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PREVENT HORNS ON CALVES Either Caustic Soda or Caustic Potash Without Other Substances Is Satisfactory.. (Prepared by the United States Depart „i• ment of. Agriculture.) "When circumstances are favorable, as in the case of farmers who build up their herds by raising the progeny, the horns may be prevented from growing by a* simple and practically painless method, and the custom of preventing the growth of the horns is becoming more popular and more gen erally practiced under all conditions rcept in the case of calves dropped bn the open range. The calf should be treated not later than one week af ter its birth, preferably when it is pom three to five days old. The agent be used may be. either caustic soda caustic potash, both of which may procured in the drug stores in the jinn of sticks about the thickness of ordinary lead pencil and 5 inches ag. These caustics must'be handled care, as they dissolve the cuticle may make the hands or fingers The preparation of the calf con In first clipping the hair from the s, washing clean with soap and, 1 water, and thoroughly drying a cloth or towel. The stick of gjtic should be wrapped in a piece Eiper to protect the hands and fin leaving one end of the stick lin gered. lolsten the uncovered end slightly ob It on the horn buttons or little Sta which may be felt on the calf's 1, first on one and then the other, Ornately, two or three times on |i, allowing the caustic to dry after application. Be very careful to ly the caustic to the horn button If llf is brought in contact with surrounding skin it will cause pain, very careful also not to have too moisture/on the stick of caustic, (pit will remove the skin if allowed in down over the face. After treat-' Sit, keep the calf protected from a, as water on the head after thf plication of caustic will cause it to down over the face. This must (carefully avoided. |Elther caustic soda or caustic pot alone, without the admixture of Her substances, answers the purpose |«tfsfactorily. Some years ago, how rer, certain preparations or "dehorn- Jjg compounds," composed largely of ne or the other of these caustics, fere generally used, and as inquiries re still occasionally received concern ag such preparations, the following Formula is given: Combine in ax Imulsion 50 per cent of caustic soda, iustom of Preventing Growth of Horns Is Becoming More Popular. per cent of kerosene, and 25 per lent' of water. The caustic soda Is solved in the water and heated to lie boiling point, then removed from be fire, and the kerosene added grad slly, while the mixture is vigorously jjrred. This emulsion Is applied in much the same manner as the |ck caustic, except that It is neces to employ a short, stiff brush, iietimes a meat skewer is used, the lige end being mashed to form a bby brush. Two or three appllca ds should be made to each horn Stton, as in the case of the stick jiqtic, w}th Intervals to allow It to Fin the very young calf the horn ntton, or point that will ultimately velop Into a horn, has scarcely any _.tachment to the skull, and may be felt as a small button embedded in _jie. skin. In this early stage it may lfe easily removed with a sharp knife ipr a pair of curved scissors, but even hen caustics should be applied to kill pany remaining cell life belonging to 'this germ point otherwise there may be some subsequent irregular horn growth, which is more or less of a disfigurement. SHIPPING SWINE IN SUMMER [Proper Care 8hould Be Taken Not to Load Too Heavily—Most Common Causi of Loss.:-v^ When shipping hogs In warm weath- Ler care should be taken not to lone1 |too heavily. Too heavy loading is one [of the most common causes of loss shipments of hogs. Iter (Prepared by the United States popart ment ot Agriculture.) Vigilante is the price not only of liberty but of successful co-operative marketing. A city co-operative market may have fine buildings and equip 'ment, but unless it is supervised by a competent manager who diligently enforces a .well-worked-Out system of operation, the enterprise will sooner or later fail. This is the rock on which practically all unsuccessful mar kets have broken, say city mar keting specialists of the United States department of agriculture. SUCCESS OF COMMUNITY MARKET DEPENDS ON SUPERVISION BY COMPETENT MANAGER If a system of municipal markets Is not so operated as to provide ,a placc where people can purchase fOod more cheaply than at other food distribut ing agencies, the system is not justi fied, the specialists believe. While it Is true that public markets are useful in that they assemble and make read ily available a large assortment of cer tain products, some of wAich might otherwise be wasted, this Is of rela tively minor Importance in determin ing the market's success. Well-oper ated markets may also benefit .prac tically all consumers by furnishing competition which will stimulate pri vate food dispensing agencies to oper ate more efficiently and to charge low er prices than they would If the com petition of the markets did not exist. But public markets cannot bring low er prices unless the cost of operation is less In them than elsewhere. This Is largely the problem of the market manager. Give Manager Unhampered Field. The first essential to a successful Inarket is a competent, well-informed and progressive manager. A man fa miliar with modern merchandising methods should be procured even if the salary asked is more than at first seems necessary. No private com mercial enterprise would think of plac ing a plant in which $100,000 or more has been, invested in charge of an in competent, poorly-paid manager. This has been done, however, by some city markets' with very unsatisfactory re sults. Such a market has never come up to expectations and the commu nity which it is intended to serve, as well as many observers, have been led rightly to question the work of the whole municipal market idea. The manager must have an unham pered field in which to work. In ad dition to having satisfactory equip ment he must make and enforce strict ly good, practical sanitary regulations governing the methods of doing busi ness on the part of the dealers in the market. To do this, he must be given almost dictatorial powers and not be obstructed by politics or other oiltside Influences. Renting Market Stalls. Most successful markets rent the stalls from month to month. By this •method, no question of a long lease will interfere -with ejecting' a dealer In case he refuses to conduct his busi ness in accordance with the market rules and regulations and in the best interests. of the market as a whole. All equipment, such as counters, racks, cold-storage boxes and, if possible, computing scales, should be owned by the city, so that no dealer will acquire property rights in the permanent fix tures in the stall. The manager should exert every ef fort to attract dealers of the best type to the market. He should re quire all occupants of stalls to keep simple, uniform records, which should be available for his examination so that he can ascertain at lebst the volume of business of each dealer, the dealer's cost of doing business and his net profits. In all his efforts to better merchan dising methods In the market, the manager should keep In mind two fun damental things: (1) To justify the existence of the market, consumers must obtain food more cheaply than It can be obtained from most private stores (2) to induce the dealers to make this cheaper food possible, they must be given a greater aggregate re turn than if they were in business merely as private storekeepers. The competent manager, if given adequate powers by the city, can accomplish both alms. One of the first regula tions should be to strip from the price of food products as completely as pos sible all charges for service normally hidden In the price. A dollar spent In the market should bring a dollar's worth of food, not, say, 85 cents' worth of food, 10 cents' worth of delivery and 5 cents'worth of credit. The ma jority of those who buy In the market oay cash and carry away their pur :hases. It Is manifestly unfair to "Farmers Line" Alonfl the Curb of an Eastern City Market. v": MERCHANDISING METHODS Modern methods of merchan dising, which have brought suc cess "to the foremost businesses of the country, should be brought to the attention of deal ers in co-operative markets by the market manager. This should be one of his particular functions, and he should be se lected largely with a. view of his knowledge of merchandising, his enthusiasm and his ability to inspire confidence in and ob tain results from the class of men who operate market stalls. The manager should get his dealers together from time to. time and talk to them on mer chandising methods. He should spend much time in the market observing operations and sug gesting improvements, and should let it be understood that he will be glad at any time to help in the solution of any problem that may arise. EC make them pay higher prices in order that someone else may take advan tage of the so-called free delivery and free credit. One of the first rules of a market, therefore, should be that dealers will not be permitted to grant credit or deliver goods at the dealers' expense. Smaller Profits. The market manager should insist to dealers in the market that the sav ings effected by them as compared with outside dealers, by reason of the lower rentals and the absence, of de livery and credit expenses, should be passed on to the consumer in lower prices. Because of decreased operat ing expenses, dealers in the market can sell at considerably reduced prices and still make the same margin of net profit as the average storekeeper. As a matter of ,fact, they can well afford to take a somewhat smaller margin of profit, since fair reduction of prices as compared with other com petitors will attract more customers and so will build up the volume of their business and Increase the rapid ity of their turnover. The result will be that the aggregate net income built from a large number of small unit profits, together with saving In waste of goods due to their rapid movement, will be greater—and often very much greater—than Incomes built by private "service" stores from larger but fewer profits which are subject to reduction from spoilage because of slow move ment of goods. CAREFULLY KILL ALL WEEDS Of Much Importance That No Noxious 7 Plant Become Large Enough to Produce Seeds. Weeds keep on coming up all through the season, and must be care fully removed, for a single weed may produce enough seed to infest the whole garden' next season. So it is important that no weeds become large enough to produce and ripen seed'. The use of stable manure Is a source of fresh infection, as this usually con tains many weed seeds. This danger may be avoided by using only well rotted manure on the garden, keeping fresh manure In a compost heap for at least six months. The seeds will be sprouted or killed by the heating of the manure. Some of the plant food is lost by composting, but it is made np by the better physical condition-of the manure. ,?J 1 POULTRY FEEDING SYSTEMS Labor Is Saved and Less' Danger of Bowel Trouble In Giving Fowls Their Feed Dry. (Prepared by the United. States Depart ment of Agriculture.) There are two systems In use for the feeding of fowls, in one of which all the feed is given dry and In the other of which one or more of the dally feetl3 consists of a moistened mash. For convenience they may be termed the "dry feed" and the "mash" systems, although in the dry feed system a dry mash is often fed. Dry feeding Is used by many where it is not convenient to make and feed, a moistened mash. The greatest advantages to be derived from the dry system are the saving of labor and the lessened danger of bowel trouble resulting from sloppy or soured mashes.. 1 AUDUBON COUNTY JOURNAL. »'MV ICE PROBLEM FOR DAIRYMEN Scrupulous Care in Production and Handling of Milk Is Necessary to Keep It Sweet. (Prepared by the United States Depart* ment of Agriculture.) Keeping milk fresh and sweet this summer is likely to be more of a prob lem than usual. Cold Is the most Im portant single factor in keeping milk sweet, and Ice is usually necessary to accomplish this. In most natural ice sections of the country, however, there Is a marked scarcity of natural ice. Heretofore, In. regions where 85 per cent of American milk has been pro duced, natural ice has been plentiful and cheap, and has been the principal means by which a perishable food product has been sent long distances to market without spoilage. As a re sult of the mild winter in many sec tions little natural Ice was harvested, and since In the North the manufac ture of artificial ice Is confined prin cipally to the larger cities, It Is doubt ful if this product would be available to milk producers even if the pric« could be made satisfactory. On account of the lack of ice, dairy men will be compelled to use scrupu lous care In the production and hand ling of milk and cream. It will be necessary to adhere more closely than ever to the three C's to caring foi milk—keeping It clean, cold, and cov ered. One of the most Important factors In reducing the bacterial, count In milk, and thus lengthen its keeping qualities, ,1s the sterilization of uten sils. Palls, strainers, separators, sur face coolers, and shipping cans must *)e cleaned and sterilized, preferably Sterilizing Dairy Utensils an Impor. tant Factor in Keeping Milk Sweet. by steam. Every farmer who can af ford it should possess a steam boiler and sterilizer. If he feels that this Is too great an expense, there are oth er sterilizers on the market, cheap but efficient, which will render milk uten sils sterile. A satisfactory home made sterilizer has been developed by the United States department of agri culture, and can be made at a cost of about $10. Complete directions for making it may be obtained by address ing the department, at Washington. Such Important factors as clean udder, milking frith clean hands, keep ing the stables clean, and the use of small-top palls will lower the bacterial count, and should be carefully observ ed by all milk producers. In cooling milk dairymen should use facilities already existing, such as cold water in wells and springs.. When milk is drawn from a cow it has a temperature of about 95 degrees F. In the North, well and spring water generally varies in temperature from 50 to 60 degrees F. By the use of surface coolers and a tank of cold run ning water, milk can quickly be cooled and held within two to four degrees of the. water, During warm weather It may be nec essary to ship or deliver milk twice a day. This would have a tendency to check spoilage, especially of eve ning milk, which is usually more than twelve hours old when shipped. Milk dealers can do. much to prevent spoil age by pasteurlzig the milk. Pasteuri zation not only kills disease bacteria but reduces count, and therefore de lays spoilage. CHECK BAD FLAVOR IN MILK VJnless Utensils Are Thoroughly Wash :f ed and Scaldejl Fine Flavor of Milk Is Overcome. Milk itself decays with age and pro duces a very offensive odor and un less the milk utensils are thoroughly washed of all traces of milk and scald ed, the fine flavor of the fresh milk and cream will be overcome with the bad flavor of the of the decayed milk, '^•JK:^'-M%'::•: ''.:\^::/P -vi -'S' '^-'^.'-- -ir .'W.wa tfSSS HOISTING DRUM ON AUTO WHEEL Addition of Small Device Makes It Possible to Use Car for Hoisting Purposes. PUT ON DIRECTLY OVER HUB Solid Piece of Oak May Be Quickly Attached or Taken Off—Heavy Loads Can Be Handled—lllu» tratlon Self-Explanatory. (In cases of emergency, the rear, or driving wheel of an automobile may be used as a drum around which the line from a hoisting tackle is wound. The power from the wheel, when turning free from the ground, is sufficient to exert great force in winding up the tackle rope. For that purpose, the drum described was designed to be at tached directly over the hub, and to the spokes of the wheel. It may be quickly put on or taken off, and is The Addition of a Small Drum to a Rear-Wheel Hub. Makes Possible the Use of a Car for Hoisting. small enough to prevent the wheel, when turning under normal speed, from being unduly strained by heavy loads. AUTO-RAILROAD CAR USED IN EGYPT The Illustration shows a gasoline engine-driven railroad car used on the light railway from the main Egyptian railway to the Khargo oasis In the desert. It* was originally built to carry troops to stop the inroads the Senusl made during the early stages of the world's war. Dimensions of Drum. A solid piece of oak, about eight Inches in diameter should be turned out in the shape of a cylinder five Inches long. For large cars th|s may be increased in size. Surmount the drum with a disk, somewhat larger, to act as a rim, and bore a hole in the opposite end of the drum just large enough to fit snugly over the hub of the wheel. Then make three arms of strap iron, large enough to reach a good way up the spokes of the wheel. Bolt these at equal distances around the circumference of the drum, setting them in flush. How Hoisting Is Done. To operate, back the car up until It is near the tackle, and jack up the wheel npon which the drum has been placed. The other wheel must be blocked so that it will not trim. Give the hauling rope a few turns about the drum, then apply the power to the wheel and at the same time pull easily npon the rope, keeping it taut on the drum. In this way heavy loads can be raised that wonld otherwise be beyond the ability of one man to handle.—L. B. Bobbins, Harwich, Mass., in Popular Mechanics Magazine. USE SPONGE ON WET TIRES Wiping Them Off and Then Carefully Drying Them Will Prevent Annoy ing Rim Rust. After driving in wet weather if the ear owner Is careful to sponge off the tires when he returns to the garage and then wipes them dry, especially along the beads, he* will do much to prevent the formation-of rust. This advice is particularly applicable dur ing the spring months of frequent and copious rains. Always Carry a Rope. One of the most useful things to carry in the car on tours is 25 feet ot half-inch manlla rope, which has almost endless uses. Necessary Adjustment. Why is an adjustment necessary? Do not make it unless it is. '-V 1 AMERICA'S LOW PERCENTAGE Only 12 Per Cent of Present Mileage Is Improved—Little Built for Heavy Traffic. The American public, though fast becoming awakened to advantages to be enjoyed by improved roads, may not realize the immense effort which must be exerted to catch up with Eu ropean nations' highway systems. When Germany entered the war in 1914, Prussia alone had 75,000 miles, of hard-surfaced highways. In Dro portlon to the size of the two coun tries, the United States would need to have 1,611,914 miles. The present road mileage in the states is 2,500,000, of which 12 per cent is Improved and only one-quarter of 1 per cent con structed for heavy traffic. GETTING RID OF ROAD TAR Must Be Attended To Promptly or Unsightly Streaks and Spots Will Be the Result. Unless washed off promptly with soap and water, road tar will quickly harden on a car, leaving unsightly streaks and spots. There are several good ways of removing It, however. One consists In the application'of but ter or oleomargarine which will soften the tar without Injuring the varnish. Another good solvent is cocoa butter, which Is used In the theatrical profes sion for removing grease paint This can be purchased at drug stores, and Is a harmless solvent of all kinds of oil and grease, as well as tar. CURE FOR SLIPPING CLUTCH When Fuller's Earth Is Not Availabto Borax May Be Used With Sat isfactory Results. When slipping develops to th»' clutch of the cone type It Is usually caused by oil on the leather facing. The usual method of curing this trou ble is to sprinkle fuller's earth on the leather, but If this powder happens not to be available borax may be used with satisfactory results, and in the absence of either the carbide dust or lime residue from an acetylene gen erator will prove a good enough sub stitute. OSSIP Every tire has embossed on the side a serial number. It Is important that the ckr owner should have a record of this number to each case and such rec ord should be made when the tire la bought A lap robe, a gunny sack, or even some old newspapers will frequently be enough to get a car out of deep sand or a mudhole If placed In front of the rear wheels to provide traction, In Inspecting the springs attention should be given to the spring hangers and other subsidiary parts. Lost mo* tlon, usually side play, often developt In the spring hangers and shackles. Motorists frequently overload their storage batteries by the use of elec trical accessories not Included in the car's regular equipment and then won der what's wrong. Many drivers do not know how to take the bumps easily. A good way is to throw out the clutch and apply the footbrake gradually. Watch the wires where they fasten to the lamps, as the motion of the caz makes them sway and may cause a break or short circuit. 4 Lack of attention to the way the rear wheels are running Is a source oi subsequent financial loss to automo blllsts. The total number of cars registered to all of the states during 1919 will probably be close to &500,000. It Is Impossible to keep the hand* clean when making repairs on the ma chine.