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The Washington times. (Washington [D.C.]) 1901-1902, June 29, 1902, Magazine Features, Image 30

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Remarkable Devices of Such Marvelous Delicacy
and Precision That They Are Affected by the
Emotions of the Heart and the Impulses of the
Mind Discovery that Some Nerves Are Sus
ceptible Only to Heat and Others Only to Cold
thief catcher has a rival
THE Sleuth who has dogged
the footsteps of crime until he
Knows their Imprint on the
flinty rock until when shown the
handiwork of the assassin he can gl e
the motive describe the fiend and retch
his man Is to have his practical science
of instinct dark lanterns and guns imt
down in the metric system of wtights
and measures Emotion and criminal In
tent are to be charted in black and
white Humanity is to be studied from
Infancy to the grave until the instincts
which are criminal can bo detected in
time to be corrected
Man who has mastered all mysteries
external is to turn the searchlight of
science on himself and by recording the
result is to btrlke the balance between
the normal and abnormal Congress is
now considering the question of taking
the new science under the Government
wine and establishing a bureau of crim
Explained to Representatives
What such a bureau could do has just
been explained to the members of the
Judiciary Committee of the House of
Representatives by Dr Arthur McDon
ald with most striking effect Dr Mc
Donald has given the best jears of his
life to the study of criminology The
fund of queer information he has at
his fingers ends on this subject is
absolutely startling He had not been
talking to the Judiciary Committee five
minutes before they were applying the
tests suggested to themselves and for
nearly two hour3 the legal lights of the
House of Representatives sized them
selves up along the criminal line under
the tutorage of Dr McDonald with a
result which produced great amusement
and surprise
Curiosity had been excited while Dr
McDonald was unpacking bis apparatus
consisting of instruments of precision
used to detect abnormal traits particu
larly in the criminal classes These he
arranged on the committee table but
before using them on tho members of
the committee he explained briefly that
the science he was to give them an idea
of was comparatively new Although It
had been developed first in Europe per
haps the best practical results bad been
obtained here It had however been re
tarded somen hat in the past by the at
titude of the practical apprchenders of
criminals who had heretofore looked
with disfavor upon it
Importance of Criminology
Continuing Dr McDonald pointed out
that if we arc ever to have sufficient
definite knowledge of living human be
ings that it may become a science it can
only be done by the careful study of a
large number of Individuals The more
thorough the study and the larger the
number the more useful such invest
gatlon can be made to society
As in machinery we must first repair
the little wheels out of gear so in so
ciety we must first study the criminal
crank Insane Inebriate and pauper who
can seriously Injure both Individual and
community This worthless crank by
killing a prominent citizen can paralyze
the community The injury from such
action Is often beyond calculation Our
Government pays out millions to catch
try and care for criminals but gives
very little to study the causes that lead
to crime
The study of man he explained to
be of most utility must be directed first
to the cause of crime pauperism alco
holism and other forms of abnormality
To do this the individuals themselves
must be studied As the seeds of evil
are usually sown In childhood and
youth it is here that all investigation
should commence for there is little
hope of making the world better If we
do not seek the causes of social evils
at their beginnings
The Temple Aigometer
Dr McDonald is connected with the
Government Educational Bureau and
has conducted many investigations both
among school children and criminals A
little Instrument for measuring the sen
sitiveness to pain was first explained
It is called a tomplo aigometer and
was devised by Dr McDonald Tain Is
caused by applying to a sensitive nerve
a greater stimulation than is normal
The experiments have shown that re
finement and luxury Increase the sensi
bility to pain and that the convicted
murderer feels pain to a much less de
gree a a rule than the normal Individ
ual Dr McDonald suggested that there
was much food for thought In this show
ing He had examined sixty young la
dles in a Kentucky seminary and then
compared the record of their suscepti
bility to pain with the showing made
collection there are 3910 inflated larvae
the types of 1246 species and varieties
besides a great mass of larvae in bot
tles cocoons eggs ete
The tvpe specimens the compara
tively limited number of which consti
tutes one of the weak points of the col
lection are the Identical ones which
have been described by naturaliRts in
their works as tvplcal of the species
and they are therefore considered In
valuable for purposes of reference In
the great British Museum collection
probably by far the finest in the world
thcro are types which were used by
Linneus Buffon and Cuvier The
Strccker collection Is especially rich in
types and Is numerically about the same
as the Smithsonian
A suite of large apartments In tha
upper floor of the Museum 13 so takon
H STaTrflM llllllliUjy yr i353sU2ffi2 HsBJMi BiiBIBf TKfaBBHHHIIB lflBafix Heanflipg Heart EnTrrMrai VxSkN ssHIl Hf5fcF
VS IE WW Jff Hot and Cold Nerves SrlfiScSul MpaWIW1 Immii ilPIWWWWMIHWf 7- AABffiBB YmR ll WKv 9u XMItmIw
vTrw InMlirafwr BiBy r mM S7t
JFt wmsdSmwtim - - - IV I JIL
iixll 1BlilBlllilHBBliBIIBL tcA JLJ lThN
MVV l I i
V V jQ Recording Tongue Movements sA J I
all I II III VKdSBlfMfTSSiSiSiBBx Jj jkmBBJBB EllillllllW
rW 1 1 III III II n llrfEi30SSi aSjHS9H0Ivt tr t v 5S5B I III II I III 1 1 ill IV
mtMmtlSBf W mW
n y
R -- KM
1I1IIIII1IIIIIIK IF lllllllllllllllllliv
XMi III Testing Sensibility to Ptin I III yfljyLXJ
from the examination of sixty public
school children Tho joung ladies were
by far the more sensitive
The pain measuring Instrument Is ap
plied generally to the left temple which
13 considered to be the most sensitive
part of the body It consists of a bnss
cylinder with a brass rod runniig
through one of Its ends The end of the
rod In tho cylinder is attached to a
spring with a marker which Indicates
on a scale on the outside of the cylin
up with cases containing drawers full
of insect specimens that It U with
some difficulty that one makes his way
through Mr Ashmead 1 oiled special
attention to tho hymenoptera or para
sitical Insects which are his specialty
and on which he Is now preparing a
work containing the fruit of much la
borious Investigation Many specimens
w ere added last year to this collec
tion from the Hawaiian Islands and
from AHska in the former of which Mr
Ashmead spent tho summer hard at
work The majority of these specimens
arc tpe and have been described and
named by Mr Ashmead himself Many
of the specimens are so small as to he
microscopic but are all mounted with
exquisite neatness the smallest In glass
slides for observation under tho micro
scope Each individual specimen has
Its card label attached and Is so ar
ranged as to be immediately available
for purposes of observation and com
The parasitical Insects as Mr Ash
mead explained are with the exception
of one group or family all beneficial to
mankind for they destroy numerous
harmful species upon which they prey
The enormous scope of the btudy of para
sites with their Infinite variety and
bearing on the agricultural interests of
countries Is something doubtless unap
preciated by the great majority of peo
ple But this Importance of the subject
Is real7cd by scientists all over tho
world wfio are becoming every year more
In touch with one another Mr Ash
mead showed In what form he receives
communications requesting Information
from abroad by taking a little packet
elaborately wrapped In raw cotton and
paper which being unwound proved to
be a vial containing a specimen of some
Insect and its parasites This was re
ceived from the head of a scientific body
der any pressure brought to bear on tho
other end of the rod which Is placed
against the temple As soon as the sub
ject feels the pressure to be the least
disagreeable be Indicates the same and
the pressure indicated on the scale Is
Sensitiveness to heat and cold forms
another one of the tests and for
this purposo an Instrument known
acquisition of tho collection
THE butterflies and moths Lepi
doptcra made by the late
Herman Streckler of Heading
Pa Is anxiously looked forward to
by the Smithsonian scientists Secre
tary Langley has strongly recommended
on appropriation of 10000 for the pur
chase of the collection and it Is prob
able th vt the public exhibit of insects
which Is now being plaancd and which
will be open next fall will be enriched
from the Strccker aggregation
It is Impossible for the public In gen
eral to realize tho amount of learning
patience and skill represented by the
collection of Insects stored out of sight
In rooms in tho National Museum The
specimens on exhibition in the Smith
sonian Building form Lut a very small
portion of the entire to exhibit which
would require nearly the entire floor
space of the Museum Presiding over
this collection at present Is Mr William
Achmcad a scientist of international
rcyife Mr Asbmcad is earnestly de
voted to the interests of the Museum
as a whole which he contends should
be the great center of all lines of scien
tific research n America where stu
dents in special branches could come
Instead of having as at present In many
instances to go abroad Naturally
then he is very much in favor of the
acquisition of the Strccker collection
vc have a remarkably fine and well
arranged collection of insects said Mr
Achmcad as he obligingly undertook to
show- a Times representative tho major
borlion not on public view There is an
cntiro apartment of considerable size
devoted to butterflies and moths alone
The specimens are kept in thin draw
ers or travs covered with glass and
wooden lids and piled In stacks all
around the room
Even to the non sclcntific pyc the ar
rangement and classification of the
specimens is wonderfully neat and ele
gant From great gorgeous butterflies
of every strange formation and gorgeous
huo to tiny specimens so small as io
be barely discernible with tho naked
eve every individual specimen has Its
card and label attached The appa
ratus for niountlog the specimens for
taking out the inside of the larvae r
worms and inflating tho skins with air
Is located in this room At present
there are 05500 specimens representing
1 2150 species with about 18500 more
specimens in the so called duplicate
In France who desired all the Informa
tion obtninablo on the subject of tho
bug Information which however ap
parently trivial to the unscientific
might nevertheless prove the saving of
crops of the value of many millions of
dollars As Mr Ashmead explained the
more complete a collection Is the easier
it Is to answer such communications
with accuracy and dispatch as there Is
greater facility for identifying the speci
men received with one classilled and ar
ranged and available at a moments no
tice Where on the other hnd litera
ture on the subject h33 to be consulted
it is sometimes necessary to consume
much time looking for the required de
Communications of the kind instanced
are received almost dally at the Smith
sonian from scientists in Sweden Italy
Spain England Japan In fact all the
primipal enlightened nations 01 the
world Besides farmers all over thl3
country require to be told all about
certain bugs while others thirsting for
unlimited knowledge want to know all
about all bugs In answering the latter
species of Inquiry many thousands of
volumes might benritten and then the
subject only begun or new species and
new facts concerning known varieties
are turning up every day
Mr Ashmead dilated most interesting
ly on the beauty and importance of the
study of the insect world as he took
out tray after tray full of specimens
beautiful or hldlous or grotesque as
the case might be No other depart
ment of natural history said he so
exquisitely illustrates the vast scheme
of the economy of nature the wonder
ful ordinance which provides for the ex
Istance of life in all Its myriad and
varying forms Everything Is seen to
have its reason for existence
as the thermaesthesiometer is
used It consists of two ther
mometers fastened together Dy an
electrical arrangement the tempera
ture of one of tho thermometers Is
changed one being heated until the dif
ference from the other Is easily -perceived
by feeling The lower end of both
thermometers is placed upon tho skin
and the person experimented upon Is
asked to indicate as soon as the differ
ences between tho thermometers be
Adaptability of These Almost Human Machines
to the Practical Study of Criminology The
- First Step Toward Reformation and Regenera
tion How the Bright Pupils of a School Can
Be Unerringly Picked Out From the Dull Ones
comes Imperceptible to his sense of
feeling The real difference between the
thermometers Is then read If this dif
ference for one person is 2 degrees and
for another person 3 degrees the for
mer person is said to bo more acute in
sensibility to heat by one degree
Another experiment to test tho sus
ceptibility of persons to heat and cold
is made by the use of a new Instrument
Invented by a French scientist and
through which tho inventor has made
the discovery that there are hot
nerves and cold nerves The Instru
ment consists of two small metal tanks
connected by a single handle open at
the top and the lower end extending in
each to a point One of these tanks is
filled with boiling water the other with
cracked Ice The two points are then
brought in contact with the skin alter
nately and tho subject asked to Indi
cate which is the hot point and which
the cold In experimenting with this
device It was discovered that when cer
tain nerves were touched no matter
whether they were touched with the hot
or the cold point the sensation to the
subject was that of heat and when other
nerves were touched the sensation was
that of cold The discovery led also
to the formulation of the theory that
there are also pleasure nerves and
pain nerves The Investigation along
the line of this theory however has
not been pursued to any great extent
Effect of Music
The peculiar effect of music upon tho
muscles of the human organism is
demonstrated with unvarjing result by
the use of a little device to record the
muscular pressure of the hand The
pressure thus recorded on the dial of an
instrument called tho dyamometer
an oval steel spring with a dial in the
center Is Invariably greater when exert
ed while music is being played than
without music This was explained by
Dr McDonald as being caused by the In
creased circulation of the blood of all
human beings listening to music over
the normal circulation With tho In
creased circulation of the blood came
Increased muscular power and hence
the result recorded
Dr McDonald made the assertion to
the committee that he could go Into the
public schools and pick out three
fourths of the dull pupils simply by
measuring the height of the palato in
each pupils mouth Children with high
palates are usually the dull ones al-
though it sometimes happens that per
sons with extraordinary Intellect also
have high palates A little instrument
designated the palatometer is used
to measure the height of the arch of the
mouth in this experiment
The Typewriter of the Laboratory
The instrument of precision however
which comes into play more often than
any other and which I3 the veritable
typewriter of the criminologists labora
tory is the kymographton The prin
cipal part of this instrument is a cy
linder revolved by a clockwork Over
this cylinder is slid a roll of paper
which has previous been held over a
paraffin lamp until It ha3 become coat
ed with black The instrument lar then
ready to record The records which It
make3 are thoso of the beating of the
heart the trembling of the tongue tho
steadiness or unsteadiness of the hand
all of which records are taken while
the operator changes the condition of
the subjects mind For Instance if a
record is being taken of the beating of
a murderers heart the operator will
suddenly call his attention to the details
of the crime he has committed The lit
tle finger which unvaryingly traces in
the black soot the throbbing of the sub
jects heart will record at once any
change which this mental picture may
be causing in his mental and physical
Defore the results obtained from tho
record of heart beats can be given an ex
act Interpretation many experiments on
both the normal and abnormal classes
of humanity will have to be made and
studied That they can be Interpreted
and that they will be interpreted is the
confident prediction of Dr McDonald
What the Government is asked to do
at this time is to establish a bureau
which shall be the basis of such investi
gation When the science of crimin
ology is pert jcted it will be possible not
only to more speedily and surely ap
prehend the criminal but it will be pos
sible to detect the brutal Instinct In
the child In school and brinz the neces
sary influence to bear to overcome tha
criminal tendency at a time when that
Influence can have the greatest effect
on the life of that child Thus will
crime be curtailed by striking at its
very roots
AS3AGE for pet dogs appears to
bo the latest development of
fashionable luxury It Is a sur
prising development at first
sight perhaps but not so far out of tho
beaten way after all when one consid
ers tho celebrated fashionable dinner
for pet dogs given by a wealthy woman
In Newport during tho height of last
summers season
The physical culturlst as he terms
himself is a Frenchman who speaks
English with Just a traco of the London
cockney accent That he has exercised
a truly discerning genius in striking out
for himself in this novel fleld of work
Is Indisputable and his fcrvlces are In
growing demand among the elite of this
Eh well why not he remarked
deprecatingly Why not Peoplo pay
hundreds of dollars for pet dogs and
why should they not be willing to pay
to havo them kept in tho best condition
and looking beautiful
There Is certainly logic In this atti
tude taken by Ue canine masseur al
ways remembcrng tho swell dog
dinner and the exceedingly high prices
paid for the pets by those who fancy
When a certain gentleman in this city
gave 2500 for a prUe French bulldog
ho probably had no Ilea of engaging a
man to give the animal physical culture
massage and manicure treatment but if
the dog needed such attentions he would
undoubtedly bo receiving them no mat
ter what the cost
Tho phjBlcal development of the pet
dog may be made symmetrical hastened
here or retarded there as may be nec
essary and his appearance and value
may be vastly Improved by proper exer
cise massage and manicure treatment
His spirits may be kept high and his life
prolonged That is my specialty says
the operator
The patrons of the dog masseur in
clude many of the wealthiest people of
the Capital Politicians financiers and
physicians who are dog owners enlist his
services while ladif3 whese receptiona
are social events as well as others vho
live In more obscure luxury combine to
add to his receipts
In general says the masseur your
hunting dog or the animal that accom
panies Its master on his walkj does not
require massage or physical culture ex
cept perhaps In infancy The exercise
he obtains is adequtac But the great
number of valuable pets particularly
those or women kept in tho house and
pampered and fed to repletion need ar
tificial exercise to leep them In health
My sjsteni supplies it
In additon to the massage in which
the animal Is manipulated from ic lp
of its nose to the furthermost ejid e f tfs
tail tho pet dog rnm
cl ps files and stratghtens the irnrla
clavs and ho inspects its teth and
keeps them in order The fur i arcful
ly brushed and when njecssary Is
shampooed In short the animal has
every luxury that can be secured at the
hands of a first clasi valet
Of course treatment varM in the
case of different animals as It
does In the case of human brings Muci
depends on the age of the beast is gen
eral health whether It be fit or lean
strong or feeble says the operator I
first of all examine its lungs and heart
to see whether the system Is In order
to stand severe handling or lively exer
cising If there be any symptom of
weakness the manluilons are modi
fied accordingly If the vital organs arc
seriously affected the patient is refuses
Every muscle and tendon Is separat
ly manipulated in the massage treat
ment and gradually strengthened to tha
normal This extends to tho musclea
of the back neck and legs with a
cal treatment for the under part of tho
body designed to stimulate and
strengthen the digcstlvo functions
The teeth of the dog are liable to
tne same disorders as those of meat
but in a lesser degree I make It a
rule to examine the dog3 teeth Itesy
them clean when necessary file or ovea
extract them There are cases vvhero
tho teeth are filled but that 13 tho work
cf the dertist
Our chargrs are practically unlforea
for this work and where no special
treatment is called for Jl per visit la
tho fee As a general thing two visits
per week are sufficient to enable us to
keep a pet in good condition A coupl
1 of dollars a week is a small sum when
the original cost of some of the animals
is taken Into ac ount In some rare
cases our charges exceed this figure
particularly in the first stages of tha
treatment when more frequent visits
may be needed to overcome the ailment
with which we havo to contend
Of course all our work is
Hal and indeed we do not always
know the names of our patrons Do 3
are brought here by srooras or footmen
as well as by their owners sometimes
afoot sometimes in carriages W
make It a rule to ask no unnecessary

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