permits, and to ob
serve the following rules:
"That the provision of the treaty of
Paris pledging the United States to the
protection of all rights of property in the
islands, and as well tho principle of our
own government which prohibits the tak
ing of private property without due proc
ess of law, shall not be violated that the
welfare of the people of the Islands,
which should be a paramount consider
ation, shall be attained censistently with
this rule of property right that if it be
comes necessary for the public interest of
the people of the Islands dispose of claims
to property which the commission finds
to be not lawfully acquired and held, dis
position shall be made thereof by due
legal procedure. In which there shall be
full opportunity for fain and impartial
hearing and judgment: that If the same
public interests require the extinguish
ment of property rights lawfully acquired
and held due-compensation shall be made
out of the public treasury therefor: that
no form of religion and no minister of
religion shall- be forced upon any com
munity or upon any citizen of the Islands,
that, upon the other hand, no minister of
religion shall be Interfered with or mo
lested in following his calling, and that
the separation between state and church
shall be real, entire and absolute."
The next subject in order of impor
tance should be the organization of gov
ernment in the larger administrative di
visions correspondplng to countries de
partments or-provinces in which the com
mon interests of many or several munici
palities falling within the same tribal
lines or the same natural geographical
limits may best be subserved by a com
mon administration. Whenever the com
mission is ot the1 opinion that the con
dition of affairs in the islands is such
that the central administration may safe
ly be transferred from military to civil
control they will report that conclusion
to you with their recommendations as
to the form of oentral government to be
established for the purpose of talcing over
the control.
All legislative rules and orders, estab
lishments of government] and appoint
ments to o016e by the commission- will
take effeot lnupedfately, or at suob times
as they shall designate, subject' to your
approval and action/upon the, coming in
of th^wranteslQaa reports, which are
to be made from time to time as their
action Is taken. Wherever civil govern
ments are constituted under the direc
tion of the commission such military
posts, garrisons and forces will be con
tinued'for the suppression of insurrec
tion and brigandage and the maintenance
of law and order as the military com
mander shall deem requisite, and the mil
itary forces shall be at all times subject
under his orders, to the call of the civil
authorities for the maintenance of law
and order and the enforcement of their
Later reports from the commission
show yet more encouraging advanco to
ward insuring the benefits of liberty and
good government to the Filipinos, in the
interest of humanity and with the aim
of building up an enduring, self-support
ing and self-administering community in
those far eastern seas. I would impress
upon the congress that whatever legisla
tion may be enacted in respect to the
Philippine Islands should bo along these
generous lines. The fortune of war lias
thrown upon this nation an unsought
trust which should be unselfishly dis
charged, and devolved upon this-govern-,
ment a moral as well as material respon
sibility toward these millions whom we
have freed from on oppressive yoke.
I have upon another occasion called the
Filipinos "the wards of the nation." Our
obligation as guardian was not lightly as
sumed: It must not be otherwise than
honestly fulfilled, aiming first of all to
benefit those who have come under our
fostering care. It is our duty so to treat
them that our flag may be no less beloved
In tho mountains of Luzon and the fer
tile zones of Mindanao and Negros than
it ts at home, that there as here It shall
be the revered symbol of liberty, enlight
enment and progress in every avenue of
The Filipinos are a race quick to learn
and to profit by knowledge. He would be
rash who, with the teachings of con
temporaneous history in view, would fix
a limit to the degree of culture and ad
vancement yet within the reach of those
people If our duty toward them be faith
fully performed.
The message then touches upon Porto
Rico and Cuba, reciting the history of
the adoption of the Constitution of the
latter country.
The message contains the following ex
tract from the speech of Gov. Wood to
the constitutional convention In Havana:
"As military governor of the Island,
representing the president of the United
States, I call this convention to order.
"It will be your duty, first, to frame
and adopt, a constitution for Cuba, and
when that has been done to formulate
what In your opinion ought to be the
relations between Cuba and the United
"The constitution must be adequate to
secure a stable, orderly and free govern
"When you have formulated the rela
tions which in your opinion ought to ex
ist between Cuba and the United States
the government of the United States will
doubtless take such action on Its part as
shall lead to a final and authoritative
agreement between the people of the two
countries to the promotion of their com
mon interests.
"All friends of Cuba will follow your
deliberations with the deepest Interest,
earnestly desiring that you shall reach
just conclusion, and that by the dignity,
Individual self-restraint, and wise con
servatism which shall characterize your
proceedings the capacity of the Cuban
people for representative government
may be signally illustrated.
"The fundamental distinction between
true representative government and dic
tatorship Is that In the former every rep
resentative of people, in whatever office,
confines himself strictly within the lim
its of his defined powers. Without such
restraint there can be no free constitu
tional government. Under the order pur
suant to which you have been elected and
convened you have, no duty and no au
thority to take part in the present gov
ernment of the island. Your powers are
strictly limited by the terms of that or
When the convention concludes its la
bor I will transmit to the congress the
constitution as framed by the convention
for its consideration and for such action
as it may deem advisable.
I renew the recommendation made in
my special message of Feb. 10, 1S99, as to
the necessity for cable communication
between the United States and Hawaii,
with extension to Manila. Since then
circumstances have strikingly empha
sized this need. Surveys have shown the
entire feasibility of a chain of cables
which at each stopping place shall touch
on American territory, so that the sys
tem shall be under our own complete
control. Manila, once within telegraphic
roach, connection with the systems of the
Asiatic coast would open increased and
profitable opportunities for a more direct
cable route from our shores to the Orient
than is now afforded by the transatlan
tic. continental and transasian lines. I
urge attention to tills Important matter.
nawall, Civil Service and tho Washing
ton Centennial,
Tfce present strength of the army Is 100,000
men—63,000 regulars and S5.000 volunteers. Cn
dtf the /let of Much 2, 1S99, on June 30 next
the present volunteer force will be discharg
ed and the regular army will be reduced to 2,
44T ollieors and 20,025 enlisted men.
In ISSfi a lionrd of otlicers convened by Presi
dent Cleveland adopted a comprehensive Bchenio
of coast defense fortifications, which Involved
the outlay of something over one hundred mil
lion dollars. This plant received the approval
of the congress, and since then regular appro
printloug have been made and the work of for
tification has steadily progressed.
More than $60,000,000 huve been invested In
a great number of forts and guns, with all
the complicated and scientific machinery aud
electrical appliances necessary for their use.
The proper care of this defensive machinery
requires men trained In Its use. The number
of men necessary to perform this duty alone
is ascertained by the War Department at a
minimum allowance to be IS,420. There are
fifty-eight or more military posts in the Unit
ed States other than tho coast defense fortifi
cations. The number of these posts Is being
constantly increased by the congress. Mora
than $22,000,000 have been expended In build
ing and equipment, and they can only be cared
for by the regular army. The posts now In
existence and others to be built provide for
accommodations for and if fully garrisoned
require 26,000 troops. Many of these posts
al-e along onr frontier or at important strategic
points, the occupation of which is necessary.
We have in Cuba between 6,000 and 6,000
troops. For tbe present our troops in that
^island cannot be withdrawn or materially di
minished, and certainly not until the conclu
sion of the labors of the constitutional conven
tion now in session and a government provided
by the new constitution shall have been estab
lished and its stability assured.
In Porto Rico we have reduced the garrisons
to 1,636, which Includes 806 native troops. There
Is no room for further reduction here. We
will be required t« keep a considerable force
in the Philippine Islands for some time to come.
From the best Information obtainable we shall
need there for the Immediate future from
50,000 to 60,000 men. I am sure the number
may be reduced as the Insurgents shall come
to acknowledge the authority of the United
States, of which there are assuring Indica
It must be apparent that we will reqnire an
army of about 60,000, and that during present
conditions in Cuba and the Philippines the
President should have authority to increase
the force to the present number of 100,000. In
cluded in this number anthorlty should be
given to raise native troops In tbe Philip
pines up to 15,000, which tbe' Taft commission
believes will be more effective in detecting
and suppressing guerrillas, assassins and la
drones than our own soldiers. The full discus
sion of this subject by the Secretary of War
in his annual report is* called to yonr earnest
I renew the recommendations made In my
last annual message that the congress provide
a special medal of honor for the volunteers,
regulars, sailors, arid marines on duty in the
PMlipplnes who voluntarily remained In the
service after their terms of enlistment had
I favor the recommendation of tbe Secretary
of War for the detail-' of otlicers from the
line of the army when vacancies' occur In the
adjntant general's department, inspector gen
eral's department, quartermaster general's de
'.mrtmont, subsistence department, pay depart
ment, ordnance department, and signal corps.
Tbe army cannot be too highly commended
for Its faithful and effective service in acMve
military operations In the field and the difficult
work of civil administration.
The continued and rapid growth of the'pos
tal service is a sure index of the groat and
increasing business activity of the country, its
most striking new development is the exten
sion of rural free delivery. This bos come
almost wholly within the last year. At tbe
beginning of the fiscal year 1899-1900 the nnm
ber of routes In operation- was pnly 391, and
most of these had been running less than twelve
months. On the 15 th of November, 1900, tbe
number had Increased to 2.614, reaching Into
forty-four states and territories and serving
a population of 1,801,624. The number of ap
plications now pending and awaiting action
nearly equals all those granted up to the pres
ent time, and by the close of th* current fiscal
year about 4,000 routes will bare been estab
lished, providing for tbe dally delivery of malls
at the scattered homes of about 3,600 of rural
This serried ameliorates tie Isolation of farm
life, oondnceil to good roadl and quickens anil
extends the dissemination djf general informs-
E*pe(ence thus far litis tendod to allay
km that If wtfuld b« so sq—-
sire as to forbid its general adoption er mats
It serious Harden. Its nctnal miplicatlon has
shown that It lncrenstn postal receipts and can
be accompanied by reductions in other branches
of the service, so that the augmented rev
enues and the accomplished savings tsgetber
materially reduce the net cost. Tho evidences
which point to these conclusions are presented
in detail In tbe annual report ot the post
master general, which, with its recommenda
tions, is recommended to the. consideration o^
the congress. The full development of this spo.
cial scrvlce, however, requires such a large out
lay of money that It should -be undertaken only
after a careful study atid thorough understand
ing of nil that It Involves.
Very efficient service has been rendered by
the navy in connection with the insurrection
in the Philippines and tbe recent disturbance
in China. A very satisfactory settlement has
been made of the long-pending question of tho
•manufacture of armor plato. A reasonable
price bus been secured and the necessity for a
government armor plant avoided.
I approvo of the recommendations of the
Secretary of tho Navy for new' vessels and
for additional oSiccrs and men which the re
quired increase ot the navy makes necessary.
I commend to the favorable action of -the con
gress the measure now pending for the erection
of a statue to the memory of the late Admiral
David I. Porter. 1 commend also the estab
lishment of a national naval reserve and of tho
grade ot vice admiral. Provision should be
made, as recommended by the secretary, for
suitable rewards for spcclal merit. Many of
ficers who rendered the most distinguished ser
vice during the recent wur with Spain have re
ceived In return no recognition from tbe con
The total area of public lands as given by
tho Secretary of the Interior is approximately
$81,062 acres, of which 917,935,880 acres
are undisposed of and 154,745,782 acres have
been reserved for various purposes. The pub
lic land
disposed of during the year amount
to 13,453,8s?.96 acres, inclurlins RH.423.00 acres
of Indian lands, an increase of 4,371.474.80 over
the preceding year. The total receipts from
the sole of lands durlDg ihe fiscal year were
$1,379,758.10. an increase of fl.309,620.76 over the
preceding* year.
The results obtained from our fotest policy
have demonstrated its wisdom and the neces
sity in the interest of the public for its con
tinuance and increased appropriations by the
eonKress for the carrying on of the work. On
June 30, 1900, there were thirty-seven forest
reserves, created by presidential proclamations
nnilcr section 24 of tbe act of March 3, 1891,
embracing an area of 46,425.520 acrtB.
During the past year the Olympic reserve.
In the state of Washington, was reduced 265,
010 acres, leaving. Its present area at 1,923,810
acres. The Trescott reserve In Arizona was In
creased from 10,240 acres to 423.680 acres, and the
Rig Ilorn reserve, in Wyoming, was Increased
from 1,127,690 acres to 1.180,800 acres. A new
reserve, the Santa Ynez, In California, em
bracing an area of 145,000 acres, was created
during this year. On Oct. 10, 19D0, the Crow
Creel forest reserve in Wyoming, was created,
with an area of 66.320 acres.
At tlie end of the fiscal year there were on
tha pension roll 99.1,226 names, a net increase
of 2,010 over the fiscal year 1899. The number
added to the rolls during the year was 45,344.
The amount disbursed for army pensions dur
ing the year was $134,700,597.24, end for navy
pensions $3,761,633.41, a total of 5138.462,130.65,
leaving an unexpended balance of $.",,512,703.25 to
bo covered Into the treasury, which shows an
increase over the previous year's expenditure
of 5107,077.70. There were 684 nnmes added to
1 lie rolls during the year by special acls passed
at. the lirst session of the fifty-sixth congress.
Tir act of May, 1900, among other things,
provides for an extension of Income to widows
rn'siot.ed nnder said aet to $250 per annum. The
Secretary of tbe Intevlor believes that by the
operations of this act the number of persons
pensioned under it will increase and the in
creased annual payment for pensions will be
between 83,000,000 and $4,000,000. The govern
ment justly appreciates tho services of its sol
dierr. and sailors by making j»ei sion payments
Illieral beyond preeedeut for them, their wid
ows and orphans.
There were 26,540 letters patent granted. In
eluding reissues and designs, during the fiscal
year ended June 30, 1TOO 1.650 trade-marks, 653
labels and. 93 prints registered. The number ol
patents which expired was 19,985. The total
receipts for patents were $1,358,228.35. The ex
penditures were 51,247,827.58, showing a surplus
of $110,400.77.
The attention of the eoecress is railed to the
report of the Secretary -i the Interior touch
ing tho necessity for the further establishment
of seliools in the Territory of Alaska and fa
vorable action is invited fhereoa.
TLe progress and population of Hawaii la
tl]*» next suhjoct touched upon nnrt then tho
messnge takes \ip the dopuvtuitut of ngrienlturo
as followa:
The DepnrtraPQt of Agrtrnlture lias been ex
tomlins its work during the past tear, reaching
farther for Dew varieties of seeds and plants
cn-operntintf more fully with the sfcntcs an«J
tunilories in research along useful lines, mak
ing progress in ineteoreloglcul worli rotating to
linos of wireless telegraphy and forecasts for
ocean-going vessels continuing Inquiry as to
animal disease looking into the extent and
character of food adulteration outlining plans
for the eare, presprratlou and intelligent har
vesting of our woodlands studying soils thiit
producers may cultivate with better knowledge
of eonditlons, ami helping to clothe desert
places with grasses suitable to our arid re
gion*. Our island possessions are being con
sidered that their peoples may be helped to pro*
•luce the tropical products now so extensively
brought into the United States. Inquiry into
methods of improving onr toads lias been active
during tho year help has been given to many
localities, and scientific investigation of mate
rial in the state# and territories. bus been In
augurated. Irrigstion problems In our semi
trie) regions aro receiving careful nnd Increased
An extensive exhibit at I'aris of the prod
ucts of agriculture I.as made the peoples of
many countries more familiar with the varied
products of our fields and their comparative
excellence. Tho collection of statistics regard
ing our crops is being improved, and sources
of information are being enlarged, to the end
that producers may have the earliest advices
regarding crop conditions. Tbeio has never
been a time when those for whom it was es
tablished have shown more appreciation of tbe
services of the department.
In my anuual message of Dec. 5, 1S9S. I call
ed attention to tbe necessity for eotne amend
ment of the alien contract law. There still
remain important features of tbe rightful appli
cation of tbe eight-hour law for the benefit
of labor, and of tbe principle of arbitration, and
1 again commend those subjects to the carefnl
attention of tho congress. ,.?
That there way be secured the be.st service
possible in the Philippine Islands, I have
tabued, tinder date of Nov. 10, 1900, the follow
ing order:
"The United States civil service commission
Is directed to render such assistance as may
practicable to the civil service board, created
under the act of the United States Philippine
commission, for the establishment and main
tenance of an honest and cilicient civil service
in tbe Philippine Islands, aud for that purpose
to conduct examinations for the civil service of
the Philippine Islands, upon the request of the
civil service board of Bald islands, under such
regulations as may be agreed upon by the said
bonrd and the said United States civil service
The civil service commission is greatly em*
barrassed In its work for want of an adeqnate
permanent force for clerical and other assist
ance. Its needs are fully set forth In ItB re
port. I invite attention to the report, and es
pecially urge upon tbe congress that this im
portant bureau of the public service, which
passes upon tbe qnallfications and character of
bo large a number of the officers and employes
of the government, should be supported by all
needed appropriations to bccuto promptness and
The transfer of the government to this city
id a fact of great historfctfl interest. Among th«
people there la a feeling of genuine pride in the
capital of the republic. It is a matter of In
terest in this connection that in 1800 the popu
lation of the District of Coluu\bia was 14,093
to-day It is 278,718. The population of tbe City
of Washington was then 2,210 to-day It Is
The congress having provided for "an appro
priate national celebration of tbe centennial
anniversary of the establishment, of the seat of
government in the District of Columbia." the
committees authorized by it have prepared a
programme for the 12th of December, 1900, which
date has been selected as the anniversary day.
Deep interest has been shown in the arrange
ments {or the celebration by the members of
the committees of the senate and house of rep
resentatives, the committee of governors ap
pointed by the President and the committees ap
pointed by the cttizens and Inhabitants of the
District of Columbia generally. The programme,
la addition to a reception and other exercises
at the executive mansion, provides commemora
tive exercises to be held Jointly by the senate
and house of representatives In the evening at
the Corcoran Gallery of Art In honor of the
governors of tbe states and territories.
In onr great prosperity we must guard against
tho danger it invites, of extravagance in gov
ernment expenditures and appropriations, and
tbe chosen representatives of the people will, I
doubt not, furnish an example In their legisla
tion ot that wise economy which in a season
of plenty husbands for the future. Id this era
of great business activity and opportunity cau
tion is not untimely. It will not abate, but
strengthen confidence. It will not retard, but
promote legitimate industrial and commercial
expansion. Onr growing power brings with it
temptations and perils requiring constant rigi
lance to avoid. It must not be used to invite
conflicts, nor for oppression, but for the more
effective maintenance of those principles, of
equality hod justice upon which our institu
tions and happiness depend. Ut us keep al
wuyg in mind that ttub foundation of onr govern*
ment la .Ubertr Its Mpeotrocture peace.
tattoo, f, IWO.
A man usually laughs .when he to
amused a woman usually laugh*
when she thinks other' people think
she ought to laugh.
'The Chinese Almanae
Predicts the weather, and not«« the
days which are considered lucky or
otherwise ior comnuMicittg any ub- X,
dertaking-, or for applying remedies
to diseases. A laclcy day,,is_not nec
cssary wheil Hostetter's Stomach Bit
ters is taken for constipation, indi-2
gestion, dyspepsia, biliousness, liver
or kidney troubles. It will cure all
these disorders. 4
Wfe usually do not hate conven
tionalities as much as we make out.
The bishop of Liverpool has res
quested girls -who are candidates for
confirmation not to wear hairpins,
as they prick hlft hands in the act
of laying on of- hands. When Dr.
Creighton, the bishop of London, was
recently asked how lie solved a simi
lar problean, he replied: "I connnn
all the boys personally, and transfer
those young porcupines to my enf
fragain, who is an old 'varsity oars
man, with the cast-iron hands ci
Sir F. Hastings Doyle, in his auto
biograpny, relates how, during the
fifties, Lord Halifax was walking
with Lord Dund&s, when the latter
suddenly began to make hideous
faces to such a degree that Lord
Halifax became seriously alarmed
and gasped out: "Shall I run for a
doctor?" Lord J)imd*s gave a per
emptory "No," as far us he was
able. When he had recovered from
his paroxysm, he said: I was only
In the agonies of trying not to sneeze.
The awful court etiquette in regard
to this matter made me really ill
many a time. Nowadays I cannot,
from long habit, really sneeze, but
the sensation that brings about the
sneezing simply agonizes me."
One Woman Who ITas Done ft Ores#
Dt-al to Fat Down This ISvlf.
Minneapolis, Minn., Dec. 3.—(Spe
cial)—When the Independent Order of
Good Templars of Minnesota wanted
a State Organizer they chose Mrs.
Laura J. Smith, of 1217 West 33d
Street, this city. The American Anti
Treat League also selected Mrs. Smith
as National Organizer. The reason Is
not far to seek. This gifted woman
has devoted her life to a battle against
Drink and Drinking Habits. Her in
fluence for good in Minnesota is and
has been very far reaching.
About two years ago however. It
seemed as if this noble woman would
have to give up her philanthropic
work. Severe pains in her back and
under her shoulder blades, made lito
a burden and work impossible. Physi
cians were consulted, and they 'pre
scribed for Kidney Disease. Three
month's treatment however, failed to
give Mrs. Smith any relief. Her hus
band was much exercised, and cast
about him for something that would
restore his good wife to health and
strength. He heard of the cures ef
fected by Dodd's Kidney Pills, and ad
vised her to try them, which she did.
She is now a well woman and says
"Two weeks after I commenced tak
ing Dodd's Kidney Pills, I felt much
better, and at the end of seven weeks
was completely cured. I have had no
recurrence of the trouble, but I tak»
a pill off and on, and find that it keepa
me in good health."
Dodd's Kidney Pills are for Rale br.
all dealers at 50 cents a box.
They are easily within the reach of
all, and no woman can afford to suf
fer, when such a simple, and sure
Remedy is at hand.
Those who don't impose, on you,
find fault with you. J",
Rest for tho Itotreh,
No'matter what nils you, headache
to a cancer, you will never get well
until your bowels are put right.
CASCAiiETS help nature, cure yon
•without a gripe or pain, produce easy
natural movements, cost you just 10
cents to start getting your h«alt)
back. CASCAREI'S Candy Cathartic,
the genuine, put up in metal boxes,
every tablet has C. C. C. stamped on
it. Beware of -mitai.ions.
Pleasure that is shared is pleasure
Save Money, Time urnl Labor
By using Map's City Self Washing Soap.
Your grocer sells it.
Love and Constancy are truly a
well mated couple.
Take Laxative Bbomo QuinineTablets. ABI
druggists refund tbe money if 11 fnils to outo.|
E. W. Grove's signature is on tbe bos. 26o.
After a man has been married to
a woman twenty years, he still thinka
he is fooling lier.
3.000,000 acres new lanrts to opeu to settlement
Subscribe for THK KIOWA CHIEF, devoted to In*
formation about these lands. Oue year, $1.00. Single
copy, 10c. Subscribers roooive free illustrated bookj I
on Oklahoma. Morgan's Manual (219 pave Settlerrf
Guide) with fine sectional map, $1.00. Map Soa All) 1
above, $1.76. Address IMck T. Morgan, Perry, 0. Ts
Cures a Cough or Cold at once.
Conquer* Croup, Whoopin -Caugb, Bronchitis,
Grippe and Consumption. Quick, sure results.
Dr. Bull's Pills
cure Constipation. SOpMs 10c.
It Caret Coldt, Coughs. Sore Throat, Croua. In
•uenza, Whooping CougS, Fronchttta Md Astraii.
A corioi.i cure (or ensrapUon in Irtt (tag—
and a aura relief in advanced s'agot. U%
once. You will too the excellent elect
taking the flnit dote. Sold ty dealers
Largo botttee 26 cents and
I kavemadea late discovery that enable* sll to
mauce the hrpnoticsleeDbln theiuselyeaiiistaatir
awaken at any aeamfftlmt 'watbertbrean atl
known diseases
and bad habit*. Anyone can Induce'
'this sleep in themselves Instantly at Bret trlal.oon
trol their dreams, read tAe minds of friends end
enemies, visit si? part of the earth, solve hanL
'•inesttonsand problems
In this sleep, and reaaemberi
'all when awake. Thla so-called Mental-Vision Le
'son will he be sent to an/one for 10c stiver, aotuallr
'enab'tng blm to Aq the above without fortherv

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