THE PENSACOLA JOURNAL, MONDAY, MORNING, OCTOBER 27, 1919,
DAILY WEEKLY SUNDAY
Journal Publishing Company
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PENSACOLA. FLA, MONDAY. OCT. 27. 1919.
' A CENTENNIAL RESUME
Many reasons may be urged by Pensacola' for
holding: the centennial In this city, but the foremost
claim of all may be found In the fact that not only
Is the centennial Intended to commemorate historical
events which have transpired here, but that the
movement for a centennial celebration was origi
nated by a Pensacollan, ' former Senator John B.
Jones, and has been fostered by the people of this
community; while it is frankly acknowledged by
friends of the centennial movement for Jacksonville
that that city has slept at the post.
The Florida purchase centennial had its inception,
June, 1915, when the Florida legislature adopted res
olutions for holding the centennial exposition at Pen
sacola. ' '
In NoVember, 1915, the city commissioners ap
pointed a centennial committee of fifty of the most
prominent citizens of Pensacola, to organize and
work out plans for holding the centennial here.
This committee adopted resolutions favoring an
exposition international In its scope and asked tho
aid and cooperation of the United States govern
ment. In December, 1915, George Hervey, then a citizen
of Pensacola, was delegated by the city commis
sioners to take the resolution to Washington, for
the purpose of placing It before the Florida delega
tion In congress.
January 15, 1916, Senator Nathan P. Bryan pre
sented the resolutions of the Florida Centennial
committee of Pensacola to the senate of the United
States and the committee received the assurance
of the government that the matter would be taken
up and acted upon.
Each of the senators and congressmen In Wash
ington wrote to the citizens' committee, promising
assistance in accordance with their desires, as ex
pressed in the resolution. Pending action by con
gress, the citizens' committee communicated with
Col. Charles Collier, managing director of the San
Diego exposition, and other prominent men connect
ed with great expositions.
Reports were received and plans were being per
fected for carrying on the exposition and for obtain
ing from the legislature of 1917 legislation necessary
to authorize the various counties of the state to co
operate with the centennial committee and the na
tional government in handling the exposition, when
the world war stopped any further action.
Although the city, at the meeting of the 1917 ses
sion of the legislature, secured an amendment to the
charter, empowering Pensacola to issue $500,000
bonds for the purpose of holding the centennial, the
matter was held in abeyance until the armistice was
mTrf!!atelv. on the signing of the armis
tice, the city commissioners renewed action and
again applied for an amendment to the city charter,
through the legislature of 1919. to enable them to
carry on the exposition.
The people of 1915 manifested a desire to celebrate
the centennial in a fitting way. and the sentiment
1 a never abated, but has stead My grown, until it
has embraced not only Pensac.la. but all West
Florida, which are united in a common effort to
fight for the historical rights thtit are theirs, and
the opportunities for development which are the
outgrowth of a movement which had Its Inception in
THE SOCIAL UNIT PLAN
That the social unit plan of electing "block work
ers" to represent the people of their blocks in a
neighborhood council and serve their social needs
is the cornerstone of community organization in this
country and is working out admirably, was asserted
by John Lovejoy Elliott, president of the National
Association of Neighborhood Houses and headwork
er of Hudson guild. New York, who addressed the
opening session of the Social Unit convention In
The National Social Unit organization, a group of
men and women, anxious to get away from pater
nalism and charity and put the administration of all
communltyaffalrs on a completely democratic basis
have been conducting an experiment in community
organization In a section of Cincinnati for the past
two and a "half years. - The conference met to con
sider the launching of a national community move
ment on the basis of the organization plan which has
been put to test. Under this plan units of a hun
dred families elect representatives to a plan forming
body to make social programs for the neighborhood.
Dr. Elliott has made a personal Investigation of the
social unit plan for a committee of neighborhood
workers and represented their point of view at the
"The great majority of citizens are separated in
their dally life and thinking from actual, organized,
community life, said Dr. Elliott. "Most of the plans
that have been proposed in the name of community
organization are very vague.
"It is Just in this particular that the plan of the
National Social Unit Organization Is strong. It
brings the experts in direct touch and co-operation
with the representatives of the citizens. The block
workers are neighbors, who Tcnow the local sltua
;Ion; through their weekly meetings they develop
jomradeship in meeting problems. They know
verybody in their blocks. TheyN are taught and
'.earn through experience about the expert resources
hich can be called on.
; GENERAL TRADE SITUATION
The monthly bulletin issued by the American Ex
change National Bank carries the following com
ment on the general trade situation of the country:
Marked improvement In general confidence in the
face of the disturbances incident to the steel and
other strikes, proved to be the most important de
velopment of the- month. The conversion of the strike
from a threat to an actuality apparently released
the country as a whole from the restraints that
earlier In the month promised to unfavorably affect
business. Outside of the steel and allied trades the
strike was ignored. This attitude was based on con
fidence in a common sense settlement of the dif
ferences and upon an understanding of the strong
position of the country as a factor in the economic
structure of the world. " .
Unfilled steel orders at the end of August were
the largest since January. Building, especially in
the West and Soutiwest, showed a further tendency
to expand. In the East and particularly New York,
lockouts, and strikes continued to retard construc
tion. The railroad administration placed additional
orders for 200,000 tons of rails. Road building in
various parts of the country contributed to the gen
eral activity. Unemployment practically disappear
ed and complaints of a lack of employment in the
preceding month gave way to conplalnts on the part
of employers of a lack of men.
There was no evidence of a decrease In the buying
power of the people. Luxury goods continued in
heavy demand. The demand tor furniture and Jew
elry was particularly good. The furniture manufac
turers are working at capacity, and the Jewelry trade
Is experiencing almost unbelievable prosperity. Fab
ulous prices are being paid for diamonds and the
better qualities of jewelry. The domestic demand
or jewelry is supplemented by an unusually heavy
export demand. Tne dry gooas traae nas experi
enced little difficulty in disposing of goods to a fur
ther increase in prices at retail as a result of further
advances at the mills.
There was improvement inthe general export sit
uation. Some hesitation developed in the export
trade following the heavy breaks "in exchange. The
recovery set in about the middle of the month.
Freight room was reported well filled from that time
forward and charters were more general. Coal,
lumber and grain formed the principal exports.
There was a particularly heavy movement of coal.
The excess of our exports over imports in August
has been exceeded only twice in history. Our sur
plus exports for the year are already $1,000,000,000
In excess of last year. The exchange situation
showed some improvement, partly as a result of the
strike and because of a renewal of the effort to im
prove the situation through loans. - The countries
whose exchange has been unfavorably affected are
manifesting more concern than they did a month
ago. Talk of a general loan to the allied countries
RED CROSS FIGHTS ILLITERACY
While the primary purpose of the Amerjcan Red
Cross is to prevent disease, relieve suffering and
minister to the stricken, it is a notable fact that its
labors do not end there and that the results It is
achieving are by no means confined to the field of
public health. V
The question of illiteracy," for instance, a question
that particularly concerns the south, is one that does
not fall properly into the province of the Red Cross,
yet during the past few months the Red Cross has
taken a distinctive part in the fight against illit
eracy, a part, too, which in this case perhaps no
other organization could have so readily and suc
We refer to illiteracy among soldiers demobilized
from service. The United States government,
through the federal bureau for vocational training,
provided these men with the means to educate them
selves for the trade or profession of their choice,
to better their old positions In the world held be
fore they entered service, or to overcome- the han-dicap--of
crippled arms, wooden legs and lost eye
sight by learning new businesses possible despite
their afflictions. But providing the training was
only half the battle; the other half was In provid
ing the students. Many men were not aware of the
existence of such an opportunity or had heard of it
only casually. Others wished to take the training
but did not know how to go about it. Still more
were in a frame of mind to "pass it up" either
through ignorance of its real value, mere indiffer
ence, lack of ambition or any one of a hundred rea
sons. To such the Red Cross proved itself a true
friend. We are told by the federal board for voca
tional training that seventy-five per cent of the ap
plicants it received in the past month were sent to
it by the Red Cross, which acted as the intermediary
between the board and the men, furnishing informa
tion, giving advice and oftentimes urging an indif
ferent or despondent soldier into seizing the chance
which meant for him a new foot-hold on life.
Had it not been for the Red Cross, thousands of
men would have fallen back into the old rut and
other thousands, crippled and despairing, would have
lost all hope and happiness. Not only do they owe
the Red Cross a debt of gratitude, but so, too, does
the public. Considering the real value of such ser
vice as this, one does not hesitate to urge for the
Red Cross the utmost support of all individuals and
communities in Its peace-time program. The after
care of soldiers and sailors, particularly in the mat
ter of emergency training, was a. genuine' emergency
in our national life. The Red Cross' filled a role in
that emergency promptly and voluntarily as none
other could have filled it. Other emergencies will
arise in the future, and we can look to the Red Cross
if properly supported now, to meet them with equal
ATHLETICS IN COLLEGE
Tne old program of college athletics wis intended
to turn out a crackerjack football team, a corking
good baseball club, a small but prize winning aggre
gation of track stars, and the rest of the students
sat in the grandstand. " s j . . -v.
- The new idea, a3 proposed by Adelbert College of
Western Reserve University, sacrifices the few for
"Each student will leaipri the rudiments of football,
basketball, wrestling, boxing and other plays," says
the college bulletin. "In this way not merely a
picked few 'experts on the Varsity, but every man
in college will be a member of some athletic team,
and derive physical benefits.
"The new system of physical education for1 every
man recognizes the injustice of the old method by
which a selected few received the benefits of ath
letics while the large majority of students sat in the"
stands and applauded."
Equal opportunity for physical development to
every student thus goes hand in hand with equal
opportunity for mental development.
This seems to be a close approach to democracy In
college athletics. It promises a healthier, stronger,
sturdier crop of college graduates in the future.
Historic Sketch of Fort George 1772
Renamed St. Michael in 1783 '
(By MRS. EMMA HULSE TAYLOR)
1 (Written by Request)
The administration of Governor Peter Chester,
1772. the fourth and last English governor of West
Florida, of which Pensacola was the capital and a
military post. Was marked by improvement in civil
service, discipline and new and more efficient de
fences for the town and harbor.
After consultation with the military commanders
of the province and discussion with" engineers over
plans of defense, a fort was built by order of Gen
eral Gage, commander-in-chief of all the British
forces In North America,- This fort was named Vort
George, for his majesty, George 111, ' and built on
Gage HilL f
In the center of the fortress, was the council
chamber of the province, the - repository of its
archieves, the rendezvous, where official business
was transacted and discussed, audiences given to
Indian chiefs and delegations.
During British rule there was no civil government
in West Florida. Fort George was a quadrangle
with bastions at each corner. There were within
the fort a powder magazine and barracks for the
garrison, besides the council chamber, before men
tioned. (Panton and Leslie's papers.)
The most prosperous days of Pensacola were from
1772 to 1781 during British occupation. The military
condition of West Florida changed as the Revolu
tionary war progressed. The call for troops in the
northern colonies had by 1778 reduced the force of
the province to 500 men.
This reduction was considered prudent on account
of surrounding peace conditions.
Early the following year Spain threw off her mask.
adopting a course Justifying the suspicions of the
British concerning her war-like intentions, becom
ing an ally of France, but not of the United States.
In pursuance of that plan, Galvez, designed to as
sail the British forces in West Florida, before they
could obtain reinf oroements.
The latter months of 1780 Pensacola and the gar
rison of Fort George were on the point of starva
tion; all the resources of the British government
seem to have been required for the great struggle of
1781 on the Atlantic coast.
Galvez conquest of the Mississippi posts, had cut
off supplies from the rich country lying between
Mobile Bay and the Mississippi. This state of suf
fering was suddenly changed by the capture of sev
eral merchant vessels loaded with provisions and
one with powder, by a British cruiser. Such are
the fortunes of war!
General Campbell having perfected the defenses
of Fort George directed his attention to other points.
providing with heavy artillery that could be spared
from Fort George.
On March 9, General Campbell's impatient waiting
for General Galvez was brought to a close. A sig
nal from the waTshlp Mentor informed the British
that the Spaniards were approaching for the strug
gle, for mastery in West Florida. The next morning
33 Spanish ships under Admiral Solano were landing
troops and artillery. On March 11 .the Spanish
opened fire oh the Mentor, lying in the harbor near
Santa Rosa island. Galvez, even after he found
himself in possession of the harbor with a large
fleet and a large land fferce, awaited further rein
Whitst awaiting these a landing was attempted.
This was frustrated by a body of Indians and part
of the garrison of Fort George with two pieces of
field artillery. The surprised Spanish took to their
boats. In the attack many were killed, and in the
confusion, others were drowned. On the 22nd a suc
cessful landing was effected, establishing camps
nearer the town and the fort. (Fort San Bernardo
de Galvez erected by the Spaniards about three
quarters of a mile north of Fort George, about on
the same lines but powerful and concealed by un
dergrowth and pines).
Their temerity invited rebuke; a surprise was pre
pared for them by the British, but their plan was
exposed by two deserters from the fort, telling of
location of magazine and points of defense.
That disclosure sealed the fate of Fort George,
that angle became the mark of every shot and shell.
On the morning of May 8 there occurred an explo
sion which shook Gage Hill to Its foundation. A
yawning breach was made in the fort; fifty men
were killed, and as many more wounded seriously.
But there was no panic in Fort George. Calmly,
the British commander orders every gun to
charged and many moved to sweep the breach.
, That work done he hoisted a white flag and sent
an officer to the Spanish general, with a communi
cation. An offer to capitulate upon the following
The troops to march out at the breach with flying
colors and drums beating, each man with six cart
ridges in his cartridge box; at the distance of 500
paces, arms were ko be stacked, officers to retain
their swords all the troops to be shipped as. soon as
possible to a British port, to be designated by the
British commander, at the expense of the Spanish
under parole, not to serve against Spain or her al
lies until an equal number of the same rank of
Spaniards were exchanged; care of the sick and
wounded remaining and to be forwarded as soon as
The formal signing of the articles of capitulation
in the council chamber of Fort George which oc
curred on May 9th immediately before the British
marched out. '
On June 4th the, British troops sailed for Havana.
The fort was renamed St. Michael in 1783 when
Florida became a Spanish colony.
There was no bloody battle in, or near Fdrt George
General Jackson fought in the southeastern por
tion of the town: where the governor Jn person,
bearing a white flag and an offer to surrender at
discretion, met him and ordered Captain Soto to sur
render the fort.
It was dismantle il by General Jackson, who was
about to send a detachment to San Carlos de Bar
rancas, when on November 8th the British spiked
the guns, blew up San Carlos and took to their
ships (of which there were seven) and sailed from
the harbor. - ,
The Demi Lune in front of San Carlos de Bar
rancas is not a ruin and was not blown up when
San Carlos was destroyed. The subterranean pass
age connecting the two, was reconstructed when
San Carlos de Barrancas was rebuilt by the United
States army engineers. ' - ,
Notes by Dr. James S. Herron
A Spanish scholar of note who delighted in trans
lating documents in Spanish archieves relating to
Colonial Florida. His residence stands on the site
of the council chamber of Fort George. The present
southeastern boundary of the grounds on North Pal
afox street shows a well preserved portion of the
, UNIVERSAL BROTHERHOOD BY' UNIVERSAL TRAININQ
Cantonment Training Develops Manhood and Removes Class Distinction.' It Is the Real Melting-Pot.
WHAT HAPPENED OCT. 27.
Allies repulse .invaders who had
forced a passage across the Yser; also
make progress between Ypres ami
Roulers Germans make new stand in
Poland; reinforcements from East
Prussia join the German left flank;
desperate fighting on a 70 mile front.
Germans open route to Turkey link
ing up with Bulgers in Serbia; British
join French in South Trade protest
goes to England; Germany plans em
bargo on all exports Germans pierco
Dvlnsk defense but are driven back
German assaults on Champagne break
down under heavy allied artillery fire.
Von Mackensen allows Rumanians
no respite; attacks ' with full force
while defenders retreat to new line of
defense; to make stand in positions
earth works of the quadrangular fort.
During excavations for bnilding his
residence, many shattered shells and
shot were found by the doctor and
treasured by him as relics of the war
like history of his Fort Hill home, an
echo from British colonial Florida, an
explosion of the magazine in Fort
Dr. James Herron, Authentic Histo
ry of Pensacola and Vicinity Spanish
Archives Campbell's Colonial Florida
Patton & Leslie's Papers.
R E ADERS
The Journal is glad to print
short communications from read
ers on any topic of Interest.
Letters should be typewritten if
possible, and double spaced.
Editor Pensacola Journal:
I noticed a news article in your
Friday paper headed like this: Prison
Faces Violators of New Food Bill.
Reading the article I find It pre
scribes a maximum penalty of $5,000
fine and two years imprisonment for
violation thereof. Now, Mr. Editor,
we know that none of the many profit
eers will ever receive any such fine
as that, no matter how flagrantly they
gouged the public. We would like for
Mr. Figgto have stated the minimum.
I presume it is such a small amount
he would not take up jpace ;u your
paper to mention it.
Now if the above-mentioned fne
was the minimum instead of the maxi
mum, believe me, profiteering would
be immediately a thing of the past.
This robbery and , exploitation' of the
masses of the people hap very near
reached its crisis. It requires heroic
treatment for chronic ills. So if this
gouging is ever going to stop before
this thing comes to a climax, there is
really some strong action . needed to
produce results Mr. Figg states in his
article that the people of the United
States can BANK on lower prices. I
hope this gentleman knows what he
is talking about. Our president said
prices would be reduced in ,39 days.
The time will soon be up, . and the
And long before the time had come,
Shop yards were made nice and
All block and jacks are placed in order,
And every little thing,
Is picked up and put in place.
Others can do the same.
The safety drive Is on, my brother,
And it applies to all the same.
Shops maintenance and office forces,
And the men who run the train.
All are interested in the movement,
From Florida clear to Maine,
Pledged to do all that's In our power,
And make general the campaign.
To promote the rule ot eaftey,
And a record to attain,
On all government controlled rail
roads. Throughout this vast domain.
You may read my little poem,
It won't take so very Ion?,
It may be of Interest to you.
To know that this was done.
I composed it at my leisure,
Different times as I walked along,
The object is, to remind you
That the safety drive is on.
J. D. RAWLS.
across Dobrudja from Hirsova to Cas
apkeul; in northwest of Rumania von
Falkenhyn's army nears Campulung,
20 miles within the frontier.
' 1017 .
Italian losses in retreat; from Isonzo
front now reach 60,000 prisoners and
500 guns; von Mackensen leads invad
ing armies which push towards the
plains Second Liberty Loan an "over
whelming success," says Secretary Mc
Adoo;, total $4,617,532,300.
German note, to Wilson says people
rule and country awaits proposals for
armistice French progress beyond the
Oise; General Debeney's army pene
trates 15 mile front to depth of 5 miles
at some points General Allenby cap
tures Aleppo from the Turks cutting
the Constantinople-Bagdad railroad
Italians and British cross the Piave.
prices are up, too. Here's hoping that
Something will be done before the al
loted time is actually up. Now, Mr.
Editor, can you tell us who has the
sugar? Some say there are several
carloads in town. I haven't been able
to get any of it. I know one firm that
has it. They won't sell only to those
who buy $2 worth of groceries from
them and only sell two pounds at
that. So if that bunch of sweetness
is in town someone is on the jobVkeep
ing It for higher prices.
(Signed) W. H. HAWKINS.
Words by Sidney J. Levy.
Music by A. C. Reflly.
Sort er hnte to leave the White
Want to lintrer on Bro.i'lwav,
Groat old spot for a vacation.
"When you've just a little wh!e
But after all It's Juxt a notion,
'Cause no matter where you roam.
You sefm to hear the strain ox
BrlnKlns? thoughts of homo, sweet
In Pensacola town, in ren?se"!
You will like It. when you strike
After traveling the worM nrriuna.
Girls, the sweetest of all Dixie.
Tot of six and dears of sixty,
All the time, all for mine,
Railroads Throughout the Country Ob
serve Oct. 13 to 31 for a
We look forward to a week of safety.
With interest true and keen,
Two years ago today. Octobe. 27, 1917, American troops
nred their firbt shot, and the t " case was preserved for
Find another artilleryman.
Answer to Saturday's puzzle: Upside down, nose at elbowr.
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