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The Oskaloosa herald. (Oskaloosa, Mahaska County, Iowa) 1885-1919, May 14, 1885, Image 5

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Herald Printing Oflii#WY.
Thursday and Saturday
CimkttM Haartr Thr**> Tkou«a4
May 14. 1885.
A Lecture by Prof. Erasmus Ha
worth, or Pens College.
The subject to which 1 invite your
attention this eveumg is one of vita*
importance to us all. Could we be as
sured that we would never have inform
ation concerning it forced upon us we
would gladly dismiss it from our
thoughts. But the chances are many
that in the near future we will l«e
brought into uupieasautly close rela
tions with this monster of nature, this
wonderfully potent messenger of de
struction and death.
In fortunately the citizens of Amer
ica are to-day in possession of sufficient
information concerning tornadoes to
give tbeui all the fear and dread and
mortal terror the human soul can pos
sess. without having that systemized
knowledge now accessible, which would
give them deliberate judgment and
make intelligent precaution possible.
No one need paint in strong color* the
unusually active war between the
clouds of" the western sky. the tortuous
fur it .1-shaped cloud and the writhing
serpents of the air fu* we all know too
well what such omens portend. Nei
ther is it necessary to speak of the dev
astation and death which always ac
company this agent of destruction for
by tbe destitution and suffering which
follow in the wake ot a tornado, ami
we turn with deadly pallor from con
templating tbe mangled cor|«ses that
are always to be unearthed from tbe
'lebria which marks tbe tornado's path
But this evening we will rather oc
cupy the time m a study of the charac
ters of tomad*»es: the indications which
precede them and how they seem to be
formed: the tii£»e and place off their oc
currence; the various theories offered
for their cause*: the prol*able future
of aud knowledge concerning them,
and thedifferent war* by which we may
guard against their effect*.
Before beginning this, howeier. it
would be well to consider what is
meant by the term t *ma io. The great
masse* of the people, following tbe al
most universal example of tbe press,
give the name eg ffJawt to the same at
mospheric disturbance which meteor
ologists long ago named tornado. The
word cydoue was suggested by ridding
ton. about 184*'. to name storms fre
quently occurring in the Indian ocean,
m which the wind blew over a large
area in directions varying from radial
to circular, with a spiral towards a cen
tre of low pressure greatly predomina
ting. It has sm«e been extended to the
large circular storms of the Atlantic so
common near the West Indies, and also
to the storms similar in character
which so frequently cross the Ameri
can continent from sooth west to north
east Such storms not unusually are
At any one place the wind appeals to
be a straight wind, may van
from a gentle breeze to a gale of suf
ficient strength to destroy ienees and
overturu light buildings. By mapping
such storms and marking the direction
of the wiud in different places its gen
eral cyclonic character may readily i*e
The word tnnuvl j is from the old
Spanish word t«ma»lt, a nouu derived
from the verb tomar, which means "to
retortt,” and was first applied to th«*se
local bat extremely violent storms
which frequent the equatorial seas, be
tween the trades west of Africa. It
was introduced into English by tted
field and Espy, who gave such a won
derful impulse to our study of meteor
ology. It is now found in all of our
American dictionaries, hut not in the
English. It is universally used by sci
entist-* to name those storms which wc
are considerine to-night. Why the
Amer ican press should have chosen to
override the usage of scientific meu in
this instance cannot easily l«e stated
There is no propertv of the tornado
which, of itself, would make the name
cyclone objectionable: neither is there
any inherent property of the horse
which would prevent his being called
by the name of any other domesticated
animal In each ca-e the two objects,
entirely distinct but similar in some re
spects.'should be given separate names
for convenience. We have each of the
two storms in America, the cyclone be
ing much the
but much lees destructive to life and
property. Each demands and is receiv
ing so much attention that precision in
our termiuologry becomes imperative.
Should the press finallT triumph in their
zealous undertaking they will force the
word tornado ont of use, and some new
word will jus; as certainly be intro
duced to designate one of the two
storms: a change which is neitlier de
sirable nor necessary.
On a warm, sultry day in May or
June, when the wind ha* Men blowing
from the south for some days; wL-u
the tbegtoiometer registers from 90 to
inn degrees in the shade; when you
feel as though you could not work on
account of the oppressiveness of the
atm*»phere. when ati occasional strag
gling cirrus cloud is seen traveling with
•■onwderable speed above you. if you
will keep a sharp lookout in the west
ern half ef the sky you mop see a tor
nado at the very first |<eriod of its ex
igence. From three to six o'clock in
the afternoon cumulus clouds, or thun
«ier heads as they are usually called,
will appear in the’ west. Possibly some
of them will pas* over you, giving a
ehsracterisVc summer shower, with or
without hail or lightning The sun
may appear with the gentle rays
of spring, or the scorching heat of sum
mer. or possibly the wind may be blow
ing a cool breeze from the northwest
But keep your eye in the w#st; some
thing of interest may appear Present
ly an
appears in the southwest It may lie
of inkv blackness: it may tie of a pur
plish hue, or possibly light in color,
similar to the smoke from a burning
straw stack. Near the same time a
second cloud has appeared in the north
west. The two may correspond in
color, si re and shape, oir they may differ
in anr or all of these characters They
approach each other, quite slowly at
firct. but as the distance between them
diminishes their velocities are corres
pondingly increased, until finally they
rush upon each other like animated
object* engaged in deadly combat. They
manifest wonderful activity at first,
but in a few miotues they seem to
compromise their difference* by the
proaaction of a Hurd cloud differing in
appearance and direction of moTfoiwt
from either of the first. Its outline is
similar to an inverted cone. Its color
mar rarv from an inky blackness to a
light *m»ke. Its outline oiav tie rigid
ly maintained for some time, or it may
continually change. At times its lower
extremity will trail upon the ground,
then lifting itself in the air, it will
width and twist like a serpent.
By all means use every endeavor to
which will not vary much from riorth
e&nt- If you keep your wits ebmit you
it will be quite possible to deride
whether or not it will pass immediately
over yo«r locution. If no. a tornado
with all the term may imply is upon
rou Now it the time for action A
moment's delay may coat yon your life.
If yon have a tornado cellar by all
mean* try ita eflkiencv, and leave to
Tonr more daring neighbor the minute
dmcriptum of the funnel cloud.
tiach. in brief, la an outline of the
formation and appearance of a tornado.
But a more careful study is necessary.
When our aiffnal service first began
their investii: tioaa they had nothing
to guide them; therefore they carefully
examined everything that seemed to be
is any way connected with the torna-
roc oar purpose, however, a hasty
review of the meteorological conditions
which Immediately
the storm, a description of how H looks
and how ft art*, will be all that la ner
If we examine the eonditionaof tem
perature over our continent f w a period
ef a year or were wo find great varia-
Uona in the diaUlbntien of beak Du; >
lag the month of January Santa Fe,
Now Me*tec will have the aame tem
perature which prevalla in the valley
of the Ooinmbia rivar, in the prinHpa)
■ nilim of the titer™ Nevada monn
mtna; at Leavenworth. Kansas. Indian
spoils, Indiana; Cleveland, Ohm. Cen
tral Pennsylvania; New York CUy;
Mow ■arsdi and Maw London. Bet
daring the month of J air the ioqfrww
fh* wil/auSmt
we«t <rf the coast ranr** mountains, to
latitude 42 degrees or 41 degrees; theme*
bearing to the right it crosses both the
western mountain ranges into the great
basin and extends Boffin to the Colum
bia river, the same as in January.
From here it passes southeast to Santa
Fe. where it turns shnrplv to the north.
Passing Ilenver and f'heyenne it
reaches to the month of the
in latitude 48 degrees, whoh is twelve
degrees north of Santa Fe. The cold
beit in the rorky mountain district is
very significant and should l»e especi
ally noticed; while the very high lati
tude. to which the isotherm of 70
degrees extends, is equally important.
These lines represent the monthly
means, as determined by theobntrva
tions of theSicnalScrvice and compiled
by Lieut. A. W. tlredy in the fall of
♦ »f no less iinportaiice is the consid
eration of the lines connecting points
>f equal bar* metic pressure; or isobars,
as they are called for short. These
have little if any connection with lati
tude or Imgitude. When the atmos
phere is it its normal condition, the
greatest atmospheric pressure is be
tween the parallels of jn degrees and
& degrees latitude, on each side of the
equator. But these conditions rarely
The labors of the Signal Service have
demonstrated clearly that an area of
low barometer appears quite frequent
ly in the western part of the continent
and moves across the continent in a di
rection opposite to the motion of the
sun. Usually the movement is north
ward also, especial!v on the eastern
side of the Mississippi river. This area
.»f low barometer is spoken of as the
the center of which is called “low."
while the opposite extremes are called
“high." (renernily the major axis of
this trough extends northeast and
southwest, and is twice the length of
the minor axis: but some very irnport
mt exceptions to this rule are recorded.
So tar as is now known there is not a
single instance <*f the trough moving
»r»fA the sun. and fully nine tenths of
them move a little north of east.
The atmospheric pressure of the
centre being less than any point with
out. there will lean inward movement
of the air from all directions. The
general effect of the rotation of the
earth is to cause these inflowing cur
rents to deviate to the right: so that in
stead of following radial directions
they are changed to spirals. These re
lations are readily seen by referring to
almost any map issued by tlie Signal
The winds which come from the
south ate always warm and moist;
those from the north and the mountain
region on the west are cold and dry.
The com mingling of these two differ
ent k;nds o? air give us our rains,
snows aud hails. The m«‘i*t southern
air lias a wonderful amount of energy
stored up in it. which is lilierated when
the moisture is condensed into rain or
snow. Simply changing one pound of
water in the form of va|>or. at 100
degrees C. to the liquid at the same
tern j«erat ure lit orates enough heat to
raise 537 i*ounds of water one degree
centegrade. or one pound 537 degrees
ceiitegrade This energy which is
lilorated manifests itself as heat, in
giving us our sultry days just before a
rain, and as mechanical motion, in the
various forms of w nd storms which
accompany our rams, and also in the
the air has in the centre of the barome
tric trough. In the south-eastern
quadrant of this disturlcd area, clouds
and rains are common; in the north
western it is uru ally cold and dry.
while in the other two quadrants there
is great variableness.
All these phenomena taken together
constitute a true cyclone. It rarely is
!e<s than B*** miles wide and
long, and travels 1* silly across our con
tinent with a velocity of from 35 to
14*» miles |*er hour, w ith an average of
from 3" to 40. The storm centre of
February 18th ai*d U*th last. the •*•**-
sion of the tornadoes in the southern
-fates which were the m<*st wonderful
of any recerded in the history of man.
moved about 35 miles per hour through
out the two days. On the morning of
March 10th a low p ress ur e een tre start -
ed in the great l*asin. latitude 43
degrees and moved with a vel**citv of
fully 14*> miles per hour for eight hour*,
after which its velocity was decreased
to a little Wow the average.
This description of the character and
movements of the true cyclone is verr
important in this connection, for it is
ih*w pretty well established that there
is a quite definite relation Itetween the
cyclone and the tornado. Ibiring the
years that the Signal Service has l**en
organized there is no instance of t
tornado occurring without a well
formed cyclone Having first appeared.
They nntstly occur in the S. E. quadrant
of the cyclone, four hundred or more
miles from the centre of
In theseptemoer nurnler of the Ameri
can Jommel of science, Mr. Hazen has
a t*aper in which he gives a tabulated
view of 41 of the m*mt destructive
tornadoes which were recorded from
1872 to 19*J. so that their relation to
the centre of low pressure can readily
he seen. The aterage distance for the
41 was 453 miles, and the mean direc
tion was south. 39 degrees east. Or.e
at I>elph<«. Kansas, was but 6*> miles
distant; the second nearest was iflt*
miles away, and the third 29» miles
seven of tlie 41 were outside of the >.
E. quadrant of the cyclonic area, four
to the north and three to the west, the
greatest angular distance being 45
With a fair degree of certainty we
can now predict tnat no tornado will
occur in the northwest half of the
cyclonic area, and that very few will
occur outside of the southeast quadrant
This, perhaps, is the greatest achieve
ment. of itself, of our Signal Service in
their study of tornadoes, but it will do
no good unless we can have systematic
observations and telegraphic commu
nications over almost the whole of the
United States For, if any one indi
vidual were to consult his barometer
and were to find it falling, he could by
no mean* *ell his location with refer
ence to tne center of low pressure.
Again, the unfortunate ones who are
from four to six or eight hundred miles
southeast of “low,” are rn the moat
dangerous locality, and yet their barom
eters would show no more duct nations
than is liable to occur almost any day
from other causes. The ordinary citi
zen, then, can find but little encourage
ment for buying a Iwrometer ami plac
ing confidence in it as a tornado indi
Hut there are other indications
which rarely fail to precede a tornadic
storm. It will by no mean* do to say
that they are never present except
when tornadoes occur, for the liest of
indications fail more than a dozen times
where they succeed once. Usually the
wind blows from the south for three
days or more before there is any likeli
hood of the storm appearing. The
wind almost entirely quits blowing and
the air becomes very sultry and op
pressive. The following expressions
are taken from Finley, who compiled
them to show how different persons
would express their feelings just be
foretlw storm: "I really experienced
a sickly sensation under the influence
of the pun's rays. 9 “I was compelled
u» stop work on account of the pecu
liar exhaustion exuv- ieneed from phys
ical exerlioo." “It seemed as if the
tightest garment I could put on was a
burden to me." * There was not a
breath of air stirring." “The air at
times came in puffs as from a heated
!urnace,“ * 1 felt a want of breath, the
air frequently appearing too ratified to
breathe freely.” “ I was startled at the
sudden and continued rise in the ther
mometer, especially at this season of
the year." “In the forenoou I actu
ally wore an overcoat, but shortly after
dinner I put on my straw hat and
worked in my shirt sleeves." “It was
terribly oppressive ; it teemed as if tine
atmosphere was unusually heavy and
pressing down ou me with a great
w* rfbt . “I noticed a remarkable
change in the temperature, many of
my neighbors spoke about it and said
that there was a peculiar feeling about
the heat, something they had not be
fore experienced in years.'*
These expressions are sufficient to
show bow the atmosphere seems before
th« ordinary tornadic storm. Home
times the warm weather has passed
and the air Is decidedly chilly for hours
before the storm, but only U> excep
tional cases
The next important indication will
be the
ratjuliax au»rD*
which may be seen. The Dakota tor
nado of Aug » last, was preceded and
accompanied by almost no cloud what
ever. Hut usually a singular looking
cloud appears In the southwest* and
about ‘the same time a similar one in
the north ' The two clouds may
he la the ««thw«t and northeast, or
la the southwest and west* or even
wSlMdee 0 u? r 3?* orerejirS
nriMiu UN WniiwOv i **• iwiuwjij
iff the sahti etaod was reported Hi
142 ewea. In 137 of theee “here sud
denly appeared above the western hori
zon peculiar, dark and portentio a
clmds. which, at a certain stage of de
velopment, rushed to a common center
from points between south and west.
Thunder and lightning, connected
either with the development or the
progress of the tornado, were reported
in «26 eases. These first appearing
clouds seem to gradually approach each
other for some time and then suddenly
to rush upon each other with great
fury. They then wind and twist and
curl af«out in a very peculiar raanuer.
presenting so singular an appearance
that they never fail to attract atten
tion. In* a very few miuutes the tor
nado cloud is formed and started on its
journey. Of 234 cases reported to Fin
lev. in which the outlines of the clouds
were given. 2*<» were ailed “funnel
shaped"; 9.* :ie shaped"; 7. “inverted
funnel"; 4. inverted cone"; 3. “hour
glass shaped"; 1. “ basket shaped 1,
“two inverted cones, point to point”; 1.
"a serpent-like column"; !, “ like a bal
loon"; and 1, “dense rolling mass.
The tornado cloud has
First, a forward motion: second, a
whirling motion, as though it were
turning on a pivot: third.it occasion
ally darts from side to side of its patl
fourth, an up and down motion.
The first motion is generally f: i
southwest to northeast, sometimes di
rectly east, and more rarely south <>f
east. The cloud never moves back
wan!. The forward motion is gener
allv from 25 to 35 miles per hour, but
quite frequently it will move for a
short distance with a velocity of more
than a mile per minute. At times it
almost stops, and is described as look
ing like a large top spinning on its
point. Then it will dart forward with
sufficient velocity to fully make up for
lost time. In lDOoases reported to Fin
ley the velocity varied from 12 to AO
miles j»er hour, the average being 30.08.
The general direction is from south
west to northeast. Of 383 reported
325 moved from the southwest quad
rant to the northeast quadrant ; 43
from the northwest quadrant to the
southeast, and 15 from weet to east.
S»nietimes one will move northeast for
awhile and then either suddenly or
gradually change to east or southeast.
The distance which a single tornado
will travel has as little regularity as
anything connected with it. The one
which destroyed Oronogo. Jasper Co-
Mo., dune, originated about teu
miles southwest of the village, hut did
almost no damage until within half a
mile of the town. Here it came down
to the ground, mowed a path through
the timber west of the town, and com
pletely destroyed every building it
struck. Two hundred yards beyond it
raised and passed eight miles to just
north of Carthage, Mo. Here it touch
ed the ground for a distance of not
over a fourth of a mile and was heard
of no more. The Irving tornado,
w Inch passed through Irving, Kansas,
on May 3). 1879, traveled fully 250 miles
before it became exhausted. In 100
cases reported the leLpt*i of the track
varied from 2 to 250 miles, the average
being 28.® miles. The time consumed
in passing any one point is variously
estimated at from 3* seconds to as
manr minutes. From 50 cases Finley
concludes that nearly six minutes is a
fair average.
The second motion mentioned is the
gyratory motion. There seems to l*e
no exception to the statement that this
is from right to left, or iu a direction
opposite to the motion of the hands of
a watch. It is this motion which gives
the storm it« wonderful power. It is
at present very accurately
to estimate the velocity. The only evi
dence we can have is the work done.
Hut we do not know the working force
of wind at high velocity. It was for
merly thought that the working force
■•f running water varied as the square
•*f its velocity, hut it is now known that
this is only true for comparatively low
velocities. and that for high velocities
the working power varies as the cube,
or the fourth, or fifth, or even sixth
|v»wer. Whether this is true of air or
not we do not know, loit it probably is.
so that a movement of 30 miies per
hour would do many times the work
that world lie done by a velocity of 150
or 2»o miles. Certain it is that nothing
lias ever yet l>een constructed by man
that could withstand the tornad<K>s’
fury: the most massive brick and stone
crumble as though they weredust. The
mighty oak of the forest liends and
breaks as though it were a twig in the
hands of a mau man. Fire proof safes
are carried for rods; locomotives are
lifted from the track, and the
itself is plowed for inches or even feet
Objects are sometimes picked up and
dashed to the ground with all the vio
lence the storm can summon. At other
tunes thev are earned long distances
and gently let down, so that no Injury
whatever is done them. In his descrip
tion of the 13 tornadoes of May 29th
and 3Hh. 1879, Finley mentions numer
ous instances of horses, cattle, hogs, etc.,
iteing lifted into the air and dashed to
the around so violently that almost
every bone in them was broken. One
horse was let down so forcibly that he
made a great indentation in the prairie
sod. In another instance a cow tied to
grass on a ridge south of a stream,
along which was a narrow belt of trees,
some of them being flO feet or more
high, was seen in a corn field soon after
the storm, three-eighths of a mile to the
northwest. Examination showed a
slight print in the gro nd as though
she had l»eeii let down very gently.
There were no tracks approaching this
s|s»C but very plain tracks going from
it. When the first observer arrived on
the grounds the cow was about one
hundred rods away, completely covered
with mud, but leisurely wending her
way towards home, occasionally nip
ping the young which was grow
ing in the field.
I promised you a few moment* ago
that I would not paint in strong colors
the terrible scenes which the tornado
leaves in its path. But many of us not
only never have seen or felt a tornado,
but are so situated that
the awful fate awaiting all who are
unfortunate enough to cross one’s path.
It is a duty we owe humanity to in
form ourselves of these terrible results
so that we may be the better prepared
to ameliorate the sufferings of those
whom it leaves behind. On the 19th
of Februarv last one thousand souls
were swept into eternity. Two thous
and others were left wounded on the
E»und. An? year, any month, any
y, yea. any hour may bring to us and
to our neighbors a similar fate.
The third motion mentioned, or the
movement from side to side of its path,
is frequently observed in the tornado
( loud. It is not thought this either
adds to or detracts from the destructive
force of the storm. Its greatest incon
venience is that it makes it much more
difficult to dodge the tornado. One
standing almost in front of the storm’s
centre raav run either to the right or
to the left only to tie caught as one of
those side dashes is made. Their oc
currence is not very frequent, but it
should always be remembered that they
are liable to occur.
The fourth and last motion is the
movement up and down. It is quite
unusual for a tornado to fail to exhibit
this movement. At times the cloud
rises and remains alaive the ground for
miles, and then
as though it were specially sent to de
stroy a certain village or a particular
farm house. It is not common for one
to remain in contact with the ground
for very many mile* in succession.
Sometimes only the apex of the cone
touches, so that the path of destruction
is but a few feet wide. At other times
it sinks so low that the broadest part of
the cone is upon the ground. Occasion
ally it will p*s* for some distance just
atiove the surface, so that the wind on
the ground will b» a straight wind in
the direction of the mo.ement of the
When it is lifted into the air it some
times curls and twists In a peculiar
manner. One observer describes It as
looking like a snake held by the head
while it was writhing ill agony. An
other compared it to an elephant's
trunk that was given the various mo
tion that animal knows so well how to
control. At times it la described as
bounding along the surface like a ball,
hut always maintaining its vertical
t«*ition and its characteristic out
lines. . .
The width of the path varies from a
few feet, when only tha point of the
cone to upon the ground, to a maximum
of pywofeet, which is nearly two miles.
The avr. ige width for all yet recorded.
m given by Finley, to 10» feet, nearly
one-fifth mile. It will be readily under
stood that the width of the path for the
same etoud may vary gffMfcj
times there to a strong Tn-rushing wiaff
for two or more miles un each aideaf.
the track. At other times there to a
total absence of an/thing of this uatm -1
so that one-balf of a tree-top mavue
totally wrecked, white the other half to
by the following expressions: A “terri- 1
hie or deafening roar;" “continual
rumbling;” “terrific crash;" “the roar of
a thousand trains of ears;” etc.
Hail very frequently falls before, or
during, or after the storm. In one hun
dred and seventy-seven cases in which
the time of hail was reported, in 119
the hail preceded the tornado; in 28 it
followed, and iu 30 it accompanied it
The hait-stonea are sometimes of a
mammoth site, and are more like
chunks of ice than hall-stones. In a
number of cases some of them were
more titan 15 inches in circumference.
There is no month in the year 4or
which a tornado is not recorded. Of 57G,
the dates of which are given by Finley
in his “Character of Six Hundred Tor
nadoes," the distribution is as follows:
June. 101; July, 97; April. 98; May, 82;
September, 49; August, 42; March, 37;
November, 22; February, 19; October.
15; December, 9; January. 7.
This does not include any that have
occurred since 1881. On the 19th of last
February there were more tornadoes
than the’whole number here given for
that month. The four torn ad ic storms
of last soring, which occurred on Feb
ruary 19th, March 11th, March 25th,
anc April Ist, produced about 100 dis
tinct tornadoes, the exact number I
have not yet been able to obtain. These
alone would make a great change in t he
summary just given.
The time of day at which these storms
are most liable to occur is in the after
noon from 3to 6. No hour of the day
is entirely safe from their invasions.
We have records of 8 between 1 and 2
p. m.; 15 between 2 and 3: 27 between
3 and 4; 48 between 4 and 5; 52 between
5 and 8; 25between 8 and 7; 14 between
7 and 8; 9 l»etween 8 and 9: 8 l*etween
9 and 10; 5 lietween 10 and 11; 3 be
tween 11 and midnight; 2 between 1
and 2 a. m.; 3 betwen 2 and 3; 4 be
tween 3 and 4; 1 between 4 and 5; 21»e
tween 8 and 7: 3 between 7 and 8; 5 be
tween 11 and noon; 1 iu “the early
morning;” 2 “at noon;” 197 “sometime
during the afternoon;** 1 at “sundown;”
12 “in the evening," and 7 “at night.”
It is quite rare indeed for a
Almost all of those which occur after
night are those which originate liefore
sundown. But there can be no ques
tion al»out an occasional one being
formed after night. Their occurrence
in the morning is still more rare -so
rare, indeed, that we run no more risk
of being destroyed by a morning torna
do than we do of meeting our death by
accident while following our ordinary
The territory over which tornadoes
occur extends from the Atlantic to the
Pacific. Fiuley’s “Character of Six
Hundred Tornadoes,” as before stated,
lias no records later than 1881. The
The summaries which I am giving are
all taken from this work. The relative
distribution of territory would be
sensibly changed by those of last spring.
His summaries areas follows: Kansas,
82. Illinois,s3; Missouri,43; New York,
35; Itpnrgia, 33; lowa, 32; Ohio, 28; In
diana. 25; Minnesota, 22; North Caro
lina, 18; Pennsylvania, 18: Texas 18;
Tenness-e, 18; South Carolina, 14; Mich
igan. la; Alabama. 14; Nebraska 14;
Mississippi. 14; Louisiana, 10; Wiscon
sin, 10; Massachusetts 9; Virginia, 9;
Arkansas.B; Maryland,B; Kentucky. 6;
Connecticut,s; Florida, 5; New Hamp
shire, 5; New Jersey, 8; Maine, 3; Ari
zona, 2; Vermont, 2; Colorado, 1; Cali
fornia,!; Indian Territory. 1: Nevada,
1; New Mexico, 1; Montana. 1; Rhode
Island, 1; West Virginia, I, aud Wy
oming Territory 1.
I ha\e hail access to but little in
formation with reference to the torna
does of 1882 and 1883. In 1882. Kansas
suffered bv at least fiive or six, and in
1883 the
with from six to ten others on the same
The season just passed has !»een the
most wonderful season for tornadoes
ever known. They are wonderful for
the time of their occurrence, for the ex
tent o' country over which they passed,
and for their mortality. There are no
records in human history of wind
storm- doing halt the damage by land
that was done on the 19;liof February.
The map which 1 have al ady shown
represents the barometric t rough at 3
p. m. The check marks at the lower
right-hand corner represents the local
ity of the most destructive tornadoes.
Springfield, Mo., was the farthest north
the storm reached. .Northeastern Mis
sissippi had its portion; then Alabama,
Georgia, the two Carolilias and Vir
ginia were \isited in their turn, mak
ing a total of seven States. Ido not
know the numlter of distinct tornadoes
that were generated, but it must be
nearly fifty, it is estimated that 1,000
lives were lost, inn peisoits wounded.
10.(0>buildings blown down, more than
15,(0* persons rendered homeless, and
nearly *4.i»o.(Joof property destroyed.
Vet "this was all done by tornadoes
generated in the southeast quadrant of
a cyrlonic storm—a splendid illustra
tion of the difference between a torna
do and a cvclone.
On the llth of March a similar storm
passed over nearly the same region, hut
extended a little further north. It was
by no means so severe and its mortality
was almost nothing compared with the
former. Only live lives were lost and
fifty wounded. During the interval
between the two storms the time was
well occupied by the citizens in making
tornado cellars. A waiter remarked
that a stranger would think that the
whole country was being changed into
a mining district.
On March 25th a third storm iiassed
over the country east of the Mississippi
river south of the 40th parallel. Al
most to within an hour of the time the
ice broke up in the river at St. Paul and
jeopardized property along the bank, a
few hundred tniles to the southeast, a
thousand times more dangerous and
was doing its w ork. Early in the morn
ing of the 23d a low pressure centre
crossed the Rio Grande river at Eagle
Pass, and moved northeast through
Texas, the Indian Territory, Missouri.
Illinois, the extreme northwest of
Indiana, toward Michigan and across
the lakes into Canada, then back
through New York, Uonneticut and a
portion of Massachusetts to the coast,
from which point it went northeast
into the Atlantic, occupying 88 hours
in pacing from the Rio Grande to the
Atlantic. At 3 P. M., on the 25th, it
was in southeast Illinois, and by 11 it
had gone more than a hundred miles
into Michigan. The tornado area lay
to the southeast of this path, and ex
tended over eight states, Indiana,Ohio,
Kentucky, Tennessee, the ill fated Ala
bama and Georgia ami the two Caroli
nes. The casualities reported were, 77
killed,29B wounded and nearly a million
(P ’lars in property destroyed.
But the elements were not yet satis
fied. On the first of April a fourth
storm visited almost the same ’ocality.
This time Indiana was the greatest
sufferer, but Ohio. Mississippi, Ala
twms. Georgia and Houth Otroliua
shared the misfortunes. Tennessee and
Kentucky had very violent rain and
thunder storm*, hut no well defined
tornado; 52 persons were killed. 277
wounded and three-fourths of a million
in property were destroyed. This in
the short period of SO days, so early in
the spring that people thought torna
dloas could not appear; in a portion of
the country which was counted by no
means the most subject to their visits,
1,134 lives were lost, more than twice
the number wounded and six million
dollars of property destroyed. During
this time Kansas and Missouri and
Jiowa and Nebraska, the states that
li.id suffered so much before, were left
unmolested. There was not a severe
tornado storm in them during the
It is frequently said that
jure increasing in number and severity.
It is difficult either to prove or dis
prove such statements. There is no
question but that we know a great deal
more about them than we ever did be
fore; that we hear of a great many
more than people did 25 years ago.
Hut this may be explained without
supposing their occurrence is becoming
more frequent. Fifty years ago the
i itisens of Indiana rarely beard of the
storms of their neighboring states,
much lew thoae as far away as Georgia
and Alabama. Hut now as the indi
vidual reporters send their dispatches
to Washington Uie Signal Service tabu
lates and summarizes them and gives
the results to the associated press, so
the leading dailies all over the country
* ! ished fair accounts of the charac
ters and extent of the storm bsfors the
rural citizen immediately in Its path
has learned anything concerning It ex
cepting its local appearance. Again,
the great prairies west of the Missis
sippi river have only been settled s
short time. It to vary possible even
now for sash storms to occur In many
ctoeee without beieg seen. These con
ahtoration* would make one appear
tether bold who would assert that
toraedoss occur mors frequently now
than In past tin.a On the other band
have in Uie constancy of nature, But
!^^tp^bl«toer e p<sSoo J>

pect to hear more and more a»>out them
and to receive more and more damage
from them. The more our country is
settled and improved, the more lives
and property will be placed ic the path
of each one that does occur.
Concerning the
little can lie said that is worth hearing.
We have had two citizens who gained
great notoriety as weather prophets,
that talked as if they Arnett),the cause
of tornadoes. These gentlemen, how
ever, never revealed the secret of theii
wonderful power of divination,;'they
never told why they believed as they
did ; they were not sufficiently con
cerned for posterity to leave explicit
rules bv which we t uhl predict the
approach of a torn ail ic storm ; there
fore. whether we wish to or not, we
are compelled to pass them by. The
great circle of scientists who are in
vestigating the subject in every man
ner possible are yet far from a conclu
sion. The electrical theory, which I**-
came so popular, principaliy from the
labors of one or both of the weather
prophets liefore referred to, is now en
tirely discarded by all scientist*. Time
will not permit me to enter into details,
hut it is now fully established that
electricity must have properties entire
ly different from any it is now known
to possess in order to lie, directly or in
directly the cause. Last summer our
newspapers gave place to a note about
as follows :
“Prof. Dowlas,of Michigan State University,
it is said, produces amateur cyclones at will.
He does it hy suspending a targe copper plate
by silken cords. This plate is charged heavily
with electricity, which bangs down like a bag
under ncath. and is rendere I visible by the use
of arsen ions acid gas, which gives It a green
color. The formation is a miniature cyclone, as
*>erfect as any started in the clouds. It Is fun
el shaped and whirls around rapidly. Passing
this plate over a table, the flve-cent cyclone
snatches up copper cents, pens, plth-balfs and
other objects and scatters them on all sides.”
Such notes appeal too strongly to the
scissors of the average editor. But so
long as the reader willing wastes post
age in making inquiry about the “won
derful reptile of the Skunk river,” we
need not expect him to possess suffi
cient intelligence to see the absurdity
of the abyve. It is absurd for a num
ber of reasons : Ist. Arsenious acid is
a solid at the ordinary temperature.
To change it into a gas it must be
heated to 218 o <J. or 424 s F. 2d. It is
not green and cannot be made so. It is
the common white arsenic of com
merce. A third reason is given by the
editor of the American Meteorological
Journal, in the September number.
He is Prof. Herrington, the Professor
of Astronomy in Michigan State Uni
versity. He says: “As there is no
Prof. Douglas in the University of
Michigan, we fear the above is apocry
phal.” This custom we have of blam
ing electricity with every phenomenon
we cannot understand is too much like
superstition to be longer indulged in
by an enlightened people.
The only theory that has seemed at
all plausible to scientists is what is
usually known as
This supposes that the contact of the
warm, moist air from the south with
the cold, dry air 1 » the north and
west in some way bungs about the re
sult. Prof. Davis, of Harvard, sup
poses that the cold, north wind over
runs the warm air from the south ;
that the warm, lig .t air tending to rise
is held down by he cold, heavy air
aliove, until considerable force is ex
erted. when an opening is made and
the warm air rushes up. In this move
ment »he gyratory m* mis .-et up in
a manner similar to tiie way in which
water in a vessel will assume a circu
lar motion as it runs out through an
orifice in th bottom. The water runs
down through a hole in the vessel; the
air runs up through a hole in the layer
of henvy air above. Mr. H. A. Ha7.cn
objects to this because we have no pos
itive evidence that the cold air d<**s
over-run the warm, and also because
the tornadoes are usually so far from
the contact line i»etween the two air
currents. It is generally believed that
they are in some way connected with
the true cyclone, but in what way no
one can tell until further develop
merits are made. There is g(H*d rea
son for hoping that in the near future
we will have so thorough a knowledge
of these storms that it will he quite
j***ssible to keep out of their path. It
is not the product of a distorted ini
inagi nation to see
sitting in his easy chair at Washing
ton, with his “weather eye” on the true
eyclone as soon as it has crossed the
Rio Grande, or started from the Great
Rasin ; to see him watching its every
movement as it crosses over mountains
and valley, over desert and plain ; to
hear the click of the telegraph as he is
talkinr with his neighliors in the West,
telling them that it will pass Kansas
City in one hour. St. Eouis in ten; that
Springfield is north of the center and
therefore entirely out of danger ; that
those along the Ohio would do well to
lie on the alert, but that he will speak
to them more definitely at least an
hour liefore the storm can approach ;
to see a well constructed tornado
cellar at the residence of every
intelligent citizen in America; to
see the over courageous who fear
neither man nor the power of nature
gradually swept away by the fifty or
seventy-five tornadoes which will occur
every year, thereby illustrating the law
of the survival of the fittest; to see
every railroad train, every station, ev
ery postofflee, every wayside in with
its signal flag either for safety or dan
ger. so that tne wayfaring man though
he lie ever so ignorant cannot help
comprehend their significance; to hear
the “hello" of our neighbors within a
hundred miles talking of the predic
tions for here and of the dangers there;
to see and hear all these is not the pro
duct of an unduly active imagination,
but is that which we have a perfect
right to expect in the near future.
As liefore stated it is now established
that no tornadoes occur north of the
centre of low pressure in the true cy
clonic storm, and that very few occur
outside of the southeast quadrant. If
were multiplied by 100 or more it would
be just as possible' for the central office
of the Weather Bureau at Washington
to watch the movements of one of these
storms and know with absolute certain
ty its direction and velocity as it is for
the various station agents to watch the
movements of the train they are ex
pecting. So soon as tornadoes began
fieing generated, not only could this
office give information, but the tele
phones could do excellent strv'ce In
giving local information. We have a
i ight to expect this; we have a right to
demand it.
In the mean time how can we pro
tect ourselves from them V is the ques
tion which every thoughtful citizen is
asking. To do this two things are nec
essary: 1. To learn something of the
timejwhen they are liable to occur, and
to places over which they will pass; 2.
To provide means of dodging them, or
safe retreats into which we can enter
until they are passed.
If we can have telephonic or tele
graphic communication with a few
places to the west and southwest we
could readily hear of one several min
utes before it arrived, provided It did
not form too near us. Or, some one
could l»e appointed for each town to
stand on the
on dsys counted most dangerous. In
these prairie countries one could readi
ly be seen while ten or fifteen miles
Lieutenant Finley’s directions for
protection against these storms are so
widely puplished that it is not necessary
to repeat them here. The tornado
should be looked upon as a projectile
moving toward yon. Ho soon as you
can determine its direction, a little
judgment wilt show you which way to
run. Usually it will tie best to run to
the north and a little west. The wind
on the south side of the centre is
stronger than on the north, for the
same reason that the top of a wagon
wheel movee more rapidly than the
iNtttom. Should you he caught by the
outside winds if you are on the south,
you will be thrown into the centre of
the path and in front of the storm; if
you are on the north you will be thrown
from the storm.
By all means, provide tornado cel
lars. If It is wise to protect our build
ings from lightning by lightning rods,
to protect our property by having it in
sured, it oertainly would be wise to
have a plaoe of absolute safety from
the tornado. If half of the family
were away from home and could not
get to It; if half the remainder were so
careless that they did not reach it; if
in a hundred years it only saved the life
of one, that life would pay an Infinite
pm cent on the Investment.
Bat we ..bould not become unduly
alarmed. The average tornado Is a lit
tle leas than SO miles long and a fifth of
a mite broa.l, covering about six square
miles. lowa has an area of square
miles. It wa should reckon nine tor
nadoes a year for the Htote, which is
mors than the average, Uie probabili
ties are that any one square mile In the
Stata, taken at random* will be visited
but once in s thou* and yearn But It is
that time for which we wish to be
fegyaiml •/ ?
HIST 1 §
ElT Ac 1 tnmiiclSr «ik3 otunEftixe hlood, simii
Uwjmtlli. mad aids ttw »—milni n of load
J, T. Koesrrvß. tb« hooorwd p—tor af U»
rtm Rrndorrm-d Chart-!; HmJtomo™ V i
“H<nim amd Rmwn’« 1.-o* Bistrn for DrfM*-
mnd IndiMtiaa. I taka gramt ptaaaora ta raeocn
mradiogithichiy Alao vorntdar tta mplmodid tonic
aad mt^jrmtor l aod r«r» Wimngthaaing "
Gcnntnm baaikm trad* man aad rro—rad Haaa
rV r^Triwca£S^l'ibTßiwfe^Si
1 .Amies' Halts Boos— earful mod attract!™, con
taining Hat of prtrea for recipes. Information about
cairn*, ate . gtrao away by all lulai in —dtrint. or
mailed to aav addraat on receipt of So stamp
Notice it hereby given to nil persons interest
ed. that on the 2Uh lay of March. A D , 1886,
the undersigned waa appointed by the Circuit
C\ urt of Mahaska County. lowa. Administra
tor of the estate of <uaaa Sprague- deceased,
late of said Mahaska County, lowa Ail per
sons Indebted to said estate will make payment
to the undersigned aad those having claims
against the same will present them legally
authenticated to aald Court for allowance.
J. P. MoCbba, Administrator.
F. E. Smith. Clerk.
Dated April 85, 1886. Wiwß
Notice Is hereby given to all persons Inter
ested. that on the 28d day of March. A. D.
1886, the undersigned was appointed by the
Circuit Court of Mahaska county, lows, Ad
ministratrix of the estate of Samuel Storm, de
ceased. lata of said Mabaaka county, lowa. All
pßuena indebted to said estate will make pay
ment to the undersigned, and those having
claims tgainst the same will present them
legally suthenticaled to said court for allow
ance. ZssNgTTA Storm. Administratrix.
F. K Smitb, Clerk.
Dated April 25.1885. 36w8
State of ' ->wa. Mahaska County, ss.
To Leon r. rtale:—You are hereby notified
that there is now on file In the office of the Clerk
of the District Court of the State of lowa, In and
for Mahaska county, the petition, with inter
rogatories attached, of Clara R. Hale, claiming
of you a divorce and decree changing her name,
and unless you appear and defend thereto on or
before noon of the second day of the May Term,
A. D.. .386. of said Court, which wiU be htgun
and held in the city of Oskaloosa. in said eoun
ty. on the fourth Monday of May, 1885, your
default will be entered and Judgment and de
cree rendered as prayed for In said petition.
nßsw4 Attorney for Plaintiff.
To Robert Wilkins:—Ton are hereby notified
that on or before the Md day of Aonl, 1885, a
petition of A. J. Jewell will be filed in the of
fice of the Clerk of tbe District Court of the
State of lowa, in and for Mabaaka oounty.
claiming ol you tbe quieting of tbe title of the
fc. S 8 B 1* and B*BWI*NBI% Sec.2t.town
•h.p 75. north range 15 west, and that unless you
appear thereto and delend before noon of tbe
Second Day of tbe May Term. A. D., 1985, of
said Court, which will commence oo tbe fourth
Monday of May, 1885. default will be entered
against you and judgment and dectee rendered
thereon as prayed for in said petition.
J. F. k W. R Lacbt.
nßftw4 Attorneys for Plaintiff.
Notice Is hereby given that by virtue of special
execution, to roe directed by the Clerk of the
Circuit Court of Mabaaka county. lowa, against
tbe Woods. Chattels, Lands. Tenements. Ac . of
A A. KendigandT. B. Kendia defendants, in
favor of Farmers' A Traders’ National Rank,
plaintiff, I will offer at public sale, to 'he high
eat and best biddrr. for ra-n. at the door of the
Court House in the town of Oataloosa. in said
county of Mabaaka. and State of lowa, on tbe
7th day of June I>*s, between the hours of 9
ofelock A M., and of 4 o'clock p. M . on said <l*y.
all of said defendants right, title and interest
in and to the following dewibed real estate sit
situnted in Maba>kx oounty. to-wit:
Lot five ist in block «even (7t, original plat of
the etty of Oskaloos. lowa.
Sale in roamenr* at iho hour of i o'clock r.
M.. ui mh) tiny. H itncao n.v fa «n<l thD Ist day
ot May, ive. MAKqna Rirk,
»Tw2 Slier(f ot Mahaska county, lowa.
Jonathan McCutcheon
Moses Wa-*om *>t al.
In the District Court ot the state of lowa, In
aud lor Mahaska county. May
Term, A. D .
To Moses Waesom, Mary Shney. Sanford Q
Spain, Rim Joy. Nora Dun woody. Mrs.
Hunter. Theodrlck X. Cantrll, Martin
Hickman. Oreille W halt op. Wm.
Holycross and James MoAuley :
You are hereby n'difled that a petition. In
equity, of Jonathan McCutcheou is now on flle
in, the office of ihe clerk of the liistrfcd Court
of, the State of lowa. In and for Msh .-ka coun
tye aeklrur that Ihe title in fee simple in and to
the following describe*! land, situated in Ma
bask a county, lowa. to-w!t:
The 8 W quarter (I 4) of the S E quarter (U) of
Sec. IS, towuship 77, north range 17 W of Sth P.
M.. be quieted in bim: that you he declared and
decreed to bare no right. t:tle or interest there
in, and that ail clouds upon and defects in said
title b< removed, and that unless you appear
thereto and defend liefore noon ot the Seootvl
Day of t he May Term. A. D.. 1885, of said Court,
which will commence on the 4th Monday of May,
1888. default will be entered against you and
Judgment and decree rendered thereon as pray
ed for in aai*l petition. Siam.a A Scott,
35w4 A ttorueya for I lalntHT.
1. Notice is hereby given that the under
signed have Incorporated themselves under the
name of "The Handy Buggy Jack Co.”
2. The principal place of business shall be
Oskaloosa. lowa.
3. The general nature of the business to be
transacted will be the manufacture and sale of
Buggy. Wagon, an 1 Carriage Jacks, and the
corporation shall do a general manufacturing
bumness sod may buy and sell real estate and
other property.
4. The authorized capital stock la Tea Thou
sand Dollars (SIO.UfiOi. and the capital stock
subscribed is Nine Thousand Dollars (f»,ono>.
5. The corporation shall commence on tbe
20th day of April, 1888. and continue twenty
rears with tbe power of renewal provided by
8. The business of tbe said corporation shall
be 00 dducted by a board of five directors, a
president, vice-president, secretary, and treas
urer. And the election of such officers will oc
cur on tbe first Tuesday of April In each year,
and the annnal stock-holders’ meeting will take
place at said time.
7. Tbe highest amount of indebtedness to
which aaid corporation Is at any time to sub
ject itself shall not exceed six thouMnd dol
lar* itfi.noO’.
8. Tbe private property of the Stockholders
la to be exempt from corporate debts.
alder Mot a,
J. B. Brewster,
Sara P. Hawkiss.
Thor. B Gair*t*o.h,
»w 4 Thor. K Brbwstsr.
Eye and Ear Physician.
Something New
The above la an INSTRUMENT
for determining the correct focus re
quired for ANY IMPERFECTION in
the eye—lot It be Myopia, or Near
Sight, or Dimness from old age, or any
other cause. All other Instruments
heretofore In use, make this Important
point an uncertainty. With this—each
eye is taken separately, and the defect
fixed- -then by revolving a number ot
Lenses within, the one and sometimes
two or more are brought to view, and
a perfect vision is thus obtained. It Is
necessarily an expensive instrument,
but 1 dost make it so to my customers.
My object is to have the people know
that I can supply their wants. Call
a&dsst BML
Henry Priee.
| Phoenix Block, South Side Square, Oskaloosa, lowa.
Knapp & Spalding,
We have in stock a full line of Builders’, Shelf, and Heavy
Hardware, Fine Cutlery, Carpenters’, Masons’, and Miners’ Tools,
Rubber and Leather Belting, Wagon and Carriage Stock, large
sizes of Manilla Rope, also Iron, Steel, Nails, Window Glass,
&C., &C., &C.,
At Bottom Prices Always. »
Charles Huber,
Stoves and Tinware.
Builders’ Hardware,
Nails, Glass and Tools.
Favorite, Climax and Acorn Stoves.
Glidden Barbed Wire,
The l»est in the world. The heat goods at f*»r prices is my motto. Call and see
me when in want of anything in my line.
West High Street.
ABRAHAM to the Front!
With the largest, l>est. and cheapest stock of
ever offered in Oskaloosa. E very thing new. cheap, and good.
Dress Goods, Dress Goods,
in every style, from a beautiful Brocade at 5 cents per yard to the finest Silks
to be found in the city. Every yard of Silk sold by me warranted to wear and
not cut or the money refunded. Remember this when you want to buy a Silk
Dress, as many Silks sold will not last six months. A large and elegant line of
White Goods very cheap. A full line of Embroideries in new and handsome
designs. Table Linen, Napkins. Doilies, Towels, Notions, Gloves, Mitts, Laces,
Ribbons, Flannels, Jeans, Muslins, bleached and unbleached. Pillow Casing,
Sheeting. Ladies' and Men’s Underwear, Hooped Skirts, Bustles, Hats, Caps, and
Clothing, at lower prices than ever before. A big stock of
Lace Curtains & Window Shades
in New and Rich Designs. Sole Agent for the
Roller Skating Rink
Iron Sides Corsets,
the two Best Corsets in the World, and they cannot be bought of any other
house. Remember, the plaice to trade is at
A. M. Abraham’s
.1 am Making the Best and Largest lot of
Buggies, Phaetons 1 Spring Wagons
of all styles ever shown in Central lowa, and will sell them for lees money than
the same quality of work can be bought for anywhere else.
I also do all kinds of
Carriage Repairing and Repainting,
and keep a full corps of Skilled Workmen in the different departments of my
shop. I carry a large stock of CARRIAGE GOODS, such as Wheels,
Bodies. Springs, Axles, Bolts, Dashes, Etc. In fact,
can sell you anything that enters
into a Buggy.
Remember the place, one block west of Tbs Herald Office.
„ Joseph Jones.
Saddlery Goods.
of every description,
Wholesale & Retail.
■Good Goods and Low Prices
How to Spend Money!
Anybody can save money, but everybody don’t know the beat and easiest
way to spend it. 1 have made this question a special study for the sole benefit
or the people, and will gratuitously make a few suggestions. Call at
se.ect a dozen Amberina Tumblers and a Water Bottle, price $4.00.
Then ask fora hand painted Ice Cream set, price $ll.OO.
„„ ch .i na at hoD,p k* pretty well used up, select one of those elegant De
cor 1) !ii na l)inner Sets at sßo.dO. and of course a new Celluloid Carving
Jet to go with it,and a pair of Vinegar Cruets, Peppers and .Salts, and as t v e
5 t k ,l 11V, 20o ll - d h"»k shabby, select a case of Satin Finished Knives, that w l
cost you Add to that a dozen handsome Finger Bowls and you w- '1
then be ready tor a talk on the prices of Lamps, Chamber Sets, and other l
goods winch we will give vou later.
S. J. DUTTON, Tho Dishman,
All new and straight American Goods.
LM-ives iu Straw, Stiff, and Soft Fur Hats.
Drives in all kinds of Dry Goods, Ladies’ and Gents’ Underwear,
Hosiery, and Neckwear.
Full line of Men’s Shirting at lOc. per yard. Sold last year at
15c. per yard.
Print#, Muslins, and Ginghams away down.
Of the Town. Nice Goods, the Best Cutter, and the Lowest Prices See us
on these goods. We keep the Celebrated
Cannot Tear Down the Back. Don t fail to see our New Goods before you buv
it will pay you. A full line of White Goods, Embroidery,
Laces, Ribbons, Dress Goods, Etc.
Boyer & Barnes,
Clothiers for Either Sex, No. 103 West Side Stpiare.
I>»ulnr nay absence in Europe l<>r my The I Importation, the Stud will he to charge of the
competent and experienced gentleman. Mr. John Caul, who will always be glad to see vou and
abow you the horses. Visitors always welcome; will take pleasure in showirg horre> at any
time except Sunday. Expect to arrive with my 1 bird Importation about August 1. which I Intend
to be creator In number and equal or -uperior in quality io eliher of.tny prevh u* Importations.
Inspection and correspondence solicited Addre*s,
WM, M. SPRINGER. Lock Box 122. Oakalooa*. low.
dTbradbury & CO. STUDS.
We wish to Inform Ibe public that our horse, will make the aea«on for 1895 at the Quaker
Livery Stable. Theae horaes are number one breeders. They need no spread-eagle speech, as
thfcir colt* apeak for tbcmaelrca. We thank the public for the paat patronaae, and will be glad
to see all of our old friends, and as many new ones as is convenient to come.
Baron Crieff. Clyde' insure in foal, - - - s[g OO
Young Topaman, (Clyde) insure in foal, - S2O OO
Victor Hugo, (Norman insure in foal, - - S2O OO
Great eare will he taken to prevent accidents, but will not be responsible for any that may
oocur. Anyone parting with mare before known to be with foal forfeit# the Insurance. Mnl
J- M Barnes ]
J M Conner, Proprietors-
D Bradbury,]
ft MAM
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific R’y,
the Great Central Lin*, affords to trave'-rs, by reason of its unrivaled no.
graphical position, the shortest and beet route between the Bast. Northeast
Southeast, and the West, Northwest and Southwest.
It is literally and strictly true, that ita connections are all at the nrindosJ tinea
of road between the Atlantic and the Pacific
By Its main line and branches it reaches Chicago, Blue Island Juno. Auburn
una. Joliet, Seneca, Peoria. Ottawa. La Sal.'e, Ooneeeo, Moline and Koch Island,
• IN*®,® 4 *; davenport, Mulattos, Washington, Keokuk, Knoxville, Oskaloosa,
Ptifflffld, Moiup% Liberty, lowa City, Atluntie, Ayoci, Audubon,
Harlan, Guthrie Center and Council Bluflh, In Iowa: Gallatin Trenton. Cameron
and Kansas City, In Missouri, and Leavenworth and Atchison in »**
the hundreds of cl Use, villages and towns intermediate. The
As tt Is familiarly called, offers to travelers all the ad/antags* and oomforte
incident to a smooth track, sate bridges, Union Depots at all connecting points.
Pas* Express Trains, composed ot COMMODIOUS. WELL VENT' LA :KD
£3f*fM**J* handsomest PALACE SLEEPING and Bu£
FET CAES, and DIN INO GAB J that art "oknowledged by press and peon..*
bs the 111 SST BUN U*’OR A*, Y HOAD IN THE COUNfEY* and iT wh X
saperior meals are served at the low rate of SEVEN TY-PIYB CENTS such
THREE TRAINS each way between CHICAGO and tbs MISSOURI knrjn
TWO THAIMS each way letwesn CHICAGO and MINNEAPOLIS and fir’
PAUL, via the fhaoos
The New and Direct Line, via Sen sea. Kankakee and Cc -*-*uatt. --
opened ter business bstnssn the West and Newport News. •.'**-■ cunnJ
aati, Indianapelie sad La Payette, and Council HHffh, St. PauL
tatswaedlate potato, is rapidly becoming a favorite with Through Pnnengers.
Through Cam ter all Through Passengers ea Past Exa—
Per more detailed intermation, see Mass and Poiderelwhich maybe obtained.
US weO as Tiahett, at sll principal TMkst Offices hi ths United aJL
ada, «* of
*. Re CARLt, I. AT. JOHN,
IWt * Gsat Manager, Osnl 'V* A Pass’* Ag»V
;; ohicaqo.
Foaled August in, JWK). Bred bv Singroaster
A Aons.
H>s sire. Napoleon, wss imported from
France In ISTr, by Mingmastrr A Mms. Napoleon
has taken First Premium at the Keokuk Coun
ty Fair, and Second Premium at the lowa 9tate
Fair. In INlf. lie weighs 1.60<i pounds.
Mis dam. Jean, by Deeppte, imported by R.
Milltdi & Co.. Normal, Illinois, and owned by A.
I la-wres A <’o., of Talleyrand. lowa.
Black Norman will make the season ar.
I fHi l«' insure a mare In f'*al
I Care w||| be tak< nto prevent accidents but I
I »•"* l»e responsible ahmiki any occur.
I Money due whet; mare Is known to lie with foal
I | 9 ' * rted with.
I Tilman Bauprliman,
p Mm 2 Prooietor Rose Hill. lowa.
One-half mile west of Oskaloosa. lowa. At
the head of ihe Mild will ie Wept the cele
brate,! govern me’t approved and prize-win
ning Norman Stallion, Mont vi Her*. it»3.
which will la* pet milled to setvc a limited
number of mares during the season of
at |2.'i to insure .a foal. All ln«uranoe fees,
to U-eome due and payable Man U 1, is-*.
Parlies di.posing of mares before they ari
known to be In foal forfeit the insurance.
Great eare will be taken to prevent accidents,
but will not be responsible should ssy occur.
Montev illiers. 2495. recorded In 8d
Volume of Naiional Register of Norman
Hoi <•«, was foale<l In the spring of KfTY, and
Imported by me In Julv. 19*3 He is a t«eau
litu! Mack, standing 17' . hand, high, weigh
ing in fair hi ceding condition about |.9«0
pounds, with beet of bone and feet, and un
doubtedly is one ol the flneot styled, grand
i **t moving draft horses ever imported to

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