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PLEA FOB TREATR BEFORE SENATE Makes Assertion That League of Free Nations Has Become "Practical Necessity." MEANS RELIEF FROM WAR Chief Executive Refers to It as an "Indispensable Instrumentality, for the Maintenance of the New Order Set Up in World" Washington, July 10.—The senate was called Into session at 12 o'clock and prayer offered by the chaplain, Rev. Forrest J. Prettyman, who asked divine guidance for the senate and the chief executive In the work it was about to undertake. President Wilson spoke from a small rostrum erected by the desk of the reading clerk of the senate. His address was as follows: Gentlemen of the Senate: 1 The treaty of peace with Germany was signed at Versailles on the 28th of June. I avail myself of the earliest opportunity to lay the treaty before you for ratification and to inform you with regard to the work of the confer ence by which that treaty was formu lated. The treaty constitutes nothing less than a world settlement It would not be possible for me even to summarize or to construe its manifold provision in an address which must of necessity be something less than a treatise. My services and all the Information I pos sess will be at your disposal and at the disposal of your committee on foreign relations at any time, either Informally or in session, as -you may prefer and I hope tWit you will not hesitate to make use of them. I shall at this time, prior to your own study of the document, attempt only a general characterization of its scope, and purpose. Problems of Conference. In one sense, no doubt, there is no need that I should report to you what was attempted and done at Paris. You have been daily cognizant of what was going on there—of the problems with which the peace conference had to deal and of the difficulty of laying down straight lines of settlement anywhere on a field on which the old lines of In ternational relationship, and the new alike, followed so intricate a pattern and were for the most part cut so deep by historical circumstances which dominated action where it would have been best to Ignore or reverse them. The cross currents of politics and of Interest must have been evident to you. It would be presuming in me to attempt to explain the questions which arose or the many diverse elements that entered Into them. I shall attempt something less ambitious than that and more clearly suggested by my duty to report to the congress the part It seemed necessary for my colleagues and me to play as the represeqtatives of the government of the United States. That part was dictated by the role America has played in the war and by the expectations that had been created In the minds of the peoples with whom we had associated ourselves, in that great struggle. Saw Supremacy of Right Periled. The United States entered t5ie war upon a different footing from every other nation except our associates on this side the sea. We entered it, not because our material interests were directly threatened or because any spe cial treaty obligations to which we were parties had been violated, but only because we saw the supremacy, and even the validity, of right every where put in jeopardy and free /gov ernment likely to be everywhere im periled by the Intolerable aggression of a power which respected neither right nor obligation and whose very system of government flouted the rights of the citizens as against the autocratic authority of his governors. And in the settlements of the peace we have sought no special reparation for ourselves, but only the restoration of right and the assurance of liberty everywhere that the effects of the set tlement were to be felt. We entered the war as the disinterested champions of right and we interested ourselves in the terms of the peace In no other capacity United States' Timely Aid. The hopes of the nations allied against the central powers were at a very low ebb when our soldiers began to pour across the sea. There was ev erywhere amongst them, except in their stoutest spirits,.a somber fore boding of disaster. The war ended in November eight months ago, but you have only to recall what was feared In midsummer last,, only four short months before the armistice, to real ize what It was that our timely aid accomplished alike for their morale and their physical safety. The first, never-to-be-forgotten ac tion at Chateau Thierry had already taken place. Our redoubtahle soldiers and marines had already closed the gap the enemy had succeeded in open ing for cheir advance upon Parls-Uiad already turned the tide of battle back toward the frontiers of France and ljppgjp. 5 begun the rout that was to save Eu rope and the world. Thereafter the Germans were to be. always forced, back, back, were never to thrust suc cessfully forward again. And yet there was no confident hope. Anxious men and women, leading spirits of France, attended the cele bration of the Fourth of July last year in Paris out of generous courtesy— with no heart for festivity, little zest of hope. But they came away with something new at their hearts they have themselves told us so. Tells of Feeling Men Create^. The mere sight of our men—of their vigor, pf/ the confidence that sho\*ed Itself in every movement of their stal wart figures and every turn of their swinging march, in their steady com prehending eyes and easy discipline, in the indomitable air that added spirit to everything they did—made everyone who saw them that memo rable day realize that something had happened that was much more than a mere incident in the fighting, some thing very different from the mere ar rival of fresh troops. A great moral force had flung Itself into the struggle. The fine physical force of those spirited meu spoke of something more than bodily vigor. They carried the great Ideals of a free, people at their hearts and with that vision were unconquerable. Their very presence brought reassurance their fighting made victory certain. They were recognized as crusaders, and as their thousands swelled to mil lions their strength was seen to mean salvation. And they were fit men to carry such a hope and make good the assurance It forecast Finer men never went Into battle and their officers were worthy of them. Comrades in Great Cause. This is not the occasion upon which to utter a eulogy of the armies Amer ica sent to France, but perhaps, since I am speaking of their mission, I may speak also of the pride I shared with every American who saw or dealt with them there. They were the sort of men America would wislj to be repre sented by, the sort of men every Amer ican would wish to claim as fellow countrymen and comrades In a great cause. T,Jiey were ^terrible in battle, and gentle and helpful out of It, remember ing the mothers and the sisters, thfe wives and the little children at home. They were free men under arms, not forgetting their ideals of duty In the midst of tasks of violence. I proud to have had the privilege of being as sociated with them and of calling my self their leader, Duty to Quiet Fears of World! And the compulsion of what they stood for was upon us who represent ed America at the peace table. It was our duty to1 see to It that every de cision we tool* part in contributed, so far as we were able to influence it, to quiet the fears and realize the hopes of the peoples who had been living In that shadow, the nations that had come by our assistance to their free dom. It was our duty to do every thing that it was within our power to do to make the triumph of fieedom and of right a lasting triumph in the assurance of which men might every where live without fear. ,01d entanglements of every kind stood in the way—promises which gov ernments had made to one another in the days when might and right were confused and the power of the victor was without restraint. Engagements which contemplated any dispositions of territory, any extensions of sov ereignty that might seem to be- to the interest of those who had the power to insist upon them had been entered Into without" thought of what the peo ples ^concerned might wi^h or profit by and these could not always be honorably brushed aside. It was not easy to graft the new order of Ideas on the old, and some of the fruits of the grafting may, I fear, for a time be bitter. Thrust Upon Conference, Those were not tasks which the conference looked about to find and went out of Its way to perform. They were Inseparable from the settlements of peace. They were thrust upon It by circumstances which could not be overlooked. The war had created them. In all quarters of the worlds old established relationships had been disturbed or broken and affairs were at loose ends, needing to be mended or united again, but could not be made what they were before. They had to be set right by applying some uniform principle of Justice or enlightened ex pediency. And they could not be ad justed by merely prescribing In a treaty what should be done. New states were to be set up which could not hope to live through their first period of weakness without as sured support by the gre&t nations that had consented to their creation and won for them their Independence. Ill-governed colonies could not be put in the hands of governments which were to act as trustees for their peo ple, and not as their masters. If there was to be no common authority among the nations to which they were to be responsible In the execution of their trusts. Future International conventions with regard to the control of water ways, with regard to illicit traffic of many kinds, in arms or in deadly drugs, or with regard to the adjust ment of.many varying International administrative arrangements could not be assured if the treaty were to provide no permanent common Inter national agency, if its execution In such matters was to be left to the slow and uncertain processes of co operation by ordinary methods of ne gotiation. Would Forbid New Moves. If the peace conference Itself was AUDUBON COUNTY JOURNAL. to be the end of co-operative authority and common counsel among the gov ernments to which the world was look ing to enforce justice and give pledges of an enduring settlement, regions like the Sanr basin could not be put under si temporary administrative re gime which did not Involve a transfer of political sovereignty and which contemplated a final determination' of its political connections by popular vote to be taken at a distant date no free city like Danzig could be cre ated which was un^gr elaborate Inter national guaranties to accept excep tional obligations with regard to the use of its port and exceptional rela tions with a state of which it was not to form a part properly safeguarded plebiscites could not be provided foi\ where populations were at some fu ture date to make choice what sover eignty they would live under no cer tain and uniform Method of arbitra tion could be secured for the settle ment of anticipated difficulties of final decision, with regard to many matters dealt with in the treaty Itself .the long-continued supervision of the task of reparation which Germany was to undertake to complete within the next generation might entirely breakdown the reconsideration and revision of ad ministrative arrangenvents and restric tions which the treaty prescribed, but which it was recognized might not prove of lasting advantage or entirely fair if too long enforced, would be Im practicable. A league of free nations had became a practical necessity. Examine the treaty of peace, and yon will find that everywhere throughout' Its manifold provisions its framers have felt obliged to turn to the League of Nations as an Indispensable Instrumentality for the maintenance of the new order it has been their purpose to set up in the world, the world of .civilized men. That there should be a League of Nations to steady the counsels and maintain the peaceful understanding of the world, to make, not treaties alone, but the accepted principles of International law as well, the actual rule of conduct among the govern ments of the world, has been one of the agreements accepted from the first as the basis of peace with the central powers. War Statesmen Agreed. The*statesmen of all the belligerent countries were agreed that such a league must be created to sustain the settlements that were to be effected. But at first I think there was a feel ing among some of them that, while It must be attempted, the formation of such a league was perhaps a counsel of perfection which practical men, long experience in the world of affairs, must agree to very cautiously and With many misgivings. It was only as the difficult work of arranging an all but universal adjust ment. of the world's affairs advanced froib day to day, from one stage of conference to another, that it became evident to them that whait they were seeking would be little more than something written upon paper, to be interpreted and applied by such meth ods as the chances of politics might make available, If they did not provide a means of common counsel which all were obliged to accept, a common au thority whose decisions would be rec ognized as decisions which all must respect. Skeptical Turn to League. And so the most practical, the most skeptical among them turned more and more to the league as the author ity through which international action was to be secured, the authority with: out which, as they had come to see it, it would be difficult to give assured effect to this treaty or to any other in ternational understanding upon which they were to depend for the mainte nance of peace. The most practical of the con ferees were at last the most ready to refer to tHe league of nations the superintendence of all Interests which did not admit of Immediate determination of all administrative problems which were to require a continuing oversight What bad seemed a counsel of perfection had come to seem a plain counsel of neces sity. The league of nations was the practical statesman's hope of success in many of the most difficult things he was attempting. And It had validated Itself in the thought of every member of the con ference as something much bigger, much greater every way than a mere instrument for carrying out the pro visions of a particular treaty. It was universally recognized that all the peoples of the world demanded of the conference that It should create such a continuing concert of free nations as would make wars of aggression and spoliation, such as this that has Just ended, forever impossible. A cry had gone out from every borne in every stricken, land from which sons and brothers and fathers had gone forth to the great sacrifice that such sacrifice should never again be exacted. It was manifest why it "had been exuded. It had beep exacted because one nation desired dominion and other nations had known no means of de fpqse except armaments and alliances. Old Policy Meant Force. War had lain at the heart of every arrangement of Europe—of every arrangement of the world—that pre ceded the war. Restive peoples had been told that fleets aifd armies, which they toiled to sustain, meant peace and they now know that they had been lied to that fleets and armies had been maintained to promote national ambitions and meant war. They knew that no old policy meant anything else but force, force—always force. Ant! they kne* that it was intolerable S •.••V Unreliability of custom thrashers, labor complications which often arise when two outfits reach a neighborhood the same day, the expense pf custom thrashing, the careless and extrava gant work of some hired machines, and similar factors have caused grain growers in the corn belt to organize co-operative thrashing rings for the purchase, maintenance and efficient operation of thrashing machinery. Benefits of the thrashing ring are shown in an instance repprted by the United States department of agricul ture. One large thrashing ring which has been particularly successful and which has met all expenses and paid for itself in four years out of the mon ey ordinarily paid by the members for custom thrashing is the Up-to-Date Thrashing company of Livingston county, Illinois, which is composed of ten members who own 15 farms. The partnership capital originally totaled $3,275, and the equipment included a 20-horsepower steam engine, a water tank, a separator, with a 34-inch cy linder, a corn sheller and a second hand silage cutter, which has been re placed by anew one. The total thrash ing. force usually employed In this ring for field work consists of ten men with teams to haul bundles five ..pitchers in the field three men with teams to haul the thrashed grain two men to help unload the grain at the barn one man on the stack one man to operate the stacker one man to clean up about the machinery one water boy and three men with the thrashing outfit. This involves a force of 27 men. A ring of this size demands capable management to insure suc cess. On Smaller Scale. A smaller thrashing ring, organized last year in Fayette county, Ohio, con sists of three landowners, whose part nership capital consists of $1,000, which represents the cost of a small 22-inch separator, with a clover-seed attachment, the power being furnished by a 12-24 farm tractor. These farms, aggregate 400 acres of small grain, a tittle outside thrashing for hire being done each year. Last year 2,800 bush els of oats, 9,000 bushels of wheat and 100 bushels of clover seed were thrashed. The ordinary crew was made up of five men, with teams and wagons to haul bundles two men, with 125-bushel wagon beds to haul grain three miles one man to manage the outfit, and a boy to hplp. Bundle wagons were used to replace two or three field pitchers, while the u.se of a gas engine also dispenses with the water, boy. The engineer has time to help considerably about the separator. With this small force this outfit was able to thrash and deliver to the ele vator, three miles distant an average of approximately 750 bushels of wheat a day. During the last two or three years the number of thrashing outfits sold to DEHORNING IS NOT PAINFUL Shrinkage in Yield of Milk Following Operation Is Very Temporary and Insignificant^ (prepared by the United States Depart ment of Agriculture.) Inquiries are frequently received as to whether the operation of dehorn ing is very painful, and whether It may not be classed as cruelty to ani mals. Those who have an extensive experience In dehorning appear to agree that the pain induced by the op eration has been greatly overestimat ed, as careful observation has shown that shrinkage In the yield of milk as well as of butterfat following the de horning of cows is very temporary and insignificant. On the other hand, the worry, pain and cruelty often Inflicted by cattle upon their mates before be ing deprived of their horns is much more to be considered, and not infre quently results in the death of a val uable animal. A neighbor on an ad joining farm to that owned by the writer a few years ago lost two good milch cows in one winter through their iff. Sfe GRAIN GROWERS ORGANIZE CO-OPERATIVE THRASHING RINGS FOR EFFICIENT WORK Teamwork Helps at Thrashing Time. FEW MORE RECIPES. Sweet Salad.—Mince uSe bantfna, one orange, 12 marshmallows and one apple. Add a can of shredded pineap ple, one-half pound of walnut meats cut In bl^s and mix with three table spoonfuls of a mild salad dressing. Just before serving add a cupful of whipped and sweetened cream. Madison Salad.—Sprinkle slices of orange with chopped pickles, peanuts and a few peas. Serve with a boiled dressing. •. A- farm organizations has greatly In creased, and the tendency at present Is toward the formation of smaller co operative units and the purchase of small outfits. This comes from the ne* cesslty for more economical use of labor and the advent of the farm trac tor, the power of which c«n be well utilized to run a small thrasher, which, complete with a wind stacker, Self-feeder and weigher, costs about $1,200. Most of the farmers' clubs are small/so that all members may get their thrashing finished in about fif teen days. All thrashing is completed in seasonable time, so that the grain may be saved to best advantage. There are two general methods of ring co-operation, the most copimon in volving the hiring of a thrashing out fit, the other its purchase. Thrashing rings are beneficial inas much as the thrashing calendar In a neighborhood may be so arranged that the work can be carried out with the least possible loss of time In moving from farm to farm. As a job nears completion the first men through, knowing their assignments in the next place, may go there immediately and have the grain ready to thrash by the time the outfit arrives and is set up. No time is lost either in contracting for an outfit or in securing a thrash ing crew. Certain men may be used to best advantage by assigning them to one kind of work for the season. Unless the weather man prevents thrashing continues until all the jobs are completed in the circle, and thus, little extra work is required in shift ing wagon boxes or hay loaders. Usu ally the thrashing season Is greatly shortened and this favors the timely completion of the subsequent fall work, such as plowing, seeding, dis tributing manure, and so on. The thrashing ring reduces the work of the housewife, as there are less men to feed during the harvest season. When a ring buys all the machinery new—separator, power, clover huller, and possibly a grain sheller or a si lage cutter—and builds a shed to house the implements, the total capital under prewar prices required' usually amounts to $3,000 or $4,000. When-it is possible for the company to hire a good engine or' some other part of the equipment, it may not be advisable to buy. Thrashing for the various members of the ring Is performed on a business basis, an average day's work being re garded as 2,000 bushels of oats, or about 1,000 bushels of wheat or rye. Record is kept of the time put in by each laborer and the costs of the work are distributed among the members on the basis of the amount of grain thrashed. Farmers interested in the organization and promotion of thrash ing rings may obtain copies of the pub lication describing them by writing to the United States department of agri culture. Washington, D. C. being disemboweled by the horns of barnyard mates while out for exercise. He dehorned his entire herd almost Im mediately afterward. The increased safety of the animals much more than compensates for any loss of beauty re suiting from the removal of horns. Few Well-Chosen Crops. A few crops well chosen and proper ly cultivated are preferable to a mis cellaneous asortment—no one of which will supply enough vegetables to make a full serving for the entire family. 5 Make Use of Back Yard. What Is a back yard good for? It ma? be made to suply the average fam ily with fresh vegetables through the growing season. Ward Off Damages of Grubs. $ A short crop rotation with clovei is the best means of warding off th« damages of white grubs and wire worms. One of the best things about the garden is that it offers work suited to each member of the family. W\* if u. Combination Salad.—Add a half cup ful of diced apple to three eupfuls of shaved cabbage, one-fourth of a cupful of diced- celery and a cup of grated pineapple. Mix with boiled dressing and serve In lettuce nests. Savory Potatoes.—Peel and cook in boiling salted water enough potatoes for the meal. When done, drain and place in a buttered baking dish, cover with a pint of chicken soup stock, put a piece of butter on each potato and bake until they have absorbed the stock. Serve hot from the baking dish. .,-... .a. ,,„ "V MFBQVED ONlFOUf INTERNATIONAL SDMFSOKE LESSON (By REV. P. B. FTTZWATER, D. D., Teaoher of English Bible In the Moody Bible Institute of Chicago.) (Copyright. 1»19, Western Newspaper Union) LESSON FOR JULY 20 THE LORD'S SUPPER. LESSON TEXTS.—Mat 26:26-30: I Cor. 1:23-84.. GOLDEN TEXT—For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show the Lord's death till he come.—I Cor. 11:16. 11 ADDITIONAL MATERIAL—Mark 14:22 Luke 22:14-20 1 COT. 10:14-21. PRIMARY TOPIC—Remembering Jesus (Luke 22:19). JUNIOR TOPIC—The Lord's Supper re minds us of Jesus. INTERMEDIATE TOPIC-The meaning ef the Lord's Supped SENIOR AND ADULT TOPIC-Com munton with Christ and with one another. I. The Institution of the Lord's Sup per (Matt 26:26 1 Cor. 11:23). 1. Time: It was on the night of the betrayal of Jesus, just after the be trayer had been announced. 2. The circumstances: In connection with the eating of the Passover. At the command of Jesus the disciples made ready the Passover, and while they were eating, Jesus took bread, blessed it and gave it to the disciples. 8. Elements: (1) The bread. This doubtless was the common bread of the Passover feast. (2) The cup. This cup consisted of the fruit of the Tine. II. The Significance of the Lord's 8upper (Matt 26:20-28 I Co. 11:24 28). Jesus took natural and literal ele ments and made th&m to be symbols of kis own body and blood. Just as our bread and drink are assimilated into brain and brawn, becoming an integral part of our body, so by means of these symbols the communicant partakes of Christ He becomes a part of us and we are In him. It is both a memorial and a prophecy. 1. A memorial of the Lord (Luke 22:10). When he went away he left the bread and the cup for the disciples by which to remember him. Those who love him will desire to keep sa cred this memorial. 2. To show tHe' Lord's sacrificial death (I Cor. 11:26). He did not die as a hero or as an example of unself ish devotion, but as a substitutionary ransom. On the crops he made expi ation for our sins. 8. It is a guaranty that our sins are forgiven (Rom. 4:25).. When the be liever partakes of these elements his faith is confirmed. "It is a signet of the Son of God attached to redemp tion." 4. Through them the believer re ceived Christ (I Cor. 10:16). He there by participates In the body and blood of Christ, becoming a member of his body. ChriBt llveth in the believer (Gal. 2:26). The Holy Spirit com municates the life of Christ to believ ers, making them one body, joined to gether (Eph. 4:16). This union is Il lustrated by the figure of the human organism (I Cor. 12:12-27) the vine and branches (John 15 :l-8) the hus band and wife (Eph. 5:25, 26) we are one bread and one body (I Cor. 10:17). 6. A forward look to a completed re demption (I Cor. 10:26). When faith Is exercised In Christ, redemption be gins, and Its completion will take place at the coming of Jesus Christ (I Thess. 4:16,17). The bread and the cup con stitute the keepsake of the Lord until he returns. These elements possess an immense psychological value b^*b as a memorial and a prospect. III. Qualifications for Participation In the Lord's Supper (I Cor. 11:27-34). 1. A proper apprehension of its meaning (v. 27), Eating and drinking "unworthily" does not refer to the de merit of the coinmunicant but to the failure of the communicant to grasp its meaning and importance. There fore, to thoughtlessly engage In this service Is to do It "unworthily." Only a regenerated person can discern the Lord's body (v. 29, cf. 2:14). Faith In the integrity of Christ's person and work Is essential. Anyone who does not believe In the absolute deity of Christ and his vicarious atonement is an unworthy communicant 2. Church membership (I Cor. 11: 18-22). The Lord's body Is the church which Is composed of regenerated men and women, united to Jesus Christ as head and to each other as members of that body by the Holy Spirit. 3. Orderly walk. The disorderly should be debarred from the Lord's table, examples of which are the fol lowing: (1) Immoral conduct (I Cor. 5:1-13). It Is perilous to the individ ual who is guilty of Immorality to ap proach the Lord's table (v. 30). Sick ness and death are oftentimes visited upon such. This explains why some 'are mysteriously taken away In death. (2) Heresy (Titus 3:10 John 4:2, 3). (3) Schismatics, (Rom. 16:17). Those who are causing divisions In the church should be debarred. Would You? Would you remain always young, and would you carry all the joy and buoyancy of youth into your gaaturer years? Then have care concerning but one thing—how you live in thought world.—Ralph Waldo \. 1 Hi Right at the Center. Our habitual thoughts and actions determine our characters and they are made moment by moment. If at the center we are stayed on God the circumstances must be right.— Samuel Fallows. your Trine, .' IPS'