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The Washington times. (Washington [D.C.]) 1901-1902, August 07, 1901, Image 4

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn87062245/1901-08-07/ed-1/seq-4/

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SnhcrIptlon by Mail Olio Year
Mohmo Kvfmmj anbSumjav oo
EundayOaiv LOO
Monthly by Carrier
Moilmnq AtDbuiAY Z7ifrti Jire cent
EU AMlStTMJlY Z7lirtlJre COlfl
WifnivGTOS T C
Circulation Ftalcnicm
The circulation o The Times for the week
rnJed August 3 1101 was as follows
f unday Julr 2S 1C5CJ
Xonlay July SWIS
Tuoday July 30 30
UdneIiiv July 31 38010
Thursda Auut 1 3H
Vrular Ausru t 2 373
fcaturdaj August 3 3 J103
Total 251371
Daib avcraEO Sunday 1S9C excepted 3331
Wnr In South Amerien
If all we hear through the press de
spatches be true the revolutionary
troubles in Venezuela and Colombia are
more serious than hitherto has been
supposed The matter is a complicated
one and is rather hard to analvze at
this distance We can understand the
movement headed by General Uribe
Uribe in Colombia because it appears
to be a popular effort to ov erturn n me
dieval despotism much after the jat
tern of the dictatorship of Lopez in
Paraguay which was wiped out a quar
ter of a century ago But it is said that
both the Unbe Uribe uprising and the
insurrection in A enezuela are the result
of a plan of which President Cipriano
Castro is the author to consolidate the
States of Venezuela Colombia and
Ecuador into a single sovereignty This
the parties in rower in the two coun
tries last named oppose The situation
seems to warrant the expectation that
there will be formal war between Vene
zuela and Colombia andif that should
happen the United States cannot be a
wholly disinterested spectator
Already a party of Colombian revo
luti -mists hae looted the Panama Rail
way storehouses of powder dynamite
and tools This Goiernment is under
tieaty obligation to protect that line
and undoubtedly will land marines and
blu Jackets for that purpose There is
one thing significant and amusing in
connection with the Venezuelan out
break against General Castros admin
istration The real head and front of
-the rebellion is bUn carefully kept in
the background and this is not strange
in view of the fact that General An
drades identification with the Interests
of the Asphalt Trust render it incon
venient to hae him adertlsod in the
United States as the prime mover in an
adventure which if successful every
body knows will result in giving the
trust an absolute monopoly of the
Venezuelan asphalt deposits without
regard to the rights of outside conces
sionaires On this account the Admin
istration is credited w ith a strong desire
to see the Castro Goiernment over
thrown its interest In the Asphalt
Trusts w elfare being a matter of com
mon notoriety
AlTnirH In Culm
General Maximo Gomez is an able
and subtle politician lie may be de
pended upon alwavs to find out which
way the w ind of public opinion is blow
ing and then blow with it While -on
his recent isit to this country he talk
ed glibly and with apparent earnestness
about the inevitableness of ultimate
Cuban annexation But no doubt that
was for advertising purposes in the
United States Now he finds that an
nexation is not a popular word to conjure-
with in Cuba and so he denies that
he thinks the island ought to become
a part of the United States
The foxy old gentleman is right about
one thing however In a recent state
ment he said and said truly that -we
Americans are not bothering our heads
about the question of annexation in
asmuch as the Piatt terms ghe us 11
we care for Aiid they do although ve
think it would hae been frarker and
better had they been more explicit and
had inform Hl the Cuban people In clear
terms what trey might expect But
that is a past matter This country
will garrison the Cuban forts over
which the Stars and Stripes will float
It will supervise the foreign relations of
the new State and generally exercise a
friendly but firm suzerainty which in
effect ill amount to a protectorate
although nobody connected with our
Executive or Congress would think of
to calling it
By and by the Cubans probably will
think that having- the game they might
ns well have the name and ask the
United States to let them in as a Ter
ritory Statehood they could not hope
for That would give them the right
of free tiade with other parts of the
common country The Havemeyers
would see to It that they did not get
that But as a Territory the full ter
rors of DIngleyism could be lislted
upon them if the Bunsby opinion of
Sir Justice Brown is to stand Per
haps they mav come to prefer Ameri
canization even with that handicap to
existence under two flags
What Mo Clinilvvlck Know
Admiral Sampsons faithful friend
and pet captain Chadwick i3 reported
as saving that he has important testi
mony to give against Admiral Schley
before the investigating board Judging
from his past expressions we have no
reason to doubt that this courtly and
fair minded naval officer will rather
strain himself in his effort to diminish
the fair fame of the man whom the
whole world outside of a small sized
American naval clique hails as the real
victor of Santiago
At the same time we find ourselves
unconsciously wondering what Chad
wick knows about the matter anyway
He was not at Cienfuegos while Schley
was there he was not at Santiago In
the preliminary stages of the naval op
erations at that point he was not near
enough to the battle with Cerveras
ships to know anything about the fa
mous loop or any other point con
nected with the engagement Chad
wick was both figuratively and literally
Jn the same boat with Sampson and
both were far enough from the scene
of action not only to be secure in their
persons but blissfully ignorant of what
was going on beyond the simple fact
that a battle was being fought in their
Hut we need not stop here with Cap
tain Chadwick If with a piercing and
far reaching -vision unknown to ordi
nary men he was able to see and know
things from afar and thus become pos
sessed of Important testimony
against Schley how comes it that Cap
tain Chadwick has kept it to himself all
of these years during which the ene
mies of Schley have moved heaven nrd
eirh so far as their puny efforts
would go to find something tangible
against that gallant officer If Captain
Chadwick had personal knowbdse cf
misconduct on Schleys part anv thing
of a really serious nature it was his
duty to lay it before the department
long and long ago
Since the Battle of Santiago the Pres
ident has recommended Schley for pro
motion to the grade of rear admiral
and the Senate has actsd upon the rec
ommendation Then was the lime for
Captain Chadwick to eonio forward
with his important testimony against
Schley if he had any And then was
the time for the Navy Department to
make its show ing if it had one to make
If the department had no reason then
to offer why Schley should not be pro
moted it is reasonable and pertinent
to enquire how when and whore it has
learned anything against Schley since
that time
The f i lends of Admiral Schley o the
number of about seventy six millions
are not woirylng much about anv thing
that Captain Chadwick Is likely to svy
If he knew anything of importance
bearing upon the subject and knew it
when the control ersy nst arose Le
ought to have been court martialed for
not lading it before the proper authori
ties if his alleged testimony consists of
something that he has picked up slDce
it is of no value in the case If Chad
wick confines himself to what he ac
tually knows about the Battle of San
tiago his testimony will hurt nobody
except possibly Sampson
The Chnnre of Iunliriirntloti Dn
The New York Tribune puts in a
strong and earnest plea for a change of
the inaugural date from Match 1 to
about April 30 It is a pleasure to note
this and The Times earnestly hopes
that the press of the entire country will
take up the matter -and push it vigor
ously until the proposed change is
made As the Tribune suggests
there is everything to gain and nothing
to lose by it People living elsewhere
and who are not Jn the habit of attend
ing Presidential Inaugurations may
not appreciate the reasons for the
change but they at least should not ob
ject and it is not likely that many will
The inaugural ceremonies are essen
tially out-of-door exercises and the
fourth day of March is a date when we
may fairly and reasonably expect home
of the worst weather of the entire year
Not only may we expect It but we fre
quently get it in the fulltst measure It
is not a pleasant spectacle to see the
President elect standing bare headed in
a driving snowstorm or a beating rain
while delivering his address But if it
were merely a question of his personal
comfort the matter might be arranged
There Is however no way of taking
care of the marching columns and the
hundred thousand spectators who line
the streets or pack the open space on
the east front of the Capitol
The pageant of inducting into office
the Chief Magistrate of the greatest
nation on earth should if possible be
accompanied by every beautiful adjunct
that nature can furnish On or about
April CO Washington is one of the love
liest spots Imaginable with its green
leaves and bright flowers with its trees
and shrubbery just putting forth their
foliage in freshness and vigor
But after all these are minor points
People will attend the inaugurals no
matter what the weather may be and
every stormy inauguration measures its
victims by the score if not by the hun
dred A bleak and stormy inauguration
day is as destructive of human life as
is a good sized modern battle Every
old resident of Washington can testify
to this fact and if for no other reason
the date should be changed as a meas
ure for the protection of the lives and
the health of those who attend
The objections such as that it will
prolong the Presidential term and ex
tend the short session of Congress a few
weeks aie utterly trivial and ought not
to be given a feathers weight against
the considerations to be urged in favor
of the change Let Jhe District Com
mittee continue its efforts to secure the
desired legislation and let every Wash
ingtonian aid in any manner that he
can With earnest work it can be ac
complished and when it is done the
whole country should rejoice It will
help Washington Immensely add to the
beauty and impresslveness of the ceie
mony itself operate to the comfort of
all who attend or take part save In the
aggregate many thousand of lives and
do no possible harm an where
In the July number of Guntons
Magazine appears an interesting ar
ticle by George E Walsh on the sub
ject of Mortgaged Nations In this
article the writer points out that China
Persia Portugal Turkey and various
South Ameiican countries are so heav
ily indebted to Europe aij virtually to
be in pawn and unable to make an In
dependent move of any consequence
With reference to several of the na
tions mentioned this is true and in it
self it may not be a bad thine for the
world that such a condition exists It
is not easy to see any independent move
that China Persia or Turkey is likely
to inaugurate that promises much ben
efit to the civilized portion of mankind
Those countries will never progress cf
their own independent motion What
w e call the progress of the w orld they
regard as merely a multitude of bar
barous and hideous Innovations They
take this position because the masses
of their people know nothing- mid care
nothing about progress while the priv
ileged classes and rulers see In it 10th
Ing but a curtailment of their own
The most serious feature of the situa
tion created by this mortgaging process
Is found In the antagonisms and rival
ries engendered among the Euiopean
nations themselves There is at tills
time scarcely a blngle question of in
ternal national rollcy that is likely to
embroil any European State In war
The dangers all or nearly all He In
questions that are external which per
tain to rights and Interests that have
been acquired or claimed far nway
from home and within the geographical
boundaries of other countries Ques
tions of territorial ownership on their
own borders may lead to hostilities be
tween Germany and France and be
tween Italy and Austro IIungary but
the great issues which threaten the
peace of Europe are to bo found In
Chln i In the Balkans and in the coun
tries adjacent to British India
So far as Turkey is Concerned her in
debtedness to Great Britain is only a
small part of the so called Eastern
question which mav light the llames
of war at any moment The Turkish
Empire bars the Itus ian advance to
the Southern seas and serves as a pro
tection to Englands great Asiatic de
pendency Still British interests il
Turkish bonds are very far from beinr
a matter of unconcern to the British
Government All of these financial con
siderations enter into the general sit
uation and tend seriously to complicate
it The indebtedness of China has al
ready led to teiritorial concessions by
way of security that may yt culminate
in the total dismemberment of the Ce
lestial Empire What results may flow
from the indebtedness of the South
American States cannot be foreseen at
this time
It is quite certain though that were
It not lor the very determined assertion
of the Monroe Doctrine by the United
States South American debts in Eu
rope might easily be made the excuse3
for numerous seizures of territory en
that continent The rapid growth of
the American Republic in power has
even now made any assault by a Eu
ropean nation upon South American
territorial integrity a matter f in
finite danger to the assailant a darger
which must Increase as the American
Republic Increases In strength We
may hardly look for any such attempt
In South America the problem Is
chiefly Important as one of econumics
Argentina for example is so heavily
indebted that it takes the whole of her
great trade balance to meet the foreign
demands against her and the same is
true of Brazil Both of those nations
have great productive capacity and
they maj finally work out of debt but
the heavy drafts -upon them are a
seriously retarding influence As The
Times has repeatedly pointed out the
United States has occupied a similar
position Only a few years ago some
very able economists were of the
opinion that we never would be able to
relljve ourselves of the burden that
was weighing us down But the revival
of industry the advance of prices and
the enormous increase of our export
trade have materially changed the sit
uation and in the absence of setbacks
we may now safely anticipate the time
when our demands against the -est of
the world will equal or exceed the
amount of our own obligations
But It Is very doubtful whether such
nations as China Persia and Turkey
will ever be able to liquidate except by
giving up territory and every such con
cession will render the relations be
tween the great Powers more complex
and sensitive In this aspect of the
matter the mortgaging of nations is of
the greatest political significance and
may easily lead to consequences that
will be most disastrous to some of the
creditor nations -themselves
Ait Object LeNMon on Fnltli
There was e man in Albion Michigan
recently who believed that faith was
omnipotent It is appropriate to use
the past tense In this connection be
cause the man does not live there now
He pased out in the language of the
cult some days ago as the result of an
From his point of view- the experi
ment was perfectly rational He had
acquired a faith so strong that he be
lieved implicitly In the promise of Paui
so generally ignored by the average be
liever in Christian Selene If they
drink any deadly thing it shall not hurt
them For some reason or other the
faith which is proof against microbes
and broken bones seems shy of poisons
If about fifty Christian Scientists weie
publicly to swallow virulent poisons in
full view of an audience in Madison
Square Garden or s ime similar place
ln the presence of reputable physicians
and druggists who could testify that
the drugs were genuine It would prob
ably result In cither a great Increase in
the number of believers or a total col
lapse of the movement
This man however believed in the
liarmlessness of poisons firmly enough
to Illustrate his belief and he took
twenty four grains of morphine The
result was encouraging His stomach
had rejected the dose and he still lived
This thing however has been known
to happen In other cases If the mor
phine had staid in his system and done
him no harm the miracle would indeed
have ben a powerful one
Th result of the experiment encour
aged him so much that he announced
that he was also proof against bullets
Hi bought a revolver went out In the
front yard placed the weapon with the
muzzle against his temple and hot
himself At last accounts the victim
still believed himself dead
This event loses some of its sadness
when wo reflect that if this man had
rested content with his morphine ex
periment he would probably have made
some proselytes and If it had become
fashionable among the credulous peo
ple In that neighborhood to take
strychnine parls green and prusslc
acid the result would probably have
been several deaths instead of one As
It Is the progress of that variety of
faith In that particular community has
probably been checked
ArtilU lnl Coolliens
It has been suggested that It ought to
be as easy to make clubs hotels and
business offices cool In summer as to
freeze pork and beef at the same sea
son by artificial means and that in the
future as much attention will be given
to cooling as to warming the dwelling
of the civilized human being The
New York Herald ventures to state
that a hundred years hence It will prob
ably be a matter of surprise that the
American of the nineteenth century did
not attend to this
There is however some reason to
doubt the desirability of such an Inno
vation Anyone who has gone into a
cold storage warehouse cellar or sonx
other place artificially cooled on a
broiling July day has probably been
conscious of a feeling of uneasiness
which is not present on entering a
warm room In December There seems
to be an Instinctive perception that It is
not altogether safe to try to secure ar
tificial coolness beyond a ceijaln point
The heat of summer undoubtedly has
a beneficial effect on the human frame
when there is no over exertion or rash
exposure to complicate matters The
person who attempts to go through the
summer with the same habits and
clothing to which he is accustomed In
winter nnd spring Is foolish It was not
intended that he should do anything of
the kind The wise course Is rather to
abstain from violent exertion when not
accustomed to it ti kelrp out of the sun
during the hottest part of the day to
dress comfortably and eat sparingly
and In tlie words of Mr Dooley Lave
it be hot when It Is hot The electric
fan and like device which keep the air
stirring and thus make It purer by car
rjlng off the air already poisoned by
exhalations from the body are Useful
things and so Is a slfady cool well
ventllated loom lif the neighborhood of
trees If possible an exceedlingly good
thing but as for cold storage places or
rooms cooled by liquid air and such
things the less the human frame has
to do w 1th those the better In passing
from a cellar w Ith Its cold though per
haps perfectly dry atmosphere to the
scorching heat of the sidewalk there Is
no possibility of protecting ones self
as In going from a warm room Into the
wind of a January blizzard Moreover
in the latter cose the body is to ascer
tain extent ready to resist evil effects
in the former the pores are open and
the whole system relaxed
With proper care one may work
nearly if not quite as hard In summer
as in winter It is not necessary to
draw u parallel between the inhabitant
of n temperate zone in July and August
and the denizen of a tropical country
The latter never get3 any bracing cold
weather to build him up It is not the
heat which makes him Indolent and in
capable of sustained exertion but the
monotony of it Change of climate dur
ing the year Is a good thing and the
American climate gives one enough of
it and to spare Nine tenths if not ninety-nine
one hundredths of the Ameri
can people do not take the trouble to
evade It3 changes They stay where
they are winter and summer and it
may be noted that this immense ma
jority Is all things considered as
healthy as the small minority which is
able to dodge both heat and cold by
continued travel
- After a painful search the Acting Scc
re tary of the Xav y has unearthed ex-Secretary
Chandlers letter complaining of
the statements made In Admiral Evans
book concerning his administration of the
Navy Department Nothing Is expected
to happen in consequence Ilickett and
Crownlnshleld regard Mr Chandler as an
edition out of print and as a blooming
civilian Moreover they want to keep
on the warm side of Evans because he Is
to be a witness before tho Schley Court
of Enquiry Evans Is safe for tho pres
ent What might occur should Congress
g t after him is quite another question
Chandler can wait if he must He is any
thing but a forgetful man
His admirers as well as those who
would like to insert a bolo In his midriff
are becoming aware that Vice President
Roosevelt Is out West after big game to
wit delegates to the next Republican Na
tional Convention Senator Thomas C
Piatt and other leaders who do not Jove
Teddy perhaps faro not particularly
worried Kettle Hill and khaki are not
as strong cards as they were a couple of
-ears ago besides which Marcu3 A Han
na wants the nomination and that will
settle the matter as far as Roosevelt Is
Senator Stewart lot Nevada has joined
the ranks of the Hanna Presidential
boomers He Is quoted as saving yester
day In my opinion Sp nator Hanna will
be nominated I believe tho more
the people understand him the better they
will like him Thesa words will sound
strangely in tno eats of those who have
listened to the peppery punctuated re
marks of Senator Stewart In reference
to the same Individual three or four years
ago But Ignoring that matter the
American people do not need to know any
thing about Mr Hanna that they arc un
aware of now They are not oblivious
of certain things connected with his elec
tion to the Senate and their opinion of
him as a citizen is rather well and con
clusively formed But Senator Stewart Is
right in considering him the logical can
didate of the Republican party Were
he acceptable on moral or ethical grounds
his candidacy would not be logical
It Is reported from Europe that the per
manent ottlcials of Tho Hague Arbitration
Tiibunal are expected to take the initia
tive in protesting against the plan of tho
British Government exposed by- Colonial
Secretary Chamberlain to arm tne sav
age tribes of South Africa and turn them
loose on the Boers Whether the story
be true or not It Is reasonably certain
that the plan will not be carried into ef
fect without leading to vigorous repre
sentations from tho Continent and very
possibly intervention The moral sense
of civilized nations will not stand quite
overs tiling
The appointment of Rear Admiral How
lson retired as the thlid member of the
Schley Court of Enquiry appears to be a
good one It is not understood that ho
has expresed hlmseir In relation to the
Simpson scandal and his distinguished
career in the navy justittes the country
in expecting that he will do his duty on
the bench as for years he did on the
bridge without fear or favor
Governor Onnan of Colorado is a na
tive of Muscatine Iowa and went to Col
orado as a poor boy In ISO getting work
as a railroad laborer He rose In the
buhlnees and has been connected with It
for thirty jears
The old Patterson home on Patterson
Street In Lexington Ky Is to be re
moved to Das ton Ohio by Thomas H
Patterson a grandson of the founder of
Lexington The home is one of the his
toric spots which made the Kentucky
town famous
Luko Fields R A who has been hon
ored by the command to paint the official
portrait of King Edward has latterly
painted many portraits His best known
pictures are perhaps Tho Village Wed
ding and Tho Doctor
Lord Ijimlngton who has been chosen
as the new Governor of Ceylon gets the
bluo ribbon of British colonial appoint
ments The duties are light tho salary
Is large and thero is a capital residence
Rev Mr Pearson who holds the office
of sheriff of Cumberland County Port
land Maine sajs that since he began his
vigorous enforcement of tho Statu pro
hibitive law ho has been offered at least
jlOOiJ In bribes These were all tender
ed in the vain hope that he would let
Surgeon Kinyoun recently of San Fran
cisco and now in charge of the marine
hospital at Detroit has been detailed to
visit Japan and China to inspect the work
of tho Marine Hospital Service with spec
ial reference to the plague Dr Kinvoun
was one of the Marine Hospital experts
who was ubuMd by San Franciscans for
saving there were plague cases In Chi
The Rev A A James has Just preached
his fiftieth anniversary sermon at tho
Fair Forest Presbjterian Church In Un
ion County S C Pcoplo gathered from
three counties for tho occasion The
church was first built of big logs In the
days when there were many Indians in
that region 1731 In 1S19 a brick edifice
was erected
Major A A Ames of Minneapolis an
nounces himself as a candidate for Con
gress on the Republican ticket as suc
cess r to loren ITetcher The hitter
however has net announced his Inten
tion of retiring
Mrs Andrew Carnegie- Is a vry plain
practical woman who buis carefully
Thus vvliile her gowns are fashionable
phe wastes no part of her money on Paris
The actlv Ity of all the opposition parties
in Prance would seem to foreshadow an
onslaught on the Republic at the elections
next May Recently tho whole of the
front page of the Figaro was occupied
by interviews with Prince Victor Napo
leon and the Duke of Orleans and n sn
thcsls of the views of tho Imperialist
and Rojallst leaders which may be re
garded as constituting the electoral pro
gramme of tho two parties
It Is curious to note that both Prince
Victor Napoleon and the Duke of Orleans
Insist that the qualification of party
npplltd to their partisans is Incorrect
According to Prlnco Alctor Napoleon a
party necessarily supposes cxcluslvlam
With the plebiscitary doctrine which
offers the same refuge and the same
protection to all under the aegis of the
national will excluslvlsm must not and
cannot exist
The personal declarations of the Duko
of Orleans to his Interviewer were to tho
effect that he witnessed with grief tho
excessive zeal of some of tho Royalists
They do not understand that the white
flag is today a Utopia The Pretender
expressed complete approval of nil tho
declarations which had been made to the
representative of the Figaro by M
Bezlne chief of tho Royalist polltloal
bureau In Paris That gentleman had
nfflrmed that the Royalists do not con
stitute a party in the real signification of
the word They have a higher ambition
that of uniting all Frenchmen on tho
ground of national right Action he
said assumes numerous forms If the
occasion presents Itself wc shall not
shrink from any Remember we trave
for chief a prince who said One comes
back as one can
The Duke expressed his assent to this
declaration by a vigorous movement of
the head For tho Royalists tho elections
furnlih the means to affirm to the French
nation their conviction that the restora
tion of the monarchy Is the right solu
tion The- will accept coalition witn uie
other p irties opposed to the present
regime but In supporting other tban
Royalist candidates they will not conceal
their monarchical principles
The Austrian Government has sent two
cruisers to cruise on the Albanian coast
A demonstration on the part of Austria
may be herein discerned as the Albanian
question has lately become rather dis
Montenegro has spread the report that
Austria has intentions on Albania which
threaten Italian Interests there Owing to
tho closeness of the relations existing be
tween the Itallans andMontenegrln Court3
It Is only natural that tho Italian press
should take up a hostile attitude toward
Austria in consequence of which Italy
feels obliged also to send ships to those
w aters
The direct cause of the decision of the
Austrian Government was a speech by
Prince Danilo of Montenegro the heir
apparent at a banquet in Cettlnje con
taining a concealed threat against Aus
tria He said that Montenegro was in
sulted and challenged but though a
small State was brave and would know
how to defend Its interests
That matters arc somewhat acute in
the Balkans is shown by the refusal of
the Porte for political reasons to allow a
Greek squadron to enter Turkish waters
to visit Smyrna Salonlca and Athos For
the first time the International policy of
a Power In time of peace has forbidden
the fleet of another to enter her harbors
King Edward of England recently pass
ed a week at the Staffordshire estate of
the Grand Duke Michael Mlchallovltch
who ten years ago offended the lato Czar
by contracting a morganatic marriage
with Sophie Countess of Merenbcrg The
marriage closed his career in Russia He
was reconciled a year or two back to
tho Russian autocracy in the person of
Czar Nicholas but he has remained a
European cosmopolitan and wanders over
the British Isles and the adjacent conti
nent taking his game wherever ho finds
It for he is a mighty sportsman No one
living has done more for the town of
Cannes which by the way a lord chan
cellor of England Brougham Invented or
discovered than the Grand Duke Michael
There he spends every winter or what
passes on the Riviera for winter and to
bo asked to his wifes at home Is to
receive the Imprimatur and bo at once
in Cannes society which is nothing If
not exclusive To him the golf club at
Cannes owes Its foundation but lawn
tennis Is his real love and he is very hard
to beat at it His wife was ennobled by
the Grand Duke of Luxemburg as Count
ess Torby
It Is the opinion of certain London pa
pers that Earl Russell who was recently
sentenced by tho House of Lords to three
months Imprisonment as a criminal of
the first class on tho charge of bigamy
might have been treated with more le
niency had his case been tried In tho
Assizes It is pointed out that his case
is probably unique among bigamy cases
In that the convicted man practiced de
ception upon no one and that according
to eminent legal authority he was free
to contract a second marriage That au
thority had been mistaken That was all
Moreover It Is shown that the prosecu
tion recognized the extenuating circum
stances In the case and the summing up
made In a spirit of the utmost sympathy
for the prisoner simply pointed to the
fact that tho defendant through mistake
and without Injury to anyone had broken
the letter of the law In the light of these
facts It is deemed in certain quarters
that the punishment inflicted is exces
sive according to modern ideas of justice
and jet the peers felt Impelled to Impose
it in order to mark their sense of the
gravitytifthe offence per se and to main
tain their own dignity as a high court
of justice
During his detention In Halloway Jail
Earl Rusell will bo obliged to conform
to the rules governing the- confinement of
Jlrst clas mlsdeameanantH Except when
taking exercise or attending religious service-In
the chapel he must remain In tho
cell allotted for his special usage rto
may however have the cell furnished at
his own expense and have his meals
served from outsldo the Jail the govern
or in order to relieve Earl Russell from
the performance of an unaccustomed
task or offices may order one of the re
mand prisoners to keep tho cell In order
Also the prisoner at tho discretion of the
vMtlng committee may be permitted to
wear his own clothes and read such liter
ature as ho may desire to provide himself
with He will In no way certain reports
notwithstanding he required to work but
If he prefers to occupy his time In carry
ing out some trade or profession no
ir will be put In his path if his Indusr
trlaus inclinations are of a practical na
ture The prison regulations while al
lowing but one- visit a fortnight by not
more tli in three Trlends and the despatch
and receipt of omi letter in the same
period may If the visiting committee
agree be altered In thesu circumstances
Earl Russell may Interview and com
municate with his friends on a practically
unlimited scale
French towns have their share of curi
ous legislation Frances nightmare Is the
dwindling of her population Glvet In
the Ardennes has taken this matter se
riously to heart In future for all city
offices fathers of families will be preferred
to others nnd married men general be
fore bachelors More than this large
money prizes will be given J early to the
heads of those families who have sent to
school regularly tho largest number of
Paris and Limoges both have laws
which tho brain workers of many British
towns will deiply envy In Paris no street
music is allowed after 9 oclock In the
summer and G In winter while in Limoges
bells mut not bo rung before G In winter
or 5 on summer mornings
Vienna has the severest cycling code of
any city in Europe No one may ride a
blcjcle In the streets without a certifi
cate of proficiency This applies espec
iaIy to lady cjcllsts Ladles have to
mount and dismount from both sides of
their wheels show that they can turn
corners and ride in mil cut between a
number of dummies All eii Ilsts are pho
tographed by the polico and thij photo
graph Is lilted Into a little book contain
ing the rules and rtgulatlons for cv cling
in the city For this book the cyclist must
then pay Is Cd lKsldts a liugf briss
number has to be worn conspicuously
placed on the handlebar of the machine
A controversy has been In progress for
some time among historical specialists as
to who was the first Treasurer of tho
United States Samuel Meredith Is the
man whose name stands at the head of
the commonly accepted lists an whose
portrait figures on one of tho notes Is
sued by the Government Whether he
was nctiiHlly the first Treasurer of the
United States depends upon whether we
consider that the United States had any
existence In these stages of colon wl un
ion which preceded the Constitution
Michael Hlllegas who served during the
earlier period and bridged the gulf be
tween is his rival for tho honor If stvles
and titles count for anything the United
States and the Treasury and Treasurer
thereof antedate considerably tho formal
launching of the Government as we now
know It The Declaration of Indepen
dence for instance refers to Us trainers
ns the representatives of the United
States of America in general congress
assembled The preamble of the Articles
of Confederation adopted two years later
refers to their framers as the delegates
of the United States of America in con
gress assembled On September 13 1T8S
tho United States In Congress assemb
led resolveu that the Constitution had
been ratified in a manner sufficient for
the establishment of the same
The Treasury Department began its
growth as far back as 1773 acting under
a variety of titles from that date until
the permanent Government was set in
operation when it was merely re-established
by law On July 23 1775 the Con
tinental Congress resolved that Michael
Ilillegas and George Clymer Esquires bo
Joint treasurers of tho United Colonies
by the same resolution they were styled
Continental Treasurers On August 6
1776 Mr Clymer having meanwhile been
appointed a delegate to the Congress from
Pennsylvania the same body resolved
that for the future there be only one Con
tinental Treasurer On February 17 1776
the Congress had adopted a resolution for
the appointment of a standing committee
of five for superintending the Treasury
and detailing their duties On April 1
177S they had resolved that a Treasury
ofilce of accounts be established and
kept in the place where Congress assem
bled under the direction and superinten
dence of the standing committee of the
Treasury On September 6 1777 addi
tional compensation was allowed to Mr
Hilleg is lrcasurer of the United
States from the date of Mr Clymers
tcmber 20 1778 the offices of Comptroller
Auditor Treasurer and two Chambers of
Accounts to consist of three commission
ers each were established On February
11 1779 the office of Secretary of the
Treasury was created with a salary of
2000 a year but lived only a few months
On July 30 of the same jear an ordi
nance was passed establishing a Board of
Treasury of five commissioners an Au
ditor General and six Auditors of the
Army and dropping the Secretary of the
Treasury This ordinance was In turn
swept aside on September U 1781 and a
Superintendent of Finance was author
ized with his assistant secretary and
clerks a Comptroller a Treasurer a Reg
ister an Auditor etc The Superinten
dent of Finance was superseded on May
2S 17S4 by a Board of Treasury consist
ing of three commissioners appointed by
Mr Ilillegas held office continuously
from July 23 1773 to September U 17S3
when the commission of Mr Meredith
was Issued the last entry on the original
ledger accounts being under the date of
August 23 17S3 In the meantime on the
2d of September nearly six months after
the formal beginning of the Government
under the Constitution an act was passed
establishing the Treasury Department as
we knw it today with a Secretary of
the Treasury a Comptroller an Auditor
a Treasurer and an Assistant to the
Secretary It appears therefore that
Mr Ilillegas was recognized by the title
of Treasurer of the United States and
actually served for half a year after the
Constitution had gone Into effect There
has been talk of putting his portrait
upon some of the paper currency but
Secretary Gage says that he has no
knowledge of any serious movement in
that direction jet
it may be of interest to know who and
what manner of man this hrst Treasurer
was He appears to have been born In
Philadelphia on April 22 1723 old style
Ho was the son of German bcrn parents
Michael and Margaret Hlllegas whose
monuments arc still to be seen In one of
the old churenjards of Philadelphia As
merchant and sugar refiner with a con
siderable Interest In the manufacture of
Iron he was a man of no small local
promln nee He was fond of science and
tho arts became a member of the Ameri
can Philosophic Society and was a cor
respondent of Benjamin lranklin His
letters and other remains show him to
have been a man of good general educa
tion and excellent business training Suc
cess In trade brought him an ample for
tune from which h contributed liberally
by gift and loan to tho support of tho
army during the strugglo for Indepen
dence He was one of the commissioners
appointed to locate and erect Fort Mifllln
As a member of the Provincial Assembly
of Pennsj 1 vanla representing Philadel
phia from 1765 to li75 he served on the
committee to audit and settle accounts
of the general loan office and other pub
lic accounts Ho was a member of the
Committee on Observation for Philadel
phia for li4 and on June 30 1773 Was
made Treasurer of the Pennsylvania Com
mittee of Safety On May 30 1775 he was
appointed Prov lnclal Treasurer In June
17 when the revolution was passing
through its darkest hours he joined with
a number of other public spirited citizens
In organizing th Pennsylvania Bank
which was to be established for fur
nishing a supply of provisions for the
armies of the United States Mr Ilille
gas subscription was CIOOO
With a Carnegie library about to be
opened within its municipal limits San
Juan Porto Rico ought to bo able to rec
ognize Itself as at least a budding Ameri
can town New York Tribune
Tho German Iron workers are hoping
that the strike In tho United States may
enable them to obtain control of markets
hitherto held by American mills and this
hope has more foundation than many of
Germanys Industrial dreams Remember
what the dock strike did to England
Baltimore Herald
The high tariff was mado for trusts
The trusts aru encouraged by the na
tional Administration and the people of
the United States suffer In ordsr that the
trusts may extend their trade and multi
ply their dollars Baltimore WorLd
Lord Kitchener reports that the Boer1
have killed native scouts In the employ of
the British after surrender and announce
their Intention to shoot all they may
catch In future That is deplorable but
so far as the British are concerned the
action of the Boers Is Justifiable It was
agrted long ago that neither Briton nor
Boer shoulu arm tne native niacKs or em
ploy them as allies A scout is a com
batant and the employment of natives In
that capacity by the British Is dishonor
able The Boers are within their rights
In killing Englands hired savages wher
ever found It is rough on the Kaffir but
the British have no right to complain
Philadelphia North American
Does the Navy Department maintain
that disobedience of orders nnd Ina
bility to obey orders mean the same
thing Philadelphia Ledger
JIajor Tom Reed of New York comes
under the too good to be true class Chi
cago Tribune
If Mr Roosevelt had not exterminated
all the mountain lions last tlip he would
not have to hunt covotes now Modera
tion Is always wise New York World
It used to be that the ocean was a bar
rier and a safeguard against the aggres
sions of an enemy The United States
was safe because It could not be Invaded
It Is not so now The ocean has ceased
to be a barrier and has become n path
way an open road lending to our doors
Philadelphia Inquirer
In the meantime the witnesses arc
dying Captain Carter will have served
his short sentence and after a while the
whole gang can gather on Coney Island
for a clam bake Such Is law Atlanta
According to tho last census there Is In
the United States exclusive of Alaska
nnd Hawaii un average of 2S6 Inhabi
tants to the square mile In other words
our ilcnsity of population Is far smaller
than that of any country of Europe excepting-Norway
nnd Sweden But crowd
ed as Eurovx is In comparison with this
country its peoples ccem to have abun
dant elbow room when they are contrast
ed with tho hundreds of millions living
In India and China
Dr A Supan tho distinguished geog
rapher nnd ono of the celtors of Bcrolk
erungder Erdectimats tho population
of China at over 330QOCOOO nuu Including
tho sparsely peopled regions outside of
China proper China Is only about as
large as Russia but it has nearly as
many Inhabitant as tho whole of Kurspe
New Jersey TitH an average of S03 In
habitants to the square mile Is the third
most densely peopled State in the United
States being surpassed only by Rhode
Island and Masachusctts If one half of
our country were as densely peopled as
New Jersey with its big cities and Im
portant tTM that half of the United
States would have Just about as large
a population as Is crowdul into China
But China like all other largo countries
has important areas In which tho popu
lation is comparatively small If wo would
know what density of population really
means in China we must go to the low
rich plains which though only a small
part of the country contain nearly a third
of the people or about 110000000 souls
There are only two plains of groat Im
portance tho most of China being a
mountainous or a very rugged country
Ono of these plains stretches in a broad
belt near the sea from a HttTo south of
the Yangtse River to the north of lekin
It Is crossed by the Hoang River whose
terrible floods have sometimes killed mil
lions of people Tho other plain la tho
low regions of tho
Yangtse does not ex
tend far from tho rlve r and its larger
tributaries and It Is narrow In all parts
for mountains hem It n Qn these plains
about a third of tho people of Chinagaln
their living for tho most part by tilling -the
If the 76000000 Inhabitants of the United
States lived In the State of Texas and
TOOijOOU more people were crowded among
them wc should have a parallel In this
country of the density of population on
the two plains of China Thero Is noth
ing IIkc it even in India No wonder that
tillage In China is of the nature of gar
den culture that each householder has
only two or three acres of ground that
mountains In most paits of the country
iii- icuaccu anu lined flnrt that t o
resignation as joint treasurer On Sep- China has been denuded of Its timber so
luui every iooc or the soil may be culti
The masses of tho people In any coun
try herded together like tho Chinese
would perhaps be as poor as they are
Overpopulation Is a dire evil and the Chl
cfi arf suffering from it- Where the
farmer tills only a garden spot that pro
duces scarcely enough food for his ramlly
rv has little to sell and can buy little
buch minute subdivision of the soli as
prevails in China would keep any p ople
poor no matter how highly tho com
mercial aptitude of the Chinese may be
developed their part in trade will always
be small In proportion to population as
long as they are mostly farmers each
tilling only two or three acres of land
The country Is soon to witness the un
precedented spectacle of a naval officer
successful In one of the greatest of sei
tights on trial for various alleged failures
to perform his duty
Aside from the fact that one maneuvre
of the Brooklyn at Santiago has been tech
nically criticised there is no respectable
charge In any quarter that Admiral
Schley failed in that memorable engage
ment to do all that was expected of him
He was at the post of duty when the
emergency presented Itself he andhis
ship were In the thickest of the fight from
the beginning to the end and so sweep
ing was the victory that not a ship and
not arman of the enemy escaped
This is the officer who to defend tmself
from the slanderers of the department
has been compelled to demand an enquiry
in which he is practically placed on tho
defensive as a culprit might be
Concerning their conduct before and
after the Battle of Sautlago there are
many more reasons why Secretary Long
and Arlmlral Sampson should be on trial
than that Admiral Schley should be He
did tho business What did they do
Under ordinary circumstances a commander-in-chief
who absents himself at
the time of a great and critical engage
ment 13 called to account Where was
Admiral Sampson and what was he doing
when the Battle of Santiago was fought
Was he making excuses to General
Shafter for his failure to co operate with
the land forces of the United States
It Is clear enough that there ought to be
not only naval courts of enquiry but Con
gressional committees of investigation
relative to these subjects but It Is also
clear that the wrong man Is on trial
now Chicago Chronicle
Obviously the War Department will be
rcprebenslvely neglectful of diplomatic
form if it fails to take official notice of
the courtesy paid by the Sultan of Jolo
to Adjutant General Corbin The Sultan
t the time of General Corblus arrival
was engaged in conducting a battle fif
teen miles away A less courteous mon
arch would have continued the battle to
a conclusion sending word to any possi
ble guests that he was too busy to en
tertain The Sultan however stopped the
battle off hand left ths enemy and wnt
to meet his visitor Apparently Jolo 13
the only country- wherein warring gen
erals ask and receive permission to inter
rupt a battle for a few moments while
they make a call or perform some other
pleasant social duty But even If the
Jolo code makes these little amenities
easy th action of the Hultan Is none the
less complimentary- Ho- evidently pre
fcrrd seeing General Corbin to fighting
and for an inhabitant of Jolo this means
a great deal An accommodating Sultan
who is willing to suspend t battle or or
der one up for the benefit of ft represen
tative of our Government evidently Is
entitled to sreclal recognition Cmcago
That correspondence between Rear Ad
miral Kimberly and the Acting Secretary
of tho Navy Sir Ilickett would have
been the better for a little editing before
it was given out Neither of them prov
ed his literary skill by saying exactly
what he Intended to say How easy for
Instance would It have been to Improve
the admirals statement Much to my
mortification this Is the first department
order that I am unable to honor during
a naval life of ilfty five vears Llterally
interpreltd that exprf tsts regret that
the writers irablllty to honor department
orders had not developed earlier and of
tener w hich of course was not his Idea
And Secretary Ilackett says- Permit me
to express the hope that vour health will
voatinue to Improve o that In future
should a less arduous duty be required of
ou you may be fullv able to respond-
Now really that wasnt n taetful way
of putting it nnd the reference to a
less arduous duty might well have been
elided New Vork Times
It Is a vcrj bad sign when thoso whoso
express dutv It Is to execute the laws of
the countrv dlscrimlratc among the laws
and enforce them according to their own
pleasure So long as a law Is on the
statute books It Is their solemn and
hounden duty to enforce It not to wink
at Its violation If they do not like the
civil service law then let them get rid of
It If they can A man who violates that
law Is Just ns much of an offender asalnst
law and order as if he vitvited the law
gainst theft or embezzlement The nimble-fingered
Necly has ns much right to
i mbczzlc ns other Government officials
have to violate the civil service lavw
Members of tho Administration who con
done and even encourage such viola
tions of a public statute are guilty of
malfeasance In office And they are giv
ing object lessons In anarchy which Is
nothing more than the insertion by th
Individual of a rlcht to take the law Into
his own hands Boston Herald

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