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THE WASHmGrTO TIMES, SUNDAY, JXHSTE 23, 1895.
11 Numerical Sgjbiigb from Grade to Grade N TEACHING ARITHMETIC. TOO, KEW METHODS "ARE USED. This Branch Is, as It Should Be, Considered of the Utmost Importance. Arithmetic ranks second only lo language to ttic amount or time and attention given It in the public school grades from the first to the eighth, inclusive. This ex presses the general esteem in whichlhesub ject is held because or Jts educational valje as a branch of. study. In the effort to reform and enrich the course of instruc tion several subjects, hitherto thought to be indispensable, have been eliminated, so that the text-books are no longer incum bered with such subjects as "circulating dec.nials," 'alligation," "position" and others wherewith the worthy pedagogue was wont to sharpen the wits while he added to the sorrows of the rising gener ation. At the same time the improved methods of modern scientific leaching have been applied to the fundamental study; as, for example, the objective method, "whereby is developed a clear conception of numbers and their combinations and rela tions, also the substitution of the thonght awakeniug processes of analysis for hum drum memoriter rules. The study of numbers begins in the first year primary class where, with the number table as a work-bench and a miscellaneous assortment of blocks, shells and toys of all kinds as raw material, the pupil works out experimentally the facts and rela tions of numbers from one to ten. Having learned to represent these numbers by words and figures, he marshals them in manifold combinations, giving them vital ity and interest by means of hundreds of problems suggested by his own experience and environment and illustrated with the best erforis of his childish art. In the second year similar work is done with the ten numbers and the first five "tables" are developed and memorized. As these concepts of numbers are gained the use of objects is gradually discon tinued. The pupil is now competent to conceive of numbers absolutely through their representative symbols. The third year's work carries the de velopment of numbers to 100, the Arabic notation to thousands, continues the frac tional development to twelfths and com pletes the "tables." Abundant drill Is plven with with small numbers in the four processes. The problem work is con tinued, the pupil solving simple problems that involve numbers botii abstract and cone rete and the common units of weights, measures, and money and inventing many similar ones. The fourth year's work continues and strengthens that of the third, though It presents little that Is new. The pupil ex tends his knowledge of decimal notation from thousandths up through millions, and studies with more of detail the principles and terminology of the"fourground rules," whi h he amply illustrates with numbers, both integral and fractional. In all com putations accuracy is held to be of the first importance, but that secured rapidity is everything. Mental sluggishness and dawdling are tabooed. To secure quickness and accuracy special drill is given, both oral and written, the "tables" are com mitted to automatic memory, and, as in the preceding grade, excellent results are secured by the use of the arithmetic reader. This year notes the beginning of the use of tiie text book for independent seat work and for practice in comprehending the language of problems. The JoTth year is devoted specially to fractions, common and decimal. Hitherto the pupil lias known fractions as equal parts of larger units, and has learned by lnspectiou to change them from one form to another and to combine and separate them to a limited extent. He is now,to grapple with the intricacies and complex ities which, for the learner, make fractions the bug-bear of arithmetic. By a series of well graded exercises the pupil is led from the known to the unknown till he compre hends the nature of fractions, the principles involved in changing the ratio of itsterms, factoring and the least common multiple, caueilLition and the multiplication and the division 6f oue fraction by another, and can with ease and confidence handle the fraction in all it6 forms and relations. Ae the course thus briefly summarized is rarely completed in one year, provision is made for much fractional work in the sixth year. The distinctive work of the sixth year, however, is the subject of denominate num bers and their various application. These are admirably adapted to 11 lustration by ob jects, of which much use is made. The pupil rehearses in the schoolroom the trans actions of the 6hop and the market. The various units of weights and measures are produced and their use exemplified by the pupil. Distances, surfaces and sohds are measured; wallsareplastered andpapered; floors laid and carpeted all with due re gard to a proper selection of materials and in conformity to local customs and prices current. The work of this year arfords ample scope for the practical ap plication of all the pupil's previous ac quirements in number. In the seventh year a specialty is made of percentage and its simpler applications, as profit and loss, commission, interest and taxes. To insure clearness of com prehension the subject is first taught analyt ically, the pupil reasoning constantly from one per cent, to any required num ber. Eventually the pupil discovers that one-halt and one-fourth are equivalent expressions for fifty and twenty-five per cent, and naturally adopts the shorter and more practical business methods of computation. The terms "base," "rate" and "per centage" having been carefully developed and comprehended, the corresponding terms of the applications, as each is studied, are correlated to them and graphically represented in a tabular view. It Is sought Ui all those applications to make the work as practical as possible by con forming to local business methods and customs The pupil is drilled in writing promissory notes, receipts and other busi ness papers, and is encouraged to bring to the class-room samples of the forms used n banking, insurance and all branches of b'jbiness, to test and develope the pupil's strength iu seeing the relations of num bers in problems, he is practised in mak ing concise statements of the successive steps involved in their solution. Because of the great variety of the applications of this subject, and of tiie complicated nature of the transactions they involve, comji, of its more difficult branches are not taught in litis grade. Ratio and pro portion are also a part of this year's work. All the arithmetic taught in the preceding grades is reviewed in the eighth grade, and the subject is completed by the addition of advanced work on percentage, involution and evolution, and mensuration. The ob ject of this final review is to give pupils a comprehensive idea of the subject as a whole. Constant practice is given in order that they may attain facility In execution and accuracy of results, as well as the power to comprehend the meaning of problems placed before them. Since we wish them to see the funda mental principles upon which all the various processes arc based, the applications of each principle are considered m their proper con nection, as related, not independent, suo Jects. For instance, in reviewing addi tion, the aim is not only to secure rapidity and accuracy in dealing with integers, but also equally good results with fractions and compound numbers. The principles of fractions are very care fully analyzed. Pupils of the eighth grade arc capable of good abstract reasoning, and can learn to discuss fractions with considerable ease. Careful attention, is given to the busi xess application of percentage Here is presented an excellent opportunity to teach proper methods of working with problems. PupllB must be trained to rend problems Intelligently, that they may dis cover readily the conditions or the case presented and know what item is re quired as a lesult. They t-hould be able to give the proper analysisand approximate results before beginning to use paper and pencil. Certain conditions being given, they should be ablo to supply a question. The making of original problems by pupils is an excellent practice. Such problems aro often moro interesting than those usually furnished in text books. Much mental work must be done in percentage. The written work should bo so arranged that the procetses followed may be appa rent at sight, Involution and evolution are subjects entirely new to the eighth grade. As they have the corresponding work in algebra, and as they also solve many problems algebraically, they here begin to see the relation of tlnc two branches of mathe matics. Elementary geometry is discussed as an introduction to the study of mensuration. The work is made as objective as pos sible, and absolute accuracy of defini tion iu required. Mensuration is one of the best subjects for testing the mental strength of a class. In all the grades above the third it is enjoined that the time of the recitation be given chiefly to the development of prin ciples and to ascertaining their applications, Class practice is restricted to the use of small numbers that the learner may give Ins whole attention to mastering principles aivd their practical applications. The prob lomsarevariedthattheminJsofthechildren may be kept active. They are made more and more complicated that the pupil may learn to sec relations of quantities and num bers that are very much involved. Practice with large numbers is required as seat-work In which pupils are held account' able for correct results. The ability of the pupil to solve the problems of the book with out help is held to be the measure of tho efficiency of the recitation work. The pupil is to receive no help in his efforts to under stand the problems assigned for seat-work. Regular and frequent reviews arc a cardinal feature of the course of study. In no other way can the pupil acquire a clear conception of a subject nor of its relations to all that has preceded it. The ability of the teacher to involve in the current work the application ot the pupil's previous acquirements is to a large degree the measure of her efficiency. The pupil who, in learning percentage has lost his knowledge of fractions and denominate numbers, has largely wasted his efforts. In his case the tablets of the mind are like an ancient palimpsest, whereon only the latest impression is legible. The course of study thus briefly summar ized is designed to secure both a reasonable skill In numerical computations and an intelligent understanding of the prin ciples which are the successive steps iu the solution of problems. N. P GAGE, Supervising Principal. Corps of Supervisors. No description of the "Washington public schools would be complete without referenco to the suiwrvising principals, or assistant superintendents, as they are called in many cities. It is admitted by all citizens and officials alike that to their special skill and zeal islargelydue the present high stand ard of work in the several divisions and in the grades below the high school. All are teachers of experience, having risen, as it were, from the ranks, all or nearly all having taught for years In the graded schools of "Washington before pro motion to their present positions. Their efforts are directed chiefly to mak ing the purpose of the course of study as a whole well understood and theTelation that each part sustains to the whole. The principle of school supervision and in spection by those having authority to criti cise and recommend, isvital totheprosperity of any system of public intruction; but tho effectual application ot the- principh; is measured by the fidelity, tact, judgment, scholarship and experience of the inspector. This work should be done by those con versant with the science and art of teaching, familiar with the doctrine and practice of of modern education, and in close touch with both teachers and parents, appre ciative alike of the difficulties of the former and the just wishes of tiie latter. In the board of supervising principals, the city of "Washington has, without a single excep tion, just such officials. No wonder, then, thnt the general pub lic is ready to commend them, and espe cially the teachers themselves, with whom tho supervisors come in daily contact. Their work is multifold, being greatly in creased ot late years by the adoption of the free text-book Eystera and the book keeping and storeroom accounts involved therein. . In the performance of their visltorial duties they endeavor to ascertain by in quiry observation and personal observa tion the proficiency of the pupils, the character of the discipline and instruction, the classification of the scholars, the con dition and relative merits of the books used, the methods and qualifications of the teachers, and by friendly advice and counsel to incite zeal for study, regularity and punctuality in attendance, correct ness in deportment, cheerful obedience to the teacher, but above all to awaken in each individual an ambition to do right. They try to make their visits an in spirational force that the stimulus and suggestion ot the visitation may make better students and better teachers. Their criticism may be at times severe, but sel dom offends, not only because it is deli cate, gracious and kind, but especially because it is just. All are deeply inter ested in their work, and that work is for the best interests ot the schools. They arc, in brief, the executive officers for the superintendents and the trustees, har monizing all diversified intprpetR Outside of the usual school hours they hold local meetings of their teachers, chiefly by grades, besides meeting weekly, sometimes moro frequently, at night at tho superintendent's call, to map out new work and to make reports. They also assemble frequently, first .in one division, then in another, at night ses sions for tho discussion of plans for carry ing out moro effectively the course of in struction. "We take pleasure in stating their names and . respective assignments: First divi sion, C. S. Clark; Second dlvision(A), N. P. Gage; Second division B), "W. B. Pat terson; Third division, A. T. Stewart; Fourth division. Isaac Fairbrothcr; Fifth division, B. T. Jnnncy; Sixth divIslon(A), J. R. Keene; Sixth division (B), J. T. Freeman; primary methods. Miss E. A. Dcnney; Seventh division, II. P. Mont gemery; Eighth division (A), "W. S. Mont gomery; Eighth division (B), J. H. N. Waring. XMPOSSIBLB. Tiailor If you don't pay me for tne Ctaolly But you can't make a. suit out In the Study of the Iiidhidtlal PUpil WHAT CLOSER PERSONAL ASSO CIATION HAS DONE. Its Effect on Discipline and on the More Thorough Educa tion of Children. An educational epoch, known as tho"era of books," is completed. In the past the intellect has becu confounded with the complete individual, and books regarded as a sufficient nutriment for all human faculties and powers. Histories were learned "by heart" and teachers of old measured off spaces in their lesson books. Against a regret on the part of parents that pupUB have "pored over books" too much , a depa rtment for th ecxerclse of other faculties is provided. In the manual training auOLcooking cla6bes new powers act, muscles and senses play, there is a change of place and recreation. A pupil who feels the force of manual dexterity will not "gcII his soul" to books. Every school day must of necessity have its marked rythm of fatigue. A new order of things throughout the country 1b fully ushered in young teachers have a certain excessive attention to school machines diverted to the study or the "individual child," there iaa study of "lies" and many faults, the play of children, mimicry, friendships, precocity, shyuess, and a set of charts containing observations kept by the teacher and parent. It is of great value to science. All educational reforms have been the direct result of closer personal association with children. "Frobel" and the greatest teachers ot the world lived with their pupils. He advised that when a child was born each parent open a "life book," to be kept without his knowledge and given him at maturity, as a guide to his choice of profession, etc. In the French schools, each child in the lower class is given a blank book, called, "cahier des devoirs mcnsuelles." This, the first day of each month, is given the child, who must be es pecially washed an ddressed, and in it he records the figures, sums, writing, draw ings, etc., constituting all the lessons of the day. This book never leaves the school house, and when the child's school days are ended it is deposited in the citj hall. It serves as a record of the child's progress, takes the place of the dreaded written ex amination and is a great stimulus. If a boy in primary or grammar school during ten minutes of school time makes a face at another, son wis, shuts one eye, Imi tates some animal, protrudes his tongue and moves it up and down sidewise, rolls his eyes, beats his feet in time to the music, stands on one foot, taps with each finger separately on the desk, folds his hands back of his head, picks up papers on the floor and each pupil may have a peculiar way of performing the acts which gives the key to the remedy the general deduction has been recorded that the powers and energy develop before the ability to check their exhibitions: these forms of disorder are the result of a lack of what the modern psychologist calls "co-ordination." As a result, of this study of separate cases the discipline Is related closely to the work in linnd. The teacher's approval rests on the child's individual effort and fidelity to the task in hand. Competitive work, examination marks, in such a method arc, of course, abandoned; the work must be done with a certain degree of enerjry due to a personal interest in the work; accusations of "unfairness, par tiality, and the like against the teacher yield to other feelings. A principal or teacher should never abandon her Interest and supreme Judge ship, but confine herself to a firm refusal to submit to wrong on the part of the pupil and to a stern, controlled require ment of right from unfortunate pupils whose training at home has been negative. Each teacher has at least one peculiar child who must be studied or left uncontrolled, but "sympathy" and "tact" are, of course, the roots of genius. There should, however, bespeclnl methods, refuges, and reformatory schools for the unmanagablc cases; also the celebrated German school, called "School for Dullards," so graphically described by a member of the force of the Bureau of Education of this city. Under this system set rules and penalties are not- practical because each child is to be t reated on the basis o t his o wn individual nnture, to be led from the staudpoljt of his own personnl peculiarities. It, therefore, becomes evident that the nbove modes make large claims on a con scientious teacher, on her skill, knowledge, energies, and conscience, and, therefore, larger numbers of skillful teachers are con stantly needed, necessarily entailing greater expense. In the primary department the "group table" stimulates a deeper, larger sense of duty. In the eighth grades of this city the same influence is continued in di visions of labor for the common good; the decoration of the room is a powerful agency in establishing unity the dullards thus stimulate their individual powers. Indeed, the eighth grades and high schools have in these directions reached the beginnings of institutional life. Li braries have been purchased from the proceeds or entertainments given by the pupils and compiled by them. A class of pupils has dramatized its own essay work, and from the proceeds of Its own little plays sold In New York and Boston has realized $200 with which to decorate school rooms. . The above methods of discipline dis cussed apply to principals' duties. Prin cipals who govern by "influencing" have utilized the piano as one means of ob taining "good lines" of pupils in their halls at recesses. Comparatively few rec ongize in music an ageucy which more than any other has power to kindle faith, sustain hope, establish gentleness, and give to school children and ork buoyancy and tone. Pupils fall into the spirit of the music the movement, rhythm and where Is the need for negative measures? The Import ance of utilizing natural methods is ob vious. "Education is the one thing in which nearly everyone in the world now believes." FLORENCE M. ROACH, Preparatory nigh School Class, Eighth Grade, Second Division. pants, I'll enter suit. ot a pair of pants. Compared with Daijs of Birdr Rods THE NEW EDUCATION &ND ITS COMMON SENSE MET-HODS. Teaching the Child According to the Natural Growth of His Faculties. Our age is witnessing a reformation no less real, though more peaceful and quiet than the reformation of religion in the fifteenth century. Tiie revival of learn ing which followed the fifteenth century reformation started in the right direction but somehow got ou the wrong track. Eveu in that day, however, there wero a few educational writers who advocated some of the reforms now adopted, but these reforms were so mingled with errors and religious doctrines, books were so scarce and tiie masses were so uneducated tiiat it was left for following centuries to separate the gold from the brass and give It to a better prepared public. Carlyle says of his instructors: "My teachers were hide-bound pedants, without knowledge of man's nature or of boys. My professors knew syntax enough and of the human soul this much: That It had a faculty called memory, that could be acted upon through the muscular integument by tho appliance of birch rods." Iu this quotation we get a suggestion of two fundamental errors in the old edu-" cation: Tiie training of the memory at tlTe expense ot all other mental faculties and the too frequent use of birch rods as a cure for all mental, moral, and eveu phys ical diseases at school. The new education is not altogether different from the old, but wider In scope. It is simply the embodiment ot a fuller idea of the needs of this rapid, progres sive, practical age. It alms to teach the child in the natural order. It realizes that a child has not all mental faculties while young; that observation acts first, then memory, which calls iuto play a mental coucept of objects previously observed, then imagination, and lastly judgment and reasoning. A funda'mentai aim of the new education rests on the fact tiiat all kuowledge comes to us through the sense. Hence it aims to develop sense perception aright; to teach the child to see all that there is in an object and no more; to tell simply what he bees aud uot what he thinks o guesses. This object training is begun In the kindergarten and given special attention throughout the school course. The child learns to count by objects, learns to add, subtract and multiply by objects; learns direction, length, breadth, bhape, color similarities aud differences by means of examining and grouping objects. This is carried still further in the public school by model and object-drawing and by con stant recourse to natural objects. It is found to be true in education no less than in matters of go&lp that "one eye-witness is better than ten hear-sayp.v" And so the evidence of ond's 6wn senses is better than whole pages of printed descriptions and explanations. In the past it has been too true that 'the bright boy who was more fond of studying nature than his books finally had th6 more definite knowledge of both. ' An aim of the new education Js to have more teachers walk hand,-in-band with nature, and study not only books, but na ture apd the mind. Through .nature child Hfeisseen tonecdonlythe proper conditions of development to attain a strong aud vigorous growth, Just as plants need heat, light and moisture. The teacher must bo the influence which gives these condi tions; the heat of enthusiasm, the light ot intellectual truth and the moisture of moral teaching by precept and example. The last is most important, for as plant life becomes stunted, parched, and finally dried without moisture, so child-life be comes narrow and stunted, and finally reaches moral death without the moisture of moral teaching added to intellectual. The weeds of bad habits aud bad impulses aro best choked out by tho increasing cultivation of good habits and good im pulses. Tho better nature is trained at the expeuse of the bad. This simple, practical and attractive way of trying to inculcate the moral truths and virtues in the youth of our land is a feature of the new education. This is character building. It conflicts with no religious creed, but aims at the formation of riglit habits: right habits of truthful ness, temperance, self-control, self-sacrifice, forbearance, patience, love, obe dience, gentleness, aud kindness to each other. Character building would add to these habits of promptness, attention, observa tion, .correct judgment, industry, and sustained application. If these things are not learned at school they must be learned in the competitive school of the world before success can be attained. It was formerly thought that these tilings should be learned at home or in Sabbath school, and the violation at school of the moro important ones, as lying and stealing, puuished with "birch rods." Another fundamental aim of the new education is industrial training, which is too full a theme to even touch upon here. I have briefly sketched some of the aims of the new education, yet all of its aims might be summed up in one: To give a practical education for life and its work. I have endeavored to show that the new education reaches this final aim through many minor ones, among the most im portant of which are the cultivation of thought in the natural order by new and scientific methods; moral training, which involves the formation of right habits; and a carefully directed system of man ual training. The new education is yet in its infancy. There are many problems yet unsolved, many extremes and exaggerations to be corrected. "When this new education Is better de veloped and spread abroad among the masses, we shall be nearing' that Utopian civilization toward which vthe world is marching. There will be more reason and less riot between employer and employe; the seemingly practicable pkins'of Henry George and Edward Bellamy will be rendered more practicable. . Perhaps we arc now scpingionly the golden dawn from the rising s,im of prac tical education among the nirtsscsj and perhaps it will be years beforewe shall be "looking backward" upon the effects of our ideal education. IDA M. GIBBLE. :f Moral Points in Teaching. The glory of the created "world is man. The glory of man lies not in his Intelligence, power, or -wealth, but in the highest development of his spiritual nature. "When the shuttle of time has woven the warp and woof of grand principles into an inseparable fabric, of character, then and then only has lie fulfilled the grand destiny for which he was oreated. Nothing is more dreadful to view than a medical museum, where all physical blemishes, nbnormaltles, and diseased portions of the human body are system atically arranged for inspection. Yet, daily, we come in contact with warped characters, moral leprosy, aud aimless, hopeless souls, whose presence we scarcely notice; yet, more dreadful than tho full category of physical ailments. "What can and does the public schools do to remedy these evils in the vast seething mass of humanity? Are hundreds of dollars spent by our government? Do teachers spend time and strength year after year in order to teach the youth merely the branches of the curriculum? Nay, verily, the aim is higher. It is to so train the flowers that there may be per- Don't 100 CHOICE LOT The Gem of Washington Suburbs, Situated on the main stem of the Pennsylvania Railroad, in Prince George's County, Md., within a few minutes' ride of the center of the city and ahout one quarter of a mile from the District line, with railroad station on the grounds. Com mutation almost as low as street-car fare, SIX CENTS. All lots are situated on a high elevation commanding a beautiful view of the surrounding country and in view of Washington. CHOICE LOTS, $ SMALL Warranty Deed Free. That Tuzedo has the heat of train facili ties. That we ofibr you tho best lots for tho least money. That tho Titlo has been examined by ono of tho best Title Companies. That Deed is given absolutely free, without any cost to purchaser. That Taxes ara paid in full until lot is paid for. That Tnxedo is not backed up by any syndi cate, but by the largest operator in sub urban property in this country. Four houses already completed and occupied. Five more houses and a church in course of construction. Contracts out for several more houses. People buy to-day and build to-morrow. Buy now while you have the chance. Don't put it off any longer. Make up your mind to-day to go out and look at this desirable property. Sunday Trains Leave at 9 a, m. hlu, 4:10, and 6 p, m. Week days at 1 1 :40 a. m., 4.30 and 6 p. m. Circulars and tickets at office or from our agents at Pennsylvania Railroad depot, Sixth and B streets northwest EDO feet seed, from -which may spring a tree of life fadeless and imperishable. Briefly wo will glance at some of the work done in tho first three grades of our-public schools to further ethical teaching. For good mental and moral development we believe Jn a good animal to start with and so our health exercises and physiology teach a reverence for our bodies and prac tical application for these theories. The child is taught the evil results following the use of alcohol and tobacco; he is shown how soul and body are ruined by this nefarious business; his mind is taught to abhor men whose livelihood is gained by ruining their fellow-men. Accuracy and truthfulness aro essentials of a noble character. These two things are taught plainly in the languago and the num ber work. The child is to give you what he has seen, as he has seen it, in concise expression, HJs paper must tell you the truth, the statements must be a truthful embodiment of previously developed scien tific or mathematical facts. Thus the habit of honest work is formed; a habit of Inestimable business value. The wond is filled with beauty, the half of which we nover see, because the scales are still on our eyes. In the study of plant life, the wonderful processes of germination, growth and de velopment, open new beauties to the grow ing child mind. As he investigates for him self, the shape and use of calyx, corolla, pistil, and stamen, ho realizes, dimly it may be, tho power and love of the Great Master hand back of tho visible effect of beautirul colors and forms. In natural and spiritual growth the principal of im pression followed by expression Is of para mount importance. After the impression of beauty has been mndo follows the expression in the draw ing work. Tho hand is taught to execute what tho mind has conceived. The cu rious habits of many of our common ani mals, toccther with a regard for their welfare and man's duty toward them, aro taught iu the animal work of tho prescribed courso in science. Through song and story tho sweet in fluences of refined life are thrown around many whoso home lives are devoid of an activo principle ot true soul culture. From beginning to end the school work Is most admirably planned to bring the butterfly from the unattractive chrysalis. What would become of the next genera tion without tho obedience necessary to a good school, I don't know. Children come to us without the faintest suspicion that there is any authority under tho broad heavens which they must recog nize. Wbero would our government be were this lawless spirit allowed to grow unchecked until Young America ruled at tho polls, a wiser head than mine would need to prophesy. To dovelop the best in each individual child is the aim of the teachers of "Wash ington. Our schools stand In all their power and strength for God, Home, and Native Land. VIRGINIA TAYLOR, Tbird Grade, Grant Building. Ideas of a Substitute. Of all the experience of a public school life nono can be more varied than that of tho substitute teacher, none can be harder, and certainly nono more amusing. It is varied, for seldom is a teacher absent from her accustomed place for more than two or three consecutive days. The substitute; who has by this time become acquainted with the pupils and with tho work of the school, and is able to obtain work nearly as satisfactory as does the teacher, is than transferred to another "sphere of useful ness." This tirao she may experience many of the samo difficulties with which she has already contended, but she may rest as sured that there will also appear at least half a dozen others of which she has never dreamed before. .ThisJs'probably ono of tho schools for even the best disciplined are among tho number which halls with 'delight the ar rival of the substitute, who has come de termined to conquer, while they are deter mined that tliis absence of the teacher shall mark a gala day in the year's record. Then will como the struggle, for the pupils bavedecided that no scheme, by which they may obtain their desires, shall remain untried. If for any reason the substitute is not able to overcome the first attempt toward disorder, or overlooks the first of fense, the school will be master of tho situ ation, and by no future attempt can she gain the lost ground. If, however, she has B e Too ONLY AT 35 PAYMENTS BOWH AHD $1 WEEKLY. Ten Per BER CO., 623 F succeeded in quieting the first storm she must be vusy alert in order to retain her hold. Shouldshebefurnishedwlthaprogramme for the day, her trials will be greatly lessened. She will have definite work before her, and the time for mischief cannot come while she is trying to decide what to do next. Just so surely as that teacher obtains the best results who prepareshersclf for her work before coming to school, so that substitute is most suc cessful in both work and discipline who is prepared to keep the school most busy. No idle hands will find time for mischief if 6he assigns, and insists upon receiving, a certain amount of work. But if, on the other hand, no work is prepared, and she is not familiar with the work, she must be prepared for disorder. In order to hold a school to which she may besent.asubstitutemusthaveakwowledge of the methods of work in all the grades. To do this, a greater part of her time not spent in teaching must beinthcschoolroom, taking notes for future reference. Despite the trials and perplexities with which a substitute meets, her life is not over-burdened, and she is not always dis couraged. There are always many things of such an amusing nature, that the wise substitute will enjoy heartily, and allow the school to do the same, thus making the atmosphere of the room as pleasant and friendly as when the regular teacher is present. Teaching Geography. Children delight in maps. To understand geography Is largely to understand maps and all helps toward facility in that di rection are gladly welcomed by teachers. The early steps In our work are essentially aided by two provisions, one of the school board and one of Providence 1. e., sand boards and accessible suburbs prickling with Illustrations. The former are wooden trays three inches deep, three feet wide and four feet long, painted blue on the In side and mounted on a desk on the platform. About a peek of clean, damp sand completes tho "weapon." Rock Creek, Kaloraraa Heights, new streets, new road cuts, Mulligan's Hill, and the Aqueduct Bridge offer hospitable treasures. By previous lessons In field and room the natural divisions of land and waterhave been taught; skill in building the land masses has been acquired; the forms of water, effects of heat, winds and draughts have been made plain by simple physical experiments; thay have drawn maps of their desks, room, school yard, and block from the sand models built on a scale re duced from their actual measurements. They are now ready to combine forms and troop to tho fields with tablet, pencil and lino. They have lists of what they are to find and shouts aro expected, thanks to Archimedes'exampled "Eureka." We know when they find an island, or a canon, or a sloping crevico beginning a stream bed. They can talk of "new stream," "flood nlain ." "maturo stream," "source slope" and "cutting power" as glibly as you, say- "a, b, c." A canon is selected, staked in yard squares, tho tablets being blocked in inch squares. The edges of the canon are drawn block by block; islands, prominent trees, or foreign features are noted in position. It Is hard work, but permission to sketch anything af terwards keeps pencils and brains busy. The next day the trip is talked over freely. On the blocked sand-board the canon is built from field notes, the seated pupils, adding, correcting, or modifying tho children's work at tho board. A map is drawn from tho sand-map using tho different devices for representation. This leads to the wall maps which, when, used in connection with the relief maps, whether in sand, picture, or paper, have a new meaning. Excellent relief maps or the continents or sections may lie obtained for from five to fifteen cents apiece. Too mueucannot ba said ofpietures asan aid to this work of transforming physical features into a reality, peopled and alive. The most convenient way to use them is to have quartered whole sheets of bristol board and the pictures laid smootn lyonwithflourpastc. Large stiff ones may be mounted with brass tags, after drawing thecorners through slitsinlheboanl. Never economize paper; a Eneet containing one picture, however small, is worth more than a jumble of many not bearing on the point in question. Keep them classified, ready for use, in labeled, nianilla covers. Product charts, when used intelligently, are invaluable, but when given over to a barbarous riot in material, color and logic are poison. The best bIzc Is that of the quartered bristol sheets and the best ar rangement, that which talks the truth. We must bend in acknowledgment of tn EMEM Late! SLEFT t AND UP Cent. Off for Cash. ! That the commutation is almost as low as street-car fare SIX CENTS. That it is easier to'own your own home than paying rent. That ono of tha best loan associations will lend you money on very easy terms to build. And last, but not least, that Tuxedo is the prettiest of all subdivisions around "Wash ington, being within easy access, high, and healthy, and must be seen to ba appreci ated, as words are inadequate to praise its many advantages. Polite agents will take you out any time to see the grounds. ST. N. W.J railroad maps and guides. They furnish us with pictures; a buzz of a threadless sewing machine makes the maps into fine stencils, which are very useful for board, maps ot product belts. A Mercatur's map of the hemispheres, painted on the black board, is almost indispensable. ESTELLA CONSTANCE DRANE. Ho Came .Near It. "I proposed to Miss Gladys Beautlgbv last night," "Ah! and she accepted yon?" "Well, no o o, not exactly, but sha came so near doing so that a great deal or the sting wa3 taken out of her refusal. She said she would have accepted me if I had had plenty of money and a perfect disposition, and my eyes were brown in stead of blue, and my hair curly, and I was two inches taller, and was winning fame in my profession, and possessed per sonal magnetism, and came of an old and blue-blooded family, and would always let her have her own way, and never smoked nor wanted to stay out late at night, and did not belong to any lodge, and would keep a stylisn turnout and plenty of servants, and really wanted her mamma to live with U3, and a few other things which I have forgotten. But IT a fellow must fail in an undertaking it is encouraging to him to think that ha came very near winning." Harper's Bazax- Qniet Tastes. Mrs. Teast Is your husband a man ox. quiet tastes? . Mrs. Crimsonbeak You wouldn't think so if you heard him smack his lips at the table. SToukers Statesman. CRAIG & HARDING, Cor. 13th and FS;s. Awnings, $2.75. We will send a man up, take the measure of 3our win dow, make (on iron frame) and hang Awnings giving you choice of nearly fifty varieties of stripes for $2.75 each. None better made. Balance of the Ice Chests ', and Refrigerators at exactly "one-third" off the present prices. All Mattings at cost and less. Cor. 13th and F Sts. lli51BS' a s si ft 1 1 a v, OAIIsIiIlIa"