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THE 'WASHINGTON TIMES, SUNDAY, JUNE 23, 1895. Here Ire the Essays That Won the Medals Views on the Effects of the Public School System 'Rewarded by "The Times5" Beautiful Gold, Enameled and Diamond-studded Jewels. In oonneclion with the magnificent 24 page souvenir edition devoted to the inter ests of the public schools of the District of Columbia, "which wnspublisbed Wednesday last. The Tunes offend a number of gold modalstompnibersofthegradun ting classes of the several high schools for excellence In essay -writing, theselectcdbubject having an Immediate bearing on the practical effects of the public school Bytstcm Those medals, to be in keeping -with every method and movement and phase of policy or The Times, -were not of au ordinary type. In dosigu they -were the most artistic, that the sUill of the Jeweler could evolve. In material they "were of massive gold, 'with appropriate monograms beautifully cuani eled, enoh medal Etudded -with a pure diamond and pendant from solid double bars. Each one was enclosed in a rich case, "which "was a considerable pnzo in itBelf. Apart from the great monetary value of these medals, they "will be looked upon as souveni r of earn est "work and of the! Merest an euterprising and honest press, takes in the true development of public inbtruetion, which means so much to the future glory of our city and our country. Ouo of the -winners, "William A. Page, of the Central High School, says "I firmly behevethat the med.i Isnwarded Miss Mcivolden and myself to be the finest, ever given by any newspaper Jn the country for prize essays." The first presentation -was made at the commencement of the Business High School Monday uight last to Miss Daisy Emily Hodgson, -whose essay on Business Schools as Factors in Commercial Life" wasconsidered best by the Judges These Judgeswerethreeofourbest kuowubUhiue.ss men, Messrs. Brainard II. "Warner, S. W. "Woodward and Allison Nailor, jr. Miss Hodgson's essay reads as follows "Tact, integrity, and perserverancc are the essential principles or a succeisful bus iness career, but education is the means of their application. The industrious hab its of the joung require a course of training that tlie character may conrorm to the nature of the profession in view. As habits acquired iu jouth form character in after life, business habits must be culti vated at school by those who would engage suooesbfullj in commercial pursuits. The youthful athlete is trained to fully develop the muscles required in performing feats of agflity; so the student should develop those mental faculties which may best aid in his life's work. "A commercial education is as essential to a business man, as a maritime education is to a manner. Knowledge of navigation enables the sailor to avoid hidden rocks, to observe indications of a coming storm, and to sail directly to Jus destination. A oonimerciel education enables the busi ness man to discern dangers which under lie the surface of speculation, to jierceive the approach of a financial storm, and to guide bis adventurous bark into the har bor of prosperity. 'The merchant, possessing educational Qualifications, has an unlimited field in winch to "work, iu consequence of an ex tensive mental scope. In business trans actions, where personal supervision Is necessary, the clear perception of the edu cated man fortifies him against being the victim of fraud, as he readily distinguishes The mental caliber and character or those with whom he comes in contact. Tamil ianty with technical terms prevents him from committing blunders, and through knowledge of commercial law, he avoid complications. He recoglnizcs the ad vantages of advertising while his literary attainments enable him to write news paper articles in terse, concise and scholas tic style that attracts the fancy of aris tocratic and wealthy leaders and bring tbrong6 of profitable customers to his establishment. "A commercial education is iuvaluable ia the iraHsacUon or financial affairs, em bracing the knowledge of banking laws and the general principles of commercial pur 6fit. Itoth of w Inch are taught at business schools -It is true that a commercial education does not fortify a merchant against be oonring liankrupt, but in the event of be oomii'g insolvent he has tact, talent, and education, three elements which strengthen the victim of temporary misfortune and help trim to renew the "bnttlc of liie." The uneducated business man who has failed seldom regains his former exalted position in the commercial world, because his mediocre abilities relegate him to a subordinate position. The broken merchant who fortunately possesses a commercial education has little trouble in securing advantageous employment, and has re sources within himself which ameliorate lot. rrequenlly it occurs that a person possessing a business education obtains a position with a wealthy but illiterate firm ad by imparting valuable information aad introducing new sjstems based upon business principles, he advances the in terest of his employers to such a degree that he is taken into partnership." The next presentation was made at the oommencemeut of the high and normal sofeoots or the seventh and eighth divisions at the Academy of Music Wednesdav even ing. The judges were Hon. John M. Eaugston, Fror. George William Cook, of Howard University, and Rev Francis J. Grinike, or the Fiiteeuth Street Presby terian Church. They awarded the prize to Reginald Farragut Brooks, whote etsaj on "What the public tcliool system lias aoue for the advancement of the colored race" is here printed. "Limiting the scope of ray observations to tlie public school system of the United States of America and its application to the colored youth of this country since the close of the war of rebellion, 1HG5: My first conclusion is that the public Bcliools have done for the 50MI1 of the country a great work and proven a real benefit to both white and coloied. "By the amended constitution of the United States the colored people became American citizens and secured civil and political equality before the law. "American citizenship would be of no practical value but for theeducational quali fication that enables it to be received and enjoyed. "The uplifting of a class of people from chattel stavory to tin? high plane of Ameri can cUitsenship and the removal of au en forced HiHeracy that denied to them the reading of their country's laws and constitu tion, the Holy Bible, and tlie dally news paper, is the great wo rk of t he publicsciiools. Ctvitieatiouis based upon the commouschool education. "The lMiblic schools arc the means by which the colored people have been enabled to take their place among the civilized peoples of the world, and to meet the obli gations and duties of church and state im posedupon them in thcirnewand higher re lation with their fellow-men. Within the limits of the District, of Co lumbia, tho largest and best results are shown by the extension of equal common school advantages to all the youtli. "In this District will be found the clear est illustration of the wisdom of the government iuprovidingcoramonschools for all the youth. Theaddiiio'nor manual train ing schools, and systematic instruction therein, has greatly enlarged the benefits of the public schools, especially to the ooiored pupils. "The progressof the colored pubh:: schools in the District is clearly set lorth by offi cial reiKrts of the superintendents, show ing one school and less than one hundred pupils in 1SG1, and three hundred aad six teen teachers and fourteen thousand, four hundred and thirty-six pupils in J93 '91. "Theemploynieut in the Distnctast each era of nearly three hundred of the graduates of puhljcschoiils, hasbicnor great importance, financially, to the colored people or this community and renders them an important commercial factor. ' I tie money received is promptly put in circulation. Many homes have been pur chased and the last days of old parents made comfortable from the saviugs of the teachers. "As a matter of fact, no other enterprise managed and controlled by the colored people, or with which they arc identified in any part or the country, has brought to them directly so great a benelit. ""Advancing beyond the limits of the Dis trict of Columbia, the benefits of the public schools to the colored race can be clearly seen from the large number who have en tered the learned professions and are filling positions of teachers and instruc tors in colleges, schools, academies, and in all the walks or life requiring educational qualifications." The other medals were handed to the winners at Convention Hall Thursday night in the presence of G.000 people during the commencement exercises of the Central, Eastern and Western High Schools, all of which are jointly known as the Washington High School. As In the other cases, appropriate s-pceches were made, and The Times warmly praised for its good work. One of these medals was for an essay on "What the Public School Sjstem Has Done for American Womanhood." Tiie judges were three ladies well known hi the literary and social worlds Miss Kate Tield. Mrs. Jules Guthridge and Miss Mol he Elliott Sea well. They unanimously i .iwaukd the prize to Miss Marie Christie McKclden, Miss Field addiug: "The writer seems to have done some thinking for her elf. and does not flounder in the slough of sentimentality, which Is the curse of the average school-girl composition." Here Is Miss MoICelden's essay: "From the dark ages, vv hen woman was looked upon as inferior to man and deemed unworthy of an education, to the present day, when throughout ourcivilized countries all piofessions are open to her, the progress lias been gradual. Now there are only a few countries ttiat have not followed the examplo of their greater 6isters, and in these only the rich women learn to read and write. "But in America tho public school is es sentially the people's school. To the fact that it is open to people of all classes and sexes, It owes its rise. "Tiie rirst step in the advancement of a village or town is the establishment of public schools. Heretofore only those per sons who could arrord to pay heavy ex penses In private schools were the educated. Consequently the bojs iu a family were given a paid education, while the girls were left to develope physically by labor j. rattier than mentally by study. Now the era for woman has arrived. The public schools have been established, and fince the privilege of free schools has given the same advantageous starting point to girls they have kept steadily, side by side, with the boys. "What a cosmopolitan thing the public school is. Hero all classes of people meet and in some cities all races. This neces sarily broadens a woman's mind, which has been hitherto narrowed in the monoto nous round of a gossiping life. Even those, who by force of circumstances arc not al lowed to extend their education bevoud the sixth grade, are by means of this lever weged forward and drop into the very niche of life which ii there inspiration for higher things. Then to those who are permitted to go onward what avenues of learning are open. Besides the mental advantages, to the girl with a taste for culinary art there is the cooking school, to the one pliant with her needlo the sewing department, and to the one who has the knack for car pentry there is the development of origin ality, dexterity, and great utility in the manual training school. "Then to the High School, which sur passes the college preparatory schools, the girl now moves onward In the study of the classics, sciences, and languages the mind receives its polish and the con tact with the cultured class of teachers counteracts any untoward influence at home. Tims they liecorae fitted for teach ers and all teachers are beuelactors of their race. "Tins, Indeed, is the main thought to which the education of all classes of women lead what profit will it lie to posterity? Think what a race will in herit the earth descended from a long line of cultivated men and intellectual women! This Is just the beginning. The women who have made the Woman's Congress famous and whose names and deeds are known throughout the world prove what education in the public schools has done for women and what it will do. After what lias been accomplished by the general education of the woman in half a century, what will be the result in the coming century with its broad outlook and significant undertone of future victorj? "Ten thousand golden ages rolled into one!" "Whit tlie Public School System has Done for American Citizenship" was tlie .abject allotted to the masculine members of the high school graduating classes, and tlie essay that won the prize came from the pen of William A. Page. The judges in this competition were Uiree of tlie best known in the brilliant list of Washington newspaper correspondents, Messrs. Karl D. Decker, Alfred Henry Lew isaud Maurice Splaiu. Mr Page's views ou this im portant topic are: "The Tirt principle of a Democratic form of government is that all men are created equal. Our forefathers, in fram ing our first documents of state, fully realized tlie truth of tins proposition, and theiefore granted to every man tho light to an equal thare in the Koveruing power "Under suth a government, tlie safely of the State depends on the intelligence of tlie people Cleaily, then, it is the imperative duty of a government founded ou the equality of men, to see that all .ire intelligent. This can only be accom plished by a system of public education, under the direct coutrol of the State. "But some may ask, will the govern ment receive a return sufficiently largo to wairant the expenditure of great sums for the purpose of educating tlie youth ful generation? I answer, yes! "Admitting that the very life of a Demo cratic form of government depends on the intelligence of the people, can tho ex penditure of any sum In dollars and cents be too large, or too great, if it insure the stability of the government? Clearly not. "Public education inspires a feeling of patriotism in the American jouth. From his earliest years he hears mysterious rumors of that vague, awe-inspiring thing the government. He is told that the government is educating him for a purpose, and that he must repay her by his allegi ance and support. For 3 ears he looks forward to the time when this education shall be finished; when he can Etep forward proudly and say, 'I am an American citizen!' "Side by side with the moral crfects standthe practical results. Public edu cation secures a 1 eifect understanding of our principles or government; and insures an intelligent vote on questions of rational importance. What this nation needs now is a public, composed of cooldeliberatc men, who will act only after calmly reason ing, and who will not be influenced by the ranting of political demagogues. "There Is, m the United States now, a class or people who delight 111 revolu tionary methods who ardently long to turn tills earth and its rolitical imtitu tions topsy-turvy, and then form out of the ensuing chaos, in a Cay, a nirdel gov ernment. But model governments are not formed in a Cay, but are the results of practical experience. Our present system was naturally evolved out of the more primitive forms or peverrment cnly alter hundreds of jears or experience. "Against people who would take away our certain liberties and substitute in their stead vague theories, all the energies of goaAcitizensshould be directed. Admitting erw"lbat fonie reforms are desirable, they should never be placed Jn the bands of extreme radicals. "Since, then, u pure Democracy demands that the people should be intelligent, the more our people are educated the nearer will bo that day when we shall have in truth a 'government by the people.' , "On public education, the ideal system of Imparting learning, the future of our republic depends." After presentation tho name of the winner was engraved in relief on the first bar or each medal, with other suitablo inscription. The New Education and the Poor Glass Among the much discussed questions of to day is, what shall be the course iu tlie school room foi the child who has very little or this world's goods and who must in consequence, early in life seek his own living, rrom mauy comes the plea that we discarded tlie "fads and fancy trim mings," music, drawing, "bug and flower dissecting," outing and excuisions and teach tlie essentials," tlie thrco It's. But how shall we lay the best founda tions iu Uiese "essentials?" There can tie 110 true conception of edu cation in its most meager 6ense tiiat does not imply development. To the teacher who would do most good, learning facts must always be subordinate to eularg iug facilities. Music cultivates sense discrimination and is a great aid in forming the habits of close attention. Drawing, which has long been looked upon as simply an accomplishment, is now taught as a language a means of ex pressing thought. In connection with form study, which includes clay model ing and various kinds or paper folding and cutting, diawing Is one of the best methods of developing the power to see accurately, and to icprcsent clearly what is seen, beside giving a certain dexterity to the fiugeis. Can any one doubt the value of these acquirements even 111 the work shop or sewing room? Almost with out exception the girl who has learned to draw best, is best at her needle. Elementary science, while giving the child many valuable facts, is not taught that tie may have a smatteniig of zoology, botany, or mineralogy, but as a means to an end the end being acquiring the power to see and discriminate keenly, to think logically, to draw inferences and conclu sions and to express the thinking ac curately and concisely. Withoutthe nucleus around which thought may be associated, there can be no founda tion of exact ideas, and with nothing to say, the child learns to speak and write his mother tongue very slowly and very poorly. Since the present methods of teaching music, drawing, nature studies, and the like, develop tho faculties, they are in tended to be shorter cuts on tin Journey, and the measure ofsjcce-ssful teaching must nlwajslie the increased rapidity with which the child learns to do thoughtful reading, clear and concise writing and accurate and rapid calculating. Those who plead for the essentials will not Tind better results in schools which fill nearly the whole day with reading, writing, and arithmetic than they find in those schools in which the new regime holds intelligent sway Beading, writing and ciphering, however, are not all that is practical iu even a limited education. Noproeessofcducating accomplishes the "best results if it does not uplift the child morally. The home of the majority of tlie jioorer classes are lacking lurefiningnnd ennobling influences This want can not be better supplied the child than by leading him to hear and eujoy the manifold sweet sounds ofnatureand toobserveand tliinkabouithu wonderful world-wide beauty winch sur rounds lmn. When he "finds tongues in trees, books in rtiumng brooks, sermons in stones," the influence of degiading surroundings will be far less potent and Uie desire tofeeduiion the wholesome and uutritious m literature, will be keenly awakeued. - If he has but few years to spend in school, It is of utmost importance that, while gaming a knowledge ol the rudi mentary brauches, his Berne development be rightly bgun that it may coutlnue 111 harmonioub grow th during the future J ears or his lire. GEORGIANA K. SIMPSON. From a '90 Girl IU! yi! Kl! ji! Ki! ji! j it ji! vi I Ninety! The eveulfii' day had arrived ana n as m 1S87 that the class of '90, Washington High School came into existence. How long ago it seems since we were high school girls and boys. What sorrows and joys those words express. Time softens all things, and in looking back those days seem, with the exception of the death of our loved principal, Mr. EdwaTd A. Paul, only happy ones Our class was remarkable and unusual in more ways thau one. We v ere the first to enter thcxiih school on the j early average in place of the entrance examination and after the first quarter the customary quarterly examinations were done away witii, and tlie "matinee" substituted If a mark of 72 wasnotattaiucd. Some of our numlKjr had the horror of attending the first "matinee." The cla&s in general was like those of other vears, but in particular quite different. "It hasfrcpiently beenstated and whocan doubt It, as it appears in the 'Review Annual' of that year that the young ladies of '90 were the most beautiful creatures in WaEhmgtou and that there were seven handrome men " TheEcvenhandsomemen with their friends composed the "Kerbstone Cadets," and every morning would line up about the door of the building for the edification of the young ladies They grew a ml flour ished, until cne morning they weie ruth lessly cut down by the "povv ers that be " It was also dining our course that John Philip Suus.1, then leader of the Marine Band, wrote and dedicated to "the High School Battalion their popular inarch, "The nigh School Cadets " When iu English, the writings of the English poet laiueate were studied, some of the girls, especially those of blond locks, essayed to piny the role of the fair Elaine, and with hair in a braid hanging down their back, would go out at luncheon to look fora possible Laucelot in some high school cadet. Physics was the bane of the existence of a number or girls, and in this one study some did look up to the boys and envy those few maidens who seemed able to master "molecules" and "matter" The class was often told "give so much time to studying the lesion and vvc will do the best we can; girls are not expected to do in physics all boys can " It was the day before the Christmas holidays Tlie class was assembled in the laboratory, recitations were about over and tlie professor was preparing to give out a new lesson. A protest went up and cries of "the other teachers haven't given any," but alas! the icply was made: "The Lord chastiseth those whom he loveth," aud the lesson was forth coming. There were about three times as many boys as girls in political economy class, but the Litter made up in quality what they lacked in quantity and the subject of how much more it took to keep two than one (the teacher was soon to be mairicd) was diligently studied and discussed. Is there a high" school girl or boy who can forget the "baker and confectioner, directly opposite tlie high school?" No matter how far or distant, or old he or she may be there will come a time In life when memory will go back to "alma mater" and "Reekcweg- buns." B. M. G., '90. Tlioin Tlmt Has Gits. They weretwo women and they satoppo site. Saidthefatwomaninthegreengown: "Did jou hear about the money Mrs. Smith's uncle left her?" "Wby,hasshehadsomemoneylefther?" asked the woman i u th ebla ck bonnptin a dis contented way. "That'sthc third time&mce I've known her." "Yea," assented the green gown, with a sigh, "its Ju-t the scriptural saying 'Them that haBgits.' "Washington Post. JMtiM SGhools for Wastiinflton SEAMANSHIP.' AS A BRANCH OP PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. Trustee Witmer's Plan for the Maiming of American Ships with Native Skill. Washington will not, it is belloved, possess a completely rounded educational Byslem until a nautical school bo added to its manual training department. Military discipline and tactics Tcadily recommend themselves to the scholastic and civil au thorities, but naval training and study aro completely disregarded. Dr. A. II. Witrner, trustee or the sixth 6CI100I division, is an enthusiast on this sub ject. Ho holds that public marine ecliools, where boya can learn practical seaman ship, are a necessity. In 1890 he began a rjgorouscampaignlnbehairofhisprinciples, and for a time it 6ccmed as if his hopes were to be realized. Ala mieting of theschool board March 11, 1800, the doctor offered a resolution urg ing the Commissioners to petition Congress to accoid Washington the benefits of the act of June 20, 187 4. This legislation en couraged New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Norfolk, and San Francisco to organize and maintaiu in connection with their public educational systems, schools of nautical training, in "which boys could bo taught tho rudiments of navigation and practical seamanship. The United States offered to furnished a sailing ship and an officer to conduct the school. A committeo was appointed and the Com missioners, after strenuous effoUs, pre vailed on the Senate sub-committee on District appropriations, consisting of the late Senator Plumb, and Senators Dawes and Cockenil, to recommend that $15,000 be appropriated during the following riscal year. A dreadrul point or order punctured this worthy recommendation, andsincethat time it has languished. The agitation, however, served to put ou record u host of friendly advocates. Civil and naval experts have heartily in dorsed Dr. Witmer's idea. Among- these may be mentioned the late Admiral Porter, Capt. Pjthian, Commander Crownlnshieid, of the Navy; ex-Commissioners Douglas and Roberts, and Snpt. Powell. Capt. Pythian, of the naval observatory, was very energetic and furthered thescheme greatly. He was the first commander of Haw York's public nautical school. He made tho following statement regarding the success of ttieo schools to the Commission ers, and berore Congress. Undr the act of June 20, 1874, three schools -were .established; at New York, Philadelphia and San Francisco. That at San FranciscoJ was conducted but a short timo and thenjabandoned. New York still maintains her schGol on the ship St. Mary's, and Philadelphia on the naval vessel, Samtoirn Tlnlli nrA in n nrmHcilifF oAftHt. -tion, and-productive or the inostsatisTactory cesuiis. At first Bonis difficulty wa3 exiwrienced in obtaining pupils, but the mauitest ad vantages or tho plan quickly overcame this obstacle. ( Boys between fourteen and eighteen jears or age are taken lor a two years' course. During this time their com mon school education is continued under naval discipline. Navigation and seaman ship are taught and a cruise is taken cvery year. . Tho proper expenses of tlie schools should twpaid outoftheregularschoolfund. Each boy is, however, exacted to pav $35 an nually lor his clothing. The education .re ceived is so solid that the captains or our merchant mar es arc alwajsanxiousto se cure these youthtul sailors. Over 70 per cent, of theso students join the men who "go down to the sea in ships." In this connection conies the important practical advantages or nauueiil lmim-i" I Schools of m.ntuml Imnnmr nm -w.ir-i, .,.,... I ing out scon-s of bos with a taste Tor the ineciianic ans, nut our navy aud merchant marine are sadly m need of American blood in their apprentices and seamen. The White Squadron is manned princi pally by foreigners Admiral Porter In recommending naval school to Congress, f.llfl tllll lit.. T,-.. n,n.-. !..,. .- ...... u...v wi. ii-uiuii .uui oui; nout" 10 sea with a crew of 400, only 80 or whom , could speak English Understand," said lui.i, suiiiucn oiu sanor, "1 don't mean to convey that foreigner arc not good sailors, f.ir they are. But I prefer to hav c Ameri A SAD MISHAP. -Cyeler Hurry up, llubo, or uKo jret out of my way' -HulM -Certainly .(twlrlliiKliiswlilp) a jr'Innj; thero, Dobbin! i- 4ifl can Bhlps manned by Americans, if there is any possible way of Eettiug them. The English are far ahead of us iu this respect They enlist probably 40,000 men a year In their navy aud it would be a hard matter to find a man aboard of an English naval vessel who is not thoroughly loyal to the English flag." The percentage of foreigners In the mer chant marine is greater. Tradition ia the very essence of naval morale. "If our flag is defended," says an ad vucate of Dr. Witmer's plan, "by hirelings, however brave, who are ignorant of the fame or Barry, of Paul Jones, of Lawrence, Ducator, Stewart, Farragut, Porter, Dal ghrenand all that host of heroes, defeat will not mean to them national disgrace and public dishonor." There aro uumerous reasons why the act of June 20, 1874, should be applied to Washington. The local school could be under tlie immediate eye of the Navy De partment. With Its encouragement and under the fostering care of Congress, Washington may be tlie cradle of many p.itriotic American seamen. The pe culiar composition or Washington's popu lation aWords an exceptionally good class of boys. As at present constituted, neither tlie navy nor the merchant marine af fords great inducement for an ambi tious or adventurously brave character. Tho inferior position and the paltry pay or a Bailor seems a poor compensation for a lire work. If, however, our public school boys understand that faithful work on and graduation from a Echool ship would fit them to be musters' mates on merchant vessels or for warrant officers in the navy, "hundreds would gladly embrace the opportunity. A largo proportion would adopt sea manship for a livelihood, and the bal unco would form the nucleus of native patriotic Bailors. According to Admiral Porter, our battleships and cruisers need just such material to be a war strength in times of danger. No reason exists why sueh schools should not be established at every port on the seaboard and the great lakes, but there aro special and obvious reasons tor their existence here. A grcnt point in favor pf this movement is ogam urged by Dr. Wittner. Washing ton can conduct a Echool ship under such powerful and favorable aubpices as to prove a model for all others, thus assur ing an imitation on tho part of every patriotic tchool board of proper location. There Is no improvement so irrportaiit, no development so necessary in the en tire public educational structure. There aro now a dozen or more battle ships, cruL-vers and punboat6 lately launched or'aLout to Tccelvo their complement of men and armament. It is fitting that American youth should be more largely interested in the fact that the United States has a ftauuch navy, and that our merchant marine bids fair to rival the best that any country boasts. Objection may be made that sailing ves sels have been Hipcrscded. Old sea dogs maintain that the only real school of seamanship is in the oldtjle vessel. There an apprentice can not only be taught his ordinnry cojrscs. but he would receive an education which would make his ser vices valuable and intelligent. There is no doubt that ir Congress would allow the use of such a -vctel the authorities here would have the vcy pick of our working classes Keeking admission into our naval and marine service. Dr. Wjtmer intends in the near future to resume his work again and to urce a decided step on the part of the school authorities. Thoughts Upon TeaGhBrs' Work Wc occasionally see articles describing for the enlightenment of the pubbc the work of the glassblower, the stonecutter, the silversmith, the actor, the sculptor and even or the author, but I think I hae never seen such explanation or the work of the teacher. Perhaps, this is because so much or tne teacher's work is invisible and because its processes are performed m the silent laboratories of thought. Or it may be due to a general belief that all tlie teacher's work has been seen by all ia their early days during the hours spent under tutelage. Ircmembsrthinkingduriugmyseaooldays: th'it the teacher had a very much easier time than I, for surely she had only to hear recitations for Tive hours a day, whereas I, m addition to the five hours in the school room, must go home to labor over my tasks for the next day. Since that time my opinion has so far changed that a certain old rhyme frequently runs through my mind, with the alteration or a single word. "Man's work is troin mm to sun. But a teacher's work is never done." Never done! For there is absolutely no limit to the time in which a teacher may spend in preparing awl arranging the menial material winch is to be presented to his class Whatever the subject, the teacher must determine what ideas are to be inipresH.-d, in wlut order and by wtiat means they may most naturally be devel oped in the mind of the child. The true teacher not only devotes many hours to thought and study for the good of his class; it is often both his lortune and his misfortune that he can at no time escape from such thought. Yet, though the work of the tracher is sometimes underestimated, it is alfo over estimated. The teacher is often tpoken of as the former of mind. But. as we are told on good autbonty that 1e constitu tion of the brain cells is practically fixed at three jears o age, this cannot be strictly true. All that any ore can do lor any human mind, even his own, is to strengthen what exists. If certain cells are by nature fr.cble, the ideas to which they give rise can probably never attain to the same degree of accuracy as iu tho'e in whom thue tells are naturally perfect. Tor example, if the nerve cells which produce the idea of musical pitch are en tirely absent, no erfcrt can create them; if they are weak, the idea or pitch maj' to a certain extent be developed, bnt it can probably never icach the jcrrcction which it has in t ho-e wroee natural endowments m this respect are normal. What is true in regard to music is equally true in re gard to mathematics, language, aud all science. The work or the teacher then is rot to make mind, but to guide its growth. As this truth has come to be understood, routine methods of recitation have been replaced by study or the individual child and by methods adapted to each. Aud greater changes will come. More and more in the future will the work or the teacher become selective. More and more will the dimcult task be thrust upon hint of discovering in which points each mind is naturally strong, in which weak; and the Etill more serious responsibility of determining hew far that which is strong fhnll be made jet stronger; how far he slmll strengthen "the things which remain that are ready to die." METELLAIONG, Principal Morse School. Study of Botany. Girls and boys, undergraduates who have the chance of studying a natural science, do so by all mans. Take the study o" Botany whichdealswiththeflowersaud trees. How dull this bright world of ours would bo with out the beautiful, fragrant flowers and the stately trees and graceful shrub3 to adorn our-StrootSe parks and gardens! Every girl and boy enjoys a walk through the woods. What makes these po pleasant? Tho trees and flowers and, of course, pleas ant company always lend to the enchant ment of these strolls. Now, friends, for so 1 feel towards all who have haunted and do haunt those class rooms and corridors of the dear old Central, think how much more beautiful many of the plants would b"om, ir, by a glance, you could tell their name and all or their peculiarities. I have always been a passionate admirer or all that is bnautiiul in nature, b it especially have flowers held an enchantment for me. I cannot remember when 1 saw,a flower with which I was not familiar that L did not im mdiately ask the name. WhAu I vv ent to the Central school and had completed my first two years I was de light'd at the entrance or tho third. Now, do not think that I was pleased because Anthony Bowen School. my school days were drawing to close. Not so, I was glad, howover, because I thought that soon I would be able to say that I had been graduated and that sounded real "big." This third year held a greater attraction for me. I would now be able to begin to study a natural science, and Botany, tho most bsauurulandentlcingofallstudicB, was tho one. As I went deeper and deeper into the "whys and wherefores" of minute details pertaining to the flowers and trees, I formed a deeper attachment for Botany, riowera seemed to grow more beautiful every day. Our professor. Dr. Buigess, did not be lieve in answering all the questions put to him by us concerning this study, but set us to work with magnifying glasses to study each minute aud separate part of everl the smallest flowers and thus learn for ourselves. However, when we got "stuck" Dr. Burgess was there with a willing hand Teady to help us over the difficulty. He was so patient, for sorely did we try him. but tiis love for his work seemed to keep hiB temperdown, ifsucli athing hepoEsessed. His .sole aim seemed to be to wake the study more Hko a play toj than a task. I know that every one is torry that our proressor accepted a position away from here, but we are glad that such an effldeat person could bo found as Mr. PrincHe to fill his vacancy, as far as possible, as it will be tiard to entirely fill it Now boys and girls a few wortls more a3 to the effects of botany. First, to cultivate the power and habit of observa tion; 6econd, the appreciation and enjoy ment of natuie: third, to acquire Icnewledge of plants, of their stmcmre, habits, and growth, of the general Ihwb which govern their lire, of their relationships, and par ticularly or those which are most eommon about Washington in cultivation r in nature. MADGE M BOWIE. Class '94. Ex-Trustee Woodward. One of the most familiar figures in the schools in former years was Mr. WHliam R. Woodward, a trusu-e in the second di vision from 1SGG to about 1S77. TJp to the time of his appointment Mr. AVoodward hud bhown no special interest in educational matters, but was known as one of the promi nent lawyers of tlie city, and an apnght and intelligent citizen. He accepted the ap pointment from Mayor WaUacnand through out nib entire term of service labored day and night in the interests ot the schools. During the party years of his service there was ne'ituer 6uperjuteiHient nor supervisor, the trustee being all in all, and Mr. Wood ward was not the- eUr wjm wiow private business suffered greatly from bis devotion to the public wt-al. Not the least among a trostt's labors was securing for his watHeTs regular payment of their meager salaries, and Mr. Woodward speaks even now with delight or a kind hearted friend who once advanced S2.000 without Interest, that the second division teachers might not wait months for their money. Among Mr. Woodward's coadjutors was for some jear Mr. George F McLeHsn, with whom he worked rat harmoniously. To the scholars the two men seemed to represent different phases of the fcenool work. Mr. Woodward the mox3l, Mr Me Lellan the intellectual force, for with the latter's advent appeared the most puz zling problems in arithmetic, the most difficult questions in geography: wfcfle the former was sure to give a talk on the conduct of life and bow to overcome its difficulties Bad toys and e-areless girls trembled before them, yet in each man every child in tJie division felt that lie had a n.ie personal Triend. who calk-d him by nameund watched his career with interest, somethlag impossible now with our thou sands of puinis. yet whose absence is a distinct loss to the community. To liv out the course of study, to pro vide good teachers, to find suitable ac commodations for the schools, to visit the sick among the teachers and scholars, to punih and reclaim refractory pupils to do the thousand ami one things now divided among many peTMs the"' wore I the duties of oit trustees a few decades 1 since: and it is no wonder that the teach ! ers anil pupils of that day regard with gratitude and love a man who nas clone ror the schools all this and much more which can never be recorded. Mr. Woodward stifl lives 1n his okl home on Sixth street, and although fee has enjojed the friendship and acquaint ances of famous men. though he has passed through stirring times in our history, nothing fires lus Mood more than to recall the days when he went in aad out among the children hi our public schools. Anthony Bowen School. The Anthony Bowen School, located at the corner of Ninth and E streets south west, was erected in 1SG7. It m a brick structure or two stories, contains eight rooms, ha3 an average enrollment of about 400 pupils, with a corps of ten teachers. Being one of the oldc-t bufid mgs in the District, we suffer for the lack of those mooeru eon ven leaces in the way of ventilating, heating and lighting school rooms with which our modern schools are supplied. The buildim: can not be ventilated ex cept through the windows, which is a con stant menace to the health or pupils. It is heated by ten stovea, from which gas escapes, permeating the building aad caus ing pupils and teachers to complain seri ously. We have been forced to discontinue the fire drill and some of the phjaieal culture exercises' on account of falling plastering. At the top or the steps, which are very steep, is an unprotected, narrw Ionclincr.' and there is an equally narrow space between the door and the foot of the stairway. On account of these two faults in case of a raruc the danger of loss of life, or at least of serious injury, would be very great. We have no cloak rooms, being compelled to hang wraps in the school room a most objectionable ieoture from a sanitary point of view. Anthoney llowen, in whose honor the building is named, was a slave here m the District, who, after purchasing his freedom, actunred some means. He was foremost in all educational enterprises, allowing for a long time the use or Iris hoaxes 01 S and 920 ii street southwest, for school pur poses. The first teachers from the North boarded with him. A tax ot $1 was laid at this time upon every male citizen for the support ot schools. Although this was collected rrom colored men, there was no provision made Tor the education or their children. It was this unjust discrimination which led Anthoney Bowen to take an active part in the circulation of a petition asking Congress to establish free schools. The petition, which was signed by Mayor Bowen, who was friendly to the movement, Mr. John Francis Wilkinson, and others, resultcd in the erection of the Anthony Bowen School. J C GItANT, Principal. Commencing May 11, and continuing nntil further notice, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company w.ll sell excur sion tickets at rate of oce fare for the round trip for ngular trains of Saturday and Sundav from Walungt( n to i omtb on the Metropolitan Branch and mum line between Washington and Ilarjw'r's Kerry, and to points on the WastnnctonsBranch i between Washington and Aiii.aneilis Junc- j tion. Tickets will be valid tor return I passage on regular trains fuirf.il Monday I following day -of sale. Cooking in tlie GolorBtl SGhools RESULTS ACHIEVED IN THIS FIELD OP USEFULNESS. Miss Cook Tells of the Work Done by Bright Girls Under Her Direction. Cooking, as a part of public seheol In struction, was introduced iuto the Seventh and Eighth divisions r the nubile schools in January, 18S8. We epeued with tw schools, one being located iu the Muler budding and taught by M3 J. T Tibbs; the other, under ruy instruction, was located in Bethel Hall, M street, nt ar Sixteenth northweat. In each school there were fifteen classes, with from twelve to fifteen girls in each clasa. These pupU were, and are still, taken from the seventh and eighth grammar grades. Great was the interest masifesfa'd in this department or ietu trial trannsg at the very beginning ad I aoi glad to say it has shown no sign of decreasing a the years pass. The experiment of 'S gave such perfect satisfaction that our little plant becanief irmly established Theschool authorities, by their sympathy aad earliest endeavora, so nebly stipfrtHted and at tained our department, that we were en couraged each term to improve tfce wjrt of each preceding year Our schools at present are four in num ber, with an enreUnsent this t-m of GOO girls, Bnder four very eHJciest tearhrs, namely. Misses C. G Araekl, M E Ware, Ituohinsavs "To be a good cook ii,e,n.a the knowledge of all fnntu, kerbs, bu'u.3 and spices, awl of -all that is healing and sweet m fields and geve&. savor in n.ats It means rc.n. rulnes, inyentiveues, watchfulness, willingness awl readjiiesa t appliance. It means the economy of your great-srxBduiotbers and the st ence of modem ebeiits; it ireans muck tatt ing and no wasting; it means English. tuorougtineas. French art and Aramac hos pitality," etc. KealtzMK the truth of tbte by careful study and strict attention to proper n.eth ods of teaching the slightest detail con nected with our work, w have as teachers tried to do justice to the sfcect taught. Noticing in our school kitchens the con vemences, sue as the eookmg ranges, sinks, dreers imarte oy (he boys in mr shops), refrigerators and h ten its uf. modern impreveirem, suggests to ore the comfort, erf a vc ell-raniiahed kae ! en The ul&ckbeaxAs. reference books nd teaeber'& desk reurind you of the regular schoolroom, white setirg the gtrls annuid the nsnung laWes. on which are various food products, cookimc instruments and utensils, watching intently the iiulm of the different Meps in preparation. u-:x-mg awl cweftwg a dith, suggest the etu n ieal laboratory To inseie pesFoaal Beatnese each irl is required to wear a cooking outfit. fn sisting of an apron and a par of sleeves. and is also required to wahliradsN-f re the leiSSOH begins. Each .girt is provn'.-el with a blank book, m hich ae wratca the recipes and notes of each leaoon. In the seventh grade we lay the fcunda tio, xnvmg to ntalae the pin cinT stand the principles that asderne the art of cooking by exptanuas tnKgr the dnir ent pteees:4 and ttife; them wan practical experiments. The r irst krasons open with talks on mk kk; m general, food materials,, fuel, heat, etc. Having taiucbt the making ami care of the fire, blacking the stove, seepms;, ducting, and thechrartn of cooking eternals, lessoas in ai out 1 cooking follow, macs to the delmht of the dtfidren. It is oftn a pleasure to note the easer neS3ontlepartfeacJi tebea&eofifteattnbc-r appointed to prepare or nrtx the deferent materials for a dish and attend to Ue cook ing of it. The sunplent cUshe uaaer b it het are given for erxample. beef tea. poached egs;s, soup tock, etc. and hav ing the pupils observe the effect of boil hk; and also eoW- water apon albumen Simple dishes axe also made under tew--iag. iKikim;, brortiag and fryiR. Eaa step in the ieson is taken wrtb due pre cision, requiring the girls to be exact in measuring, ia gettrng lorrect iwopor twns. ami hi obtaining the proper tlegre of heat necessary for the vanoas ttthhea cooked. The work ror gicis in the eighth grade constate of a review of the ftost jear's work and the makimc of numerous plain citehe under the etU&rent proee9 tf cooking Our aim is to show the girls that with care many nice dWn caa be iaade burner both nutritious and patat .)le, yet not expensive. A math f the ch-m-istry of food materials is laasat ad wa think essential. The young ladies from the nig ch ol form our c-fcwwes ia the aavaeeed course of cooking. Mot of Uteta. havrtnj; had t c- years' t rawing w oar seaoote. are well preiared to ease p ieewas wjaainng art and HL Ttoe atitty wtta wtuca nui-i-. f theiu have learned to prepare plain a-id fancy food repays abunrtaotly for our pains antT tabor to teach them sMs useful art. Each year the pabne generally has in spected the specimens of lood made h oiu pupils and placed on exhibition and ox pressed their satisfaction of the results at compiMhd. That our coors" of iastrortioB has beoa baertotal is shown in different ways I hav- ha J parents to say to me repew'IIj that "their homes nave fcH tbe good re .suli.s or what lias bon taught their giris ia th" cooking s"l.ols. I look wan p . la upon tbood work of MissEsteHe Spragi e, tacher of cooktng in the ItxfciMriai s t il or Gloe-ster. Ta., ateo of Miss Marv E. "vrnun. teacher of cooking in the Iarii si r. d school of Manassas, Ta. Beth of tl s young ladies pawed through our eookii.g schools ami are reflecting credit to tt a selves and our cents- of training By no mentis nave we reached perf e' ' n in our work. Each-year being to us so it i" vv improvement ami we hope the fr, la will frHjuent our schools next tfcfro win r tHy can get a better idea of our aom than by anything we mav write. MATT1E B. COOK Direct Peaser Conking Get your Ciiblnet I'lioto Free. Excursion Tlclicn. to tlie S-n!sliore Commencing with June 14 and 15 and continuing until August SO and 31. in clusive, the Ealtirnre and Ohio Railroad will sell excursion tickets to Atlantic City. Cape May, and Sea Isle City f.tf the i 10.00 and 1110 a. in trains n each Fri day and Saturday, gwod for return pas sage n any train until tlie following Tues day, inclusive, at rate of Su.00 for tin round trip. Cet your Cabinet Ptioto Free..